WHAT IS TEACHING
a process of interacting
Stands for pedagogy, training and
The process of engaging students in
activities that will enable them to
acquire the knowledge, skills, as well as
wothwhile values and attitudes.
An aggregate of organized strategies
and activities aimed at inducing
Overall cluster of activities associated
with a teacher, and including
explaining, questioning, demonstrating
A system of activities whereby all
teachers' instructional tasks enable the
students to learn.
Is both science and art; SCIENCE as it is
based on psychological research that
identifies “cause and effect
relationship” between teaching and
learning; ART, as it shows how those
relationships are implemented in
successful and artistic teaching.
Is the greatest of the arts because the
medium is the human mind and spirit.
Involves values, experiences,
insights, imagination and
appreciation- - - the “staff” that can
not be easily observed and
Involves the interplay among such
factors as the teacher, the learner,
the teaching content and strategies
as this diagram shows:
A key factor in any teaching – learning process.
Constructs well designed plan to achieve to objectives of the
Prepares learning environment.
Selects appropriate content/ strategies and learning activities.
Adjusts content/activities strategies/ learning environment to the
He is an embodied spirit.
He is a union of a sentient body and a rational
Most important element of teaching.
The natural characteristics of learners are:
age, maturity, grade level, health, abilities,
family background, experiences and motivation
and his /her culture including values, attitudes
and traditions which influence the teaching –
learning process to a very large extent.
THE CONTENT/ TEACHING STRATEGIES
The choice of content/ subject matter to be taught to achieve
desired objectives of the lesson.
The selection of appropriate instructional materials/technology to
The use of appropriate/effective methods and strategies of
teaching to arrive at the desired outcomes.
“THE ABILITY TO LEARN
IS THE MOST
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
1. Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is
activated by the learner.
- the process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner
and not by the teacher.
*People learn what they want to learn, they see what they want to
see, and hear what they want to hear.
*Very little learning takes place without personal involvement and
meaning on the part of the learner.
*It is wise to engage learners in an activity that is connected to their
2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance
- students more readily internalize and implement concepts
and ideas which are relevant to their needs and problems.
* It is necessary that the teacher relates lesson to the needs and
problems of the learner.
3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience.
- People become responsible when they have readily assumed
responsibility, they become independent when they have
experienced independent behavior, they become able when they
experience success, they begin to feel important when they are
important to somebody, they feel liked when somebody likes
*If EXPERIENCE is the best teacher, the teacher should make use of
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING strategy. Experiential learning makes
use of direct as well as vicarious experiences.
- cooperation fosters learning.
- two heads are better than one.
- interactive process appears to “scratch and kick”
peoples curiosity, potential and creativity.
- teachers should make use of cooperative and collaborative
approaches because these will teach students to live and learn
5. LEARNING IS AN EVOLUTIONARY.
- behavioral changes require time and patience.
- change takes time.
- Rome was not built in one day.
- things in life that are worthwhile take time.
- behavioral change often calls for giving up the old and
comfortable ways of believing, thinking and valuing.
- it is necessary for the teachers to make students realize that
learning is a difficult task which is accompanied by ample of
sacrifices, inconveniences and discomforts.
7. ONE OF THE RICHEST RESOURCES FOR LEARNING IS THE
- each of the student is a reservoir of experiences, ideas,
feelings and attitudes which comprise a rich vein of material for
problem solving and learning.
- as a teacher, you must “midwife” the birth of ideas among
8. THE PROCESS OF LEARNING IS EMOTIONAL
AS WELL AS INTELLECTUAL.
- learning is maximized when the feelings and thoughts of the
learners are working harmoniously. This is due to fact that man is
the “union of body and soul”. Man is a feeling being and a thinking
LEARNING ARE HIGHLY UNIQUE AND
- each of the learner has his own unique styles of learning and
- some personal styles of learning and problem solving are
highly effective, others are not as effective and still others are
- give considerations to multiple intelligences and learning
styles of the learners to properly address their needs for/of
1. PRINCIPLE OF CONTEXT
- learning depends largely on the setting particularly including the
use of materials in which the process goes on with this scales of
a. text book only
b. textbook with supplementary materials
c. non – academic and current materials (newspaper,
clippings, articles, magazines)
d. multisensory aids
e. demonstration and demonstration by experts
e. field experiences, personal, social and community
2. PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS
- instruction must be organized about a focus or direction,
following these scales of application, and where focus is
a. page assignment in textbook
b. announced topic together with page or chapter references.
c. broad concept or problem to be solved or a skill to be
acquired to carry on understanding.
