Administration & Supervision A Power Point Presentation Of Mr. Kenneth June S. Potot English Teacher G. Jurado Foundation School Inc.
The Administrative andSupervisory Organization of theDepartment of the Education and Culture
The Department of Education and CultureArticle XV, Section 8 of the New Constitution (1973), states “Alleducational institution shall be under the supervision of and subjectto regulation of the state.” The Department of Education andCulture was created to carry out this constitutional mandate.The Department was originally created by Act No. 74 of thePhilippine Commission on January 21, 1901. When the Jones Law waspassed in 1916, this department became one of the administrativedepartments of the Insular Government and was placed under thecontrol and supervision of the Vice-Governor General.
Upon the reorganization of the National Government asembodied in the Executive Order No. 94. The Department ofPublic Instruction was renamed the Department ofEducation headed by the Secretary of Education.The President ordered the reorganization of thegovernment structure and functions, and with it theDepartment of Education underwent a number of changes.Its name was changed to Department of Education andCulture to stress its major role in economic and culturaldevelopment.The Presidential Order of 1972, based on Presidential DecreeNo. 1 abolished the Bureau of Public Schools, Bureau ofPrivate Schools, and the Bureau of Vocational Education. Thefunction of the three Bureaus were transferred to the newlycreated bureaus under Department of Education andCulture.
Under this Presidential Order, an Institute of Arts andLetters is to be created and be placed under theDepartment of Education and Culture. Likewise, thename of the Board of National Education was changedto the National Board of Education.The present organization of the Department ofEducation and Culture consists of the Departmentproper composed of the immediate Office of theSecretary, the Planning Service, the Financial andManagement Service, Information and PublicationService, and Administrative Service.
The newly organized Department of Education and Culturewill be responsible for developing and implementingprograms of education and culture based on the generalobjectives and policies formulated by the National Board ofEducation. The Secretary of Education and Culture is thesupreme authority in education and culture. He is assisted bythe Under-Secretary. The ten divisions in the Departmenthave been reduced to four services, namely: 1. Planning, 2.Financial and Management, 3. Administrative, 4. Informationand Public Service
Besides exercising general executive supervision over all the bureaus and offices under the department, the Secretary performs certain dutiesspecially prescribed by law. Section 78B-79D of the Revised Administrative Code gives the following as the powers of the Department Head: The Department Head shall have the power to promulgate, whenever he may see fit to do so, regulations, orders, circulars, memoranda, and other instruction not contrary to law, necessary to regulate the proper working and harmonious and efficient administration of each and all the offices and dependencies of his Department and for the strict enforcement and proper execution of the laws relative to the matters under the jurisdiction of said Department. The Department shall have direct control, direction, and supervision overall business affairs under his jurisdiction and may, notwithstanding any provision of existing law to the contrary, repeal or modify the decisions of the chief of said Bureaus or offices when advisable in the public interest.
The Department Head may order the investigation of anyact or conduct of any person in the service of any bureau oroffice under the department and in the connectiontherewith, may appoint a committee or designate an officialor person who shall conduct such investigation; and suchcommittee, official, or person may summon witnesses bysubpoena and subpoena “Ducestecum”, administer oathsand takes testimony relevant to the investigation.The Department Head, upon the recommendation of thechief of the bureau or office concerned, shall have thepower to appoint all subordinate officers and employeeswhose appointments are not expressly vested by law, andremove or punish them except as specially providedotherwise, in accordance with the Civil Service Law.
Functions of the Secretary of the Department of Education and Culture
Beside exercising general executive supervision overall thebureau and offices under the Department, the Secretaryperforms certain duties specially prescribed by thePresidential Decree NO. 1 Section 8,1 states the following asthe functions of the Secretary of Education and Culture:Advise the President in the promulgation of executiveorders, regulations, and decrees relative to matters underjurisdiction of the Department;Establishes the policies and standards for the operation ofthe Department pursuant to the President’s program ofgovernment;
Promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry outdepartment objectives, policies, and functions;Exercise supervision and control over all bureaus andoffices under the Department;Delegate authority for the performance of any functionto officers and employees under his direction ; andExercise general supervision over chartered statecolleges and universities.
Functions of the Undersecretary of the Department of Education and CultureSection 8.2 of the Presidential Decree No. 1 gives thefollowing as the functions of the Undersecretary of theDepartment of Education and Culture:Advice and assist the Secretary in the formulation andimplementation of department objectives and policies;Oversee all the operational activities of the Department forwhich he shall be responsible for the secretary;Coordinate the programs and projects of the Departmentand be responsible for its economical, efficient, and effectiveadministration;Serve as deputy to the Secretary in all matters relating to theoperations of the department ; andPerform such other function as may be provided by law.