3. PRINCIPLE OF SOCIALIZATION
- instruction depends upon the social setting in which it is done,
with this scales of application and where social patterns are
4. PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALIZATION
- instruction must progress in terms of the learners own purposes,
aptitudes, abilities and experimental procedures, following these
scales of application and where individualization may be done
a. differential performance in uniform task
b. homogeneous grouping
c. control plan
d. individual instruction
e. large units with optional related activities
f. individual undertakings, stemming from and contributing
to the joint undertaking of the group of learners.
5. PRINCIPLE OF SEQUENCE
- instruction depends on effective ordering of a series of learning
task who moves from:
a. from meaningless emergence of meaning→
b. from immediate remote→
c. from concrete symbolic→
d. from crude discriminating→
and where sequence comes through:
a. logical succession of blocks of blocks of contents
b. kniting learning/ lessons/ course together by introduction,
previews, pretests, reviews
c. organized in terms of readiness
d. organized in terms of lines of emerging meanings
6. PRINCIPLE OF EVALUATION
- learning is heightened by a valid and discriminating appraisal of
all its aspects, following these scales of application:
a. evaluation or direct results only
b. evaluation related to objectives and processes
c. evaluation on total learning process and results
Instruction may be well-managed using any of these classifications
a. HOMOGENEOUS - learners are classified/grouped in terms of
similar elements such as age, abilities, interests, physical
b. HETEROGENEOUS – no definite bases for clustering or putting
learners together, could be on random sampling, alphabetized
family names, time of enrollment etc.
c. NON – GRADED – no fixed grade/level assignment of children.
They come to center of learning by small groups or individually
depending on their pacing in the accomplishment of tasks.
TEACHING MODEL - a term used by Bruce, Joyce to describe an
over – all approach or plan for instruction
Attributes of a teaching model:
a. a coherent theoretical framework
b. an orientation toward what student should learn.
c. specific teaching procedures and classroom structures.
DIFERENCE AMONG THE TERMS TECHNIQUE,
METHOD, STRATEGY, APPROACH AND
TECHNIQUE – the personal art and style of the teacher in carrying
out the procedures of teaching.
- the teacher’s unique way, style or act of executing the stages
of a method.
METHOD – synonymous to procedure
- the procedure employed to accomplish lesson objectives.
- a series of related and progressive acts performed by a
teacher and pupils to achieve the desired objectives of the lesson.
- the established way or procedure of guiding the mental
processes in mastering the subject matter.
- refers to a procedure employed to accomplish the lesson
- a well – planned step – by – step procedure that is directed
towards a desired learning outcomes.
STRATEGY – an over – all or general design on how the lesson will be
executed or delivered.
- a set of decisions on what learning activities to achieve an
- can be a substitute to methodology
APPROACH – a set of correlative assumptions or viewpoints dealing
with the nature of teaching and learning.
- one’s viewpoint toward teaching.
- procedure that employs a variety of strategies to assess
better understanding and effective learning.
PRINCIPLE – means a general or fundamental law, doctrine or
- a primary source or origin.
- rule or code of conduct.
PURPOSES OF METHODS
1. make learning more efficient
2. enable learner to think logically
3. facilitates smooth transition from one activity to another
4. serve as guide in preparing all the needed materials, tasks and
5. approximate time to be allotted for each activity to avoid waste
of time and lapses.
6. make planning clear and precise, to prevent confusion,
unnecessary delays and time wastage.
7. help in planning for assessment and evaluation of the lesson.
8. add to a feeling of confidence and security for the teacher and
PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTING METHODS
1. Must be based on sound principles, laws and theories of
2. Must assist the learners to define their purposes and motive.
3. Must originate from the learners’ past experiences.
4. Must suit individual differences, needs, interests and
5. Must bring the learners to the world of diverse learning
6. Must stimulate the learners to think critically, analytically and
7. Must be challenging
8. Must be flexible.
9. Must be consistent with the requirements of objectives.
10. Must be appropriate with the content.
11. Must give to way to varied students’ participation.
12. Must consider to be undertaken to ensure gainful learning.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING A METHOD
1. Learner’s ability – first and foremost consideration
based on the nature/characteristics, age, maturity,
2. Teacher’s ability – must be personally and
professionally qualified to teach
3. Objective – expected outcome of the lesson in terms of
knowledge/skills and attitudes.