Functions of the Different Boards under the Department
1. The Professional Boards- are composed of the Board ofMedical Education, Council of Dental Education, andCouncil of Medical Technology. The Professional Boardsshall have uniform powers and functions in prescribingpolicies, and regulations formulated by these Boards aresubject to the concurrence of the Secretary of Educationand Culture. The main function of the different Boards isto prescribe minimum requirements for their respectiveprofessional courses.
2. The textbook Board-the members of the Board arerequired to have at least a Master’s degree. The functionof Textbook Board shall be limited only to the selectionand approval of suitable textbooks to be used in bothpublic and private elementary and secondary schools. Inother words, its functions are limited to books for use inthe elementary and secondary schools, both public andprivate schools of elementary and secondary levels.
3. Planning Service-The planning Service was created in theDepartment of Education and Culture for educational planning.The planning Service will be responsible for providing theDepartment of Education and Culture witheconomical, efficient, and effective services relating toplanning, programming; and project development. In otherwords, the Planning Service shall be responsible forplanning, research, project development and education andculture. To accomplish the said major functions, the PlanningService shall have a Planning and Programming Division, aProject Development and Evaluation Division, and Researchand Statistics Division with corresponding duties andresponsibilities.
4. Financial and Management Service- shall beresponsible for providing the Department of Educationand Culture with staff advice and assistance onbudgetary, financial, and management improvementmatters. The Financial and Management Service shallhave a Budget and Accounting Division, a ManagementDivision, and a Special Education Fund Division withcorresponding duties and responsibilities.
5. Administrative Service-shall be responsible for providing theDepartment of Education and Culture withEconomical, efficient, and effective services relating topersonnel, legalassistance, records, supplies, equipment, collection, disbursements, security, and custodial work. In other words, theAdministrative Service shall have charge of personnel, suppliesand equipment, and records. To carry on these functions thePersonnel Division, a Legal Division, a General ServiceDivision, and a Teacher Examination and Certification Divisionwere created with corresponding duties and responsibilities.
6. Information and Publication Service-according to Section12, the Information and Publication Service will implementprograms and projects designed to disseminate properinformation on the activities of the Department of Educationand Culture to the public and to all other concernedagencies, both local and foreign. In other words, theInformation and Publication Service will be responsible for theproduction instructional materials and the program ofinformation.
7. The Board of Higher Education-is contemplated by thePresidential Survey Commission. The Board formulates andevaluates programs and scholarships and establish standardsat the tertiary level of education. It will also help the NationalBoard of Education and the Board of Examiners by providingthem with secretarial service.8. The National Board of Education-Republic Act No. 1124created the Board of National Education with 15 membersrepresenting different interests. According to Section 5 of thislaw, the Board “shall be the exclusive agency of thegovernment for the implementation of educational policiesand the direction of the educational interests of thenation, subject only to the constitutional authority of thePresident of the Republic over executivedepartments, bureaus, and offices.”
Other Government Educational Agencies Where the Secretary of Education and Culture is Connected The National Council on Education- is the highest policy-making body in education, with the Secretary of Education and Culture as Chairman and the experts and representatives of various sectors of the community as members. The University of the Philippines- was created by Act No. 1870, passed on June 18, 1908, by the Philippine Legislature. The Philippine Normal University-was organized under the provision of Section 17 of Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission. It was later converted into a college by the Republic Act No. 921. Central Luzon State University- was formerly the Central Luzon Agricultural School and was converted into a college by Executive Order No. 393, dated December 31, 1950. It was later on converted into university status by Republic Act No. 4062
The Philippine College of Commerce- was converted into acollege by Republic Act No. 778.Mindanao State University- was created by Republic ActNo, 1387University of Eastern Philippines- was formerly the SamarInstitute of Technology which was established in themunicipality of Catarman, province of Samar.Central Mindanao State University- was formerly theMindanao Agricultural College in the province of Bukidnon.
The Bureau of Elementary Education is headed by aDirector who is appointed by the President of thePhilippines. Section 910 of the Revised AdministrativeCode of the Philippines (Act No. 2711) states the followingas the duties and powers of the Director of the Bureau ofthe Public Schools, now the Bureau of ElementaryEducation. He shall establish primary schools in every town in the Philippines, where practicable. He shall have authority to establish night schools. He shall fix the salaries of the teachers within the limits established by law. He shall fix the curricula for all schools under his jurisdiction.