4. Subject Matter – content to be taken so that the
desired outcome will be achieved.
5. Pre – requisite learning – students’ experiences that
can help facilitate acquisition of new knowledge, skills
6. classroom set – up – must be inviting to students and conducive
7. School facilities/equipments/technologies – the availability of
the needed equipments, technologies, tools for learning found in
the right places.
8. Time – allotment – specified target frame for chosen activities
properly distributed to the entire period.
9. Safety precautions – students should feel that they are safe and
out of danger in the school.
10. School climate – learner should feel the warmth of the teachers
“THERE ARE DULL TEACHERS. DULL TEXTBOOKS, DULL
FILMS, BUT NO DULL SUBJECTS”
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content
1. Observe the following qualities in the selection and organization of
a. Validity – teaching the content that we ought to teach according
to the national standards in the Basic Education Curriculum
- teaching the content in order to realize the goals and
objectives of the course as laid down in the basic education .
b. Significance – the content we teach should respond to the needs
and interest of the learners.
c. Balance – content includes not only facts but also concepts and
values (The three level approach in teaching – facts – cognitive,
concepts – psychomotor, values – affective domain)
d. Self – sufficiency – Content should cover the essentials of
the lesson and not “a mile – wide and an inch – deep”
e. Interest – the teacher considers the interest of the learners,
their developmental stages, and cultural and ethnic background.
f. Utility – refers to the usefulness/application of the content
to the life of the learner after it has been learned by the learner.
g. Feasibility – the content can be covered I the amount of
time available for instruction.
2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is
3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skill and
SELECTION AND USE
GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE SELECTION
AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES
1. Learning is an active process – actively engage learner in
learning activities to achieve optimum learning of the learners.
What I see, I remember,
What I hear, I forget
What I do, I understand
75% retention rate – is achieved through learning by doing
90 % retention rate – learning by teaching others
2. The more senses that are involve in learning, the more and better
the learning – Humans are intensively visual animals. The eyes
contain nearly 70% of the body’s receptors and send millions of
signals along the optic nerves to the visual processing centers of
sight – 75%
hearing – 13%
touch – 6%
taste – 3%
smell – 3%
3. A non – threatening atmosphere enhances learning.
4. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning.
5. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to students’ everyday
6. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information – teaching should
reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation
to hone our students’ thinking skills.
7. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than
teaching isolated bits of information.
8. There is no such thing as best teaching method. The best method
is the one that works, the one that yields results.
Factors to consider in the choice of teaching method:
a. Instructional objective
b. Nature of the subject matter
c. The learners
e. School policies
A THOUSAND TEACHERS, A
A COMPARISON BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT
DIRECT APPROACH INDIRECT APPROACH
1. Makes use of expository
2. aimed at mastery of
knowledge and skills
3. Teacher – oriented
4. Direct transmission of
information from teacher
5. Teacher – controlled
6. Highly structured
7. Content – oriented
8. Learner is passive,
1. Makes use of exploratory
2. Aimed at generating
knowledge for experience
3. Learner – centered
4. Students search for
information with teacher’s
5. Learner – controlled
6. Flexibly organized
7. Experienced – oriented
8. Learner is active in search
METHOD OF TEACHING IN THE
1. DEDUCTIVE METHOD – starts with generalization, principle or
rule that is then applied to specific cases.
Features: 1. allows for clear understanding of generalizations, rules,
2. allows further development of generalizations, rules,
When to Use:
1. to test a rule
2. answer questions or problems with reference to certain rules
3. to further develop generalization
1. Statement of the Problem – teacher tells what the problem
which must be stimulating, realistic, relevant and within the
2. Statement of the Generalization – recalling/stating
generalizations or rules which may help solve the problem
3. Inference – looking for the principle/rule/generalization
that fits the problem.
4. Verification – trying out the best generalization, rule or
principle that establish validity of the probem using
2. Concept Teaching – is based on the assumption (Bruner 1984)
that concept formation begins at an early stage (9-12 months)
where initial activities of object – sorting and preference serve as
bases for concept learning.
BRUNER’S IDENTIFIED 3 DISTINCT MODES OF
a. Learning by doing called enactive learning
b. Learning by doing mental images called ICONIC MODE
c. Learning through series of abstract symbols called SYMBOLIC
MAY EITHER BE:
a. Concept Attainment – focuses on teaching pupils the concepts
that the teacher has selected for study and follows these steps:
1. introduce the concept by name
2. present examples
3. introduce non – examples
4. present a mixture of examples and non – examples and ask
questions which are the correct examples
5. ask pupils to define the concept
6. ask pupils to find another examples of the concept
b. Concept Formation Method – focuses on the process of concept
development/thinking skills development which follows the
1. teachers provide stimulus in the form of a question or a problem
2. pupils provide a number of answers and categorize them
3. pupils label the categorized responses
Steps in Concept Teaching Method
1. Define the objectives of the lesson to get students ready to learn.
2. Giving of examples and non – examples which help strengthen
3. Testing for the attainment of understanding
4. Analysis of students thinking and integration of learning through
further questioning and focused discussion.
5. Diagnostic testing reveals errors on misconception which calls for
a re – teaching.
3. Direct Instruction / Showing Method – a teacher – centered
strategy that uses teacher explanation and modeling combined
with student practice and feedback to teach concept and skills. It
is designed to teach skills, concepts, principles and rules, with
emphasis on active teaching and high levels of student
1. Widely applicable in different content areas
2. Establishes pattern of interaction between teacher and students
3. Assists students to learn procedural knowledge.
4. Promotes learning of declarative knowledge.
5. Focuses students’ attention on specific content/skill
6. Ensures mastery skills.
WHEN TO USE
- for teaching of concepts and skills.
1. Introduction – reviewing prior learning with students, sharing
learning goals providing rationale for new content.
2. Presentation – explaining new concept or modeling the skill.
3. Guided practice with necessary feedback – providing students
necessary opportunities to practice new skill or categorize
examples of new concept.
4. Independent Practice – students practicing the skill or concept
learned for retention and transfer.
4. LECTURE – DISCUSSION METHOD
- designed to help learner link new with prior learning and relate
the different parts of new learning to each other.
- designed to overcome the most important weaknesses of the
lecture method by strongly emphasizing learner involvement in
the learning process.
A. Lecture – designed to help students learn organized bodies of
- is a teacher – directed method designed to help learners
understand relationship in organized bodies of knowledge.
- as opposed to content – specific models that focus on individual
concepts, this model attempts to help students understand not
only concepts but how they are related.
- grounded in schema theory and David Ausubel’s concept of
meaningful verbal learning
a. Applicable in different subject areas
b. Ensures clear understanding of information
c. Allows students participation
WHEN TO USE:
a. For conveying/disseminating important information which may
not be available to students or which may be needed to be
presented in a particular way.
b. For stimulating interest.
c. For guiding student reading
d. For explaining a difficult text
e. For aiding student to summarize and synthesize discussions
a. identifying goals
b. diagnosing student background
c. structuring content
d. preparing advance organizers
a. Introduction – describing the purpose of the lesson, sharing of
objectives and overview to help students see the organization of
b. Presentation – defining and explaining major ideas.
c. Comprehension Monitoring – determining whether or not
students understand concepts and ideas.
d. Integration – exploring interconnections between important
5. Review and Closure – summarizing the lecture
B. DISCUSSION – is an orderly process of face to face group
interaction in which students/pupils exchange ideas about an
issue for the purpose of answering a question, enhancing their
knowledge or understanding or making decision.
- It can be viewed as a bridge between direct instruction and
student – centered instruction.
5 Logical Conditions to Ensure that Exchange is called DISCUSSION
1. People must talk to one another
2. People must listen to one another
3. People must respond to one another
4. People must be collectively share to put forward more than one
point of view.
5. People must the intention of developing their knowledge,
understanding or judgment of the issue under discussion.
FOR DISCUSSION TO BE SUCCESSFUL, PARTICIPANTS NEED
1. Moral Disposition – being willing to listen to reason
- being willing to abide by rules that facilitate exchange of
2. Intellectual Disposition – concern for clarity in the expression of
- concern that an appropriate variety of perspective is
considered by the group.
When to Use as a Teaching Strategy:
1. It can be used in any subject at any level from kinder to post
2. It can involve the whole class or it can be used with small groups.
3. When the teacher needs to facilitate any or all of the 4 types of
a. General subject mastery
b. Problem – solving ability
c. Moral development
d. Communication skills
4. When students need to be motivated to talk about the subject
inside and outside the classroom.
5. When teacher wants students to work together and share their
ideas by talking about them publicly (Cockburn and Ross, 1980).
1. Because it is an active learning process, it
is more likely to maintain students’ interests.
1. Without control over the discussion,
talkative students could easily dominate and
influence the group to accept their ideas.
2. Active involvement in learning motivates
students especially when they see that
others value their contributions and respect
their point of views.
2. If not guided well, there will be
opportunities for students to stay from the
topic and waste time.
3. More opportunities for practice and use of
the language as well as expression of ideas
and opinions among students
3. Some students may be reluctant to
participate in the discussion for fear of being
ridiculed for their ideas or opinions.
Using Discussion in Conjunction with other Teaching Strategies:
a. Direct Instruction – as part of a direct instruction lesson, a
discussion could be used to explore an issue for a short time (15
b. Group Work – interactions between students are an integral part
of small group learning, and this process can often be enhanced by
asking the students to follow a set of discussion rules.
c. Cooperative Learning – some forms off co-operative learning
(such as jigsaw) can be enhanced by structured discussion within
the learning groups.
d. Problem Solving – when you are using problem solving as a
teaching strategy, discussions can be used to help students
understand the nature of the problem, to help them generate
possible solutions and as a forum for comparing the relative
merits of various solutions to the problem.
Demonstration – a tell and show method
b. identify objectives/ problems/procedure
II. Explanation of Concepts/Principles/Process/Theory etc.
III. Demonstration of Concept Process by the Teacher
- students observe and take down notes
IV. Discussion of Student Observation
- answering problems
II. Indirect/Guided/Exploratory or Experimental Strategies
- the indirect approach is a student – centered approach or less
explicit teaching method. It involves the building of independent
learning and developing self-concept. It develops students to
become self – directed learners, crtical thinkers and problem
a. Learner – centered, learners exercise initiative in the process.
b. Process of learning is perceived to be as important as the
c. Learning is applied as it is acquired, not stored for future use.
d. The development of specific intellectual skills is better than
merely covering specified elements of subject matter.
When to Use:
a. When the teacher feels the need for students to develop self –
reliance and intellectual skills related to critical thinking and
1. INQUIRY TEACHING
a. the process of answering questions and solving problems
based on facts and observation
b. strategy designed to teach students how to investigate
problems and questions with facts.
1. helps students find answers to their own questions in scientific
2. helps develop higher – order and critical thinking skills
3. promotes independent learning
When to Use:
1. when there are real life problems or questions that must be
answered through facts and observation
2. for topics requiring higher order thinking
1. Presenting/Identifying the question or problem
Presenting or identifying a problem either by the teacher or
by the students, explaining or clarifying the problems by the
students to ensure clear understanding.
2. Forming hypothesis
Formulating intelligent guesses or tentative solutions and
3. Data Gathering
Gathering necessary facts, information or evidences related
to the problem
4. Data Analysis/Assessing Hypothesis
Closely studying/analyzing of the data gathered to prove or
disprove the hypotheses.
5. Generalizing – making generalization based on the careful
analysis of the data gathered.
Strategies for Inquiry Teaching
A. Interviews – may be used in all subjects
- interviews are used in gathering firsthand information from
individuals who have expertise on topic under study.
1. Introduction – presenting a new or additional knowledge
or information, identifying interviews, and making plans including
questions to ask, procedure for recording, etc.
2. Development – conducting the interview as planned
3. Conclusion – summarizing data and report findings to solve
4. Evaluation – Assessing the success of the interview
B. Field Trips – an out – of – the – classroom activity intended to
present concepts in the most realistic manner. It may be used
across levels in any subject area.
1. Introduction – clarifying objectives of the activity, panning and
assigning tasks to be carried out and reviewing standards of
2. Development – field trip proper, checking on students’ activities,
accomplishments and behaviors.
3. Conclusion – summarizing data and report findings, stating
main idea or other conclusions, sending letter of thanks.
4. Evaluation – assessing the finished activity
2. INDUCTIVE METHOD
- a procedure through which one arrives at a fact, principle,
rule or generalization from some specific cases or examples.
1. Designed to help students develop higher order and critical
thinking while learning specific content at the same time.
2. Requires teacher’s questioning skill
3. Promotes high level of student involvement
4. Increase student motivation
When to Use
For formulating generalization, concept, rule, truth, principle,
formula or definition.
1. Preparation – reviewing of old facts, setting of goals, stating of
2. Presentation – presentation of cases and examples.
3. Comparison and Abstraction – deducing common elements among
the cases or samples presented.
4. Stating of Generalization, rule, definition, principle, or formula
based on the common elements deduced from cases presented.
5. Application – applying the generalization or rule learned to other
problems within or beyond the classroom setting.
3. PROBLEM SOLVING
- a purposeful activity aimed at removing difficulty or
perplexity through a process of reasoning.
1. Allows for students’ active involvement resulting in meaningful
2. Develops independence and higher level thinking skills.
3. Promotes open – mindedness and wise judgment.
When to Use:
- for lessons where learners find problems requiring
- for developing higher – level thinking skills
1. Recognition and statement of the problem – with teacher’s
guidance and stimulus, the students define or recognize a problem
2. Statement of Hypothesis – students make temporary
answer/solution to the question or problem
3. Critical Evaluation of Suggested solution – with the teacher’s
guidance, students test hypotheses or data used in solving the
problem, formulate conclusions and summarize their findings.
4. Verification of accepted solutions – checking, verifying and
applying results to other problems.
4. PROJECT METHOD
a purposeful, natural, significant constructive activity needing
both intellectual and physical solutions.
Project may be:
a. Physical or material – such as repairing a radio
b. Learning project – like composing a poem or short story
c. Intellectual or problem project – such as identifying ornamental
plants which can be medicinal
1. Develops students’ thinking and manipulative skills.
2. Develops creativity and resourcefulness, initiative, industry and
3. Allows students to express in their own way the concepts they
4. Can enhance cooperation and sharing of ideas.
When to Use
1. For application of concepts
2. For discovering concepts
3. For developing creativity and thinking skills
4. For real life problems/situations
1. Purposing – determining the nature and goals of the project.
2. Planning – designing of strategies to be employed in carrying out
3. Executing – carrying out of activities as planned
4. Evaluating – displaying and judging of finished products.
LABORATORY METHOD OR RESEARCH METHOD
- deal with first hand experiences regarding materials or facts
obtained from investigation or experimentation.
1. Experimental – aims to train students in problem solving with
incidental acquisition of information and motor skills, emphasis is
on discovery, original procedure, and solution of problems.
2. Observational Type – the aim is on the acquisition of facts.
Activities would include visits to museums, exhibits or galleries,
watching documentaries, going on filed trips.
1. To promote information acquisition through observation,
experimental solutions to problems guided by reflective thinking
and acquisition of skill in manipulation.
2. Provides students opportunities to conduct or participate in
3. Develops skill in using laboratory equipment and instruments.
4. Enhances higher order thinking skills.
1. Orientation/Motivation – motivating and informing students on
the work to be done, why should it be done and giving precise and
2. Work Period – students are allowed to work on their own either
individually or in groups with the teacher supervising.
3. Culminating Activities – organizing, presenting and exhibiting of
the completed work.
- an inductive teaching strategy designed to help students
reinforce their understanding of concepts and practice hypothesis
testing hypothesis based on positive and negative examples
presented to them.
1. Encourages students to think freely.
2. Trains students to develop hypothesis.
3. Trains students to formulate definition or generalization.
4. Promotes students participation
When to Use?
1. For making hypothesis
2. For formulating hypothesis/definition
3. For development of critical thinking through hypothesis testing.
1. Presenting of Examples – positive and negative examples are
presented and hypotheses are generated.
2. Analysis of hypotheses – hypotheses are analyzed in light of the
3. Closure – examples are continuously analyzed to generate critical
characteristics and form a definition.
4. Application - additional examples are provided and analyzed in
terms of definition formed.
EMERGING MODELS OF TEACHING
A. PROBLEM – BASED INSTRUCTION
- the essence of problem – based instruction (PBI) consists of
presenting students with authentic and meaningful problem
situation that can serve as springboard for investigations and
- This model is a highly effective approach for teaching higher –
level thinking processes, helping students process information
already in their possession and assisting students to construct
their own knowledge about the social and physical world around
them. Contemporary approaches to problem based instruction
rest on cognitive psychology and constructivist perspectives
1. Deriving question on problem – PBI organizes instruction around
questions and problems both socially and personally meaningful to
- they address authentic real – life problems that evades simple
answers and for which competing solutions exist.
2. Interdisciplinary Focus – PBI lessons may be centered on a
particular subject but actual problem under investigation has been
chosen because its solution requires students to deliver into many
3. Authentic Investigation – necessitates that students pursue
authentic investigation that seek real solution to real problems.
4. Production of Artifacts and exhibits - PBI requires students to
construct products in the form of artifacts and exhibits that
explain or represent their solutions.
- It could be a report, a video, a physical model or a computer
B. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
- develop in 1983 by HOWARD GARDNER
- proposes 9 different intelligences to accord for a broader range
of human potential in children and adults:
a. linguistic intelligences – word smart
b. logical – mathematical intelligence – number/reasoning
c. Spatial Intelligence – picture smart
d. Bodily Kinesthetic – music smart
e. Interpersonal Intelligence – People smart
f. Intrapersonal Intelligence – self smart
g. Naturalistic intelligence – nature smart
h. Existentialist Intelligence/Spiritualist Intelligence
1. Building of different centers in the classroom
2. Equal attention should be given to individuals who show gifts in
other intelligences aside from linguistics and logical –
3. The MI theory proposed a major transformation in the way
schools are run and lessons are presented.
4. Suggests that teachers be trained to present lessons in a variety of
- music - multimedia
- cooperative learning - field trips
- art activities - inner reflection
- role playing - and many more
MITA – Multiple intelligence Teaching Approach (for PBL)
1. Both starts with question/problem to generate curiosity
2. Teacher functions as facilitator.
3. Learning outcomes are holistic, rather than narrowly based in one
4. Assessments are authentic, performance based.
When Planning a Lesson (MI), Ask the Right Question
1. Linguistic: How can I use the spoken/written word?
2. Mathematical – How can I bring in numbers, calculations, logic,
classifications, critical thinking?
3. Spatial – How can I use visual aids, visualization, colon, art,
metaphor, or visual organizers?
4. Musical – How can I bring in music, environmental sounds or set
key points in a rhythm or melody?
5. Bodily Kinesthetic – How can I involve the whole body or hands on
6. Interpersonal – How can I engage in peer or cross age sharing,
cooperative learning or large group simulation?
7. Intrapersonal – How can I evoke personal feelings or memories or
give students choices?
8. Naturalistic – How can I develop love for nature?
C. CONSTRUCTIVISM (PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY)
- A perspective of teaching and learning in which a learner
constructs meaning from experiences and interaction with others.
- The teacher’s role is to provide meaningful relevant experiences
for students from which students construct their own meaning
- A view of learning suggesting that learners develop their own
understanding of the topics they study instead of heaving it
delivered to them by others (most commonly teachers) in an
already organized form.
- Places the learner in the center of the learning process where
they play an active role in the process of constructing their own
D. METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY
- strategies used for recognizing one’s cognitive processes and
ways of thinking about how information is being processed.
- Metacognition is the awareness of and control of one’s own
- Nickerson (1988) characterized the role of metacogniton in
higher order and critical thinking in this way. “The fact that an
individual has some knowledge that would be useful in a given
situation does not guarantee that it will be accessed and applied in
To increase the likelihood that learners will apply their thinking
appropriately, they need to be aware of the thinking they’re doing.
(For example, when reading, the students need to learn to evaluate
their own decoding and comprehension, plan a sequence of
actions and regulate their reading behavior changing conditions.
4 TYPES OF COGNITIVE STRATEGIES
Strategy Definition Example
1. REHEARSAL Committing materials to memory by
Repeating a new phone
2. ELABORATION Adding detail to new information and
Using mnemonic techniques
and adding details such as
relating new phone number
to one’s security number
3. ORGANIZATION Recognizing or picking out main ideas
from large bodies of information.
Outlining or highlighting
4. METACOGNITION Thinking about thinking and
monitoring cognitive processing
Deciding that the best
strategy for comprehending
a body of new text is to
create an outline of main
- characterized by students working with one another either
in pairs or groups)
1. Orient students to the problem
2. Organize students for study.
3. Assist independent and group investigation.
4. Develop and present artifacts and exhibits.
5. Analyze and evaluate the problem – solving process.
F. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
- a final theoretical perspective that provides intellectual
support from cooperative learning comes from theorists and
researchers who are interested in how individuals learn from
- Experience accounts for much of what people learn.
- Is based