He shall prescribed the authority to be exercised by theprincipal teacher of each school over teachers, if any, andhis duties as teacher actually engaged in the work ofinstruction and in the caring of schoolhouses and schoolproperty.He shall prescribe rules for construction of schoolhouses tobe built by municipalities or provinces, and fix the area orsize of and required in each.He shall prescribe the rules of hygiene to be observed inconnection with the schools of the islands.
He shall have the power to determine the towns in whichteachers are to be paid out of National Treasury; shallteach; and he may exercise this discretion in favor ofthose towns which shall construct and maintain suitableschoolhouses by local taxation and contribution.He shall maintain in Manila, or elsewhere in the Philippineislands, classes to furnish superior instruction toteachers, as may by law, be allowed or established.
Aside from the above-mentioned duties and responsibilities ofthe Director of the Bureau of Public Schools, the Director hasthe power to assign any school superintendent or teacher toany division or branch of the bureau as the exigencies of theservice may require.The Service Manual of the Bureau of Public Schools (1927)states the duties of the Assistant Director as follows: Confers with the Director in the major policies of the Bureau, such as instruction, curricula, measurement and research, and other promotional activities. Inspect public schools throughout the Philippines. Takes charge of the Bureau in the absence of the Director.
Beside the duties stated in the previous slide, the AssistantDirector is in charge of the promotional activities of theGeneral Office as head of the Promotional Staff. He mayperform some of the powers and duties also of the Directorwhich may be delegated him.Next in line to the Assistant Director is the AdministrativeOfficer who is appointed by the Secretary of Education andCulture upon the recommendation of the Director of theBureau of Public Schools, now the Bureau of ElementaryEducation. The Administrative Division is under his directsupervision. Likewise, he handles mainly the administrativematters of the General Office which do not involve policy.
Functions of the Different Divisions in the Bureau of Elementary Education1. Curriculum Development Division: Formulate policies, plans, and programs for the preparation and production of curricula inculcating objectives, instructional methods and materials, and instrument to evaluate the result of instruction in pre-elementary, elementary, and special education; Undertakes researches and studies on the curriculum and make appropriate proposals for improvement and upgrading; Provide technical assistance on the use of the educational media, audio-visual aids, and other forms of instructional technology; Design and propose the undertaking of pilot-type projects in the elementary level on teaching techniques, classroom materials, and other curricular innovations; and Perform such other functions as may be provided by law
2. Staff Development Division: Develop plans and programs to upgrade and improve the quality of teaching and non-teaching staff at the pre-elementary and elementary level and in special schools; Undertake a continuing assessment and evaluation of ongoing staff development programs and make appropriate recommendations; Provide expert assistance or consultative services for the undertaking of seminars, workshops, and conference for upgrading purposes; and Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.3. Physical Facilities Division: Formulate and recommend plans, programs, and projects to upgrade school plant and equipment for pre-elementary, elementary, and special schools; Conduct studies and make proposals to improve the utilization and insure the proper maintenance of school plant and equipment; Formulate standards regarding the quality and quantity of physical facilities and equipment for use at the elementary level; and Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
Elementary Education DefinedOur elementary school consists of Grades I to VII. This organizationplan was shorten to six years by Educational Act of 1940 whicheliminated Grade VII. Grade VII was restored by the Educational Actof 1953, based on the Republic Act No. 896 Elementary schools arealso classified into primary grades (I-IV) and intermediate grades (V-VII). Elementary schools are also classified to two types, one typeoffering a general education curricula and the other type offering afarming curricula. Republic Act No. 896, known as the EducationalAct of 1953, makes elementary education compulsory up to thecompletion of Grade VII. This policy gives every Filipino child anopportunity to acquire a complete elementary education.
Like the division superintendent, the principal teacher is anadministrator and a supervisor. The administrative duties of theelementary school principal cover the following: planning the schoolprograms, systemizing the office work, maintenance of schooldiscipline, care of school grounds and buildings, care of schoolproperty, making reports, filing forms, and attending tocorrespondence. His administration of the school covers also theenforcement of school polices, classroom observation, conferenceswith teachers, test and measurement, teacher’smeetings, demonstration classes, in-service training, direction ofschool government, custody over pupil’s funds, opening and closingschools, and eliminating hazards. They are the key governmentofficials that initiate, plan, and execute community-assemblies andother public projects, and help organize and vitalize parent-teacherassociations, community councils, and other civic organizations thatwork so hard in making community life more livable andprogressive.
An elementary school principal may be either national (Insular) ornational (municipal). The national (municipal), as well as the national(city) elementary principal is appointed by the Superintendent byauthority of the Secretary of Education upon the recommendationof the Director of Bureau of Public Schools. The national elementaryschool principal is under the direct supervision of the districtsupervisor. The city elementary school principal is appointed by thesuperintendent by authority of the Secretary of Education with theprior approval of the Director.The Service Manual of the Bureau of Public Schools (3rdrevision, 1959), gives the following duties of the principal teacher: He is the administrator, organizer, supervisor, and leader of the school. He makes friendly contacts with the municipal officials and the school patrons. He creates, on the part of the public and local officials, strong support for public education
Some of the supervisory activities of the principalteacher in the Philippine public and private schools are the following: Observation of the Teaching-Learning Situation Conferences with Teachers Demonstration Classes Conducting Teacher’s Meeting Acting as Civic Leader Plant Management
To be eligible for appointment as an elementary schoolprincipal, one must be a graduate of the Bureau of PublicSchools’ normal school on the collegiate level, or a graduateof the College of Education of the University of thePhilippines with an elementary teacher’s certificate or agraduate of any other school offering equivalentcourses, with at least two years’ experience as an elementaryclassroom teacher. A graduate of a normal school on thesecondary level with at least four years’ experience as anelementary classroom teacher is also qualified forappointment.
Line-and Staff School Organization Can Be Democratized
The line-and-staff school organization, by its verynature, violates the basic principle of democracy. Ademocratic form of administration and supervisionwould give the students, teachers, parents, and allothers involved in carrying on education in theschools, opportunity to help make plans anddecisions, to evaluate what has been done, and to makenecessary changes in curricula, procedures, and policies.
To democratize the line-and-staff school organization, any of the following practices can be used: While policies are set up by the General Office, local officials should be given leeway to adopt such as actual needs and conditions demand their implementation. Permit the supervisors and teachers to experiment. Encourage them to use method expressive of their philosophy which they have developed through study and practical experience. This will give them practice in using their initiative, judgement, and constructive power. Encourage the supervisors and teachers to make their own time schedule, and use it flexibly. Help them to use it intelligently and scientifically.
Encourage the supervisors and teachers to study children’sindividual needs. Help them overcome the idea that subject matteras such is sacred and must be mastered. Eliminate office-made-testor examinations and authoritative demands to what should becovered.Call on supervisors and teachers together when any question ofpolicy arises. Encourage them to present a course ofstudy, procedures, and policies; and ask for suggestions and help.Accept their suggestion and encourage every effort for growthand development.Do not expect all teachers to change at the same tempo. Some willalways demand on others for suggestions and will resent having tothink and work –as they feel harder than before.
In other words, school administration and supervisionwill have to abandon its autocratic position and re-orient its line-and-staff organization in favour of thedemocratic organization which emphasizes respect forhuman personality, shared responsibility, commonunderstanding, joint concern, local initiative, andintegrated action. The teachers should take part inplanning and execution of any school project as well asin the evaluation of its result.
G.R. Koofman, A. Miel, and P. Misner suggest that democratic administration should seek the following priciples:1. To facilitate the continuous growth of individual and social personalities by providing allpersons with opportunities to participate actively in all enterprises that concern them.2. To recognize that leadership is a function of every individual, and to encourage theexercise of leadership by each person in accordance with his interest, needs and abilities.3. To provide means by which persons can plan together, share their experiences, andcooperatively evaluate their achievement.4. To place the responsibility for making decisions that affect the total enterprise withthe group rather than with one or a few individuals.5. To advise flexibility of organization to the end that necessary adjustments can readilybe made.Democracy in its full meaning involves sharing responsibility whenever authority isshared. Many school administrators sincerely wish to be democratic, but are unwilling toshare the authority and at the same time bear the burden of all the responsibility.
Roadblocks to Democratic School Administration and Supervision
Some of the roadblocks to democratic schooladministration and supervision in this country are the following: Centralized School System Lack of professionally-trained administrators and supervisors Attitude of teachers toward administration and supervision Lack of professionally-trained teachers Lack of time for administration and supervision Attitude of the public toward education Desire for power by some administrators and supervisors Social and economic Patterns of Society Indifference of administrators and supervisors to democratic practices The apathy of the teaching personnel toward democratic practices
Elementary Education in the New SocietyArticle XV, Section 8 of the New Constitution (1973) requiresall public and private schools in the country to pursue, in thedevelopment of every child the following general aims: “All educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of the citizenship, and to develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency. The study of Constitution shall be a part of the curricula.
The following discussion is based on thegeneral aims of education outlined in our New Constitution: Love of Country Citizenship training Development of moral character Personal discipline Scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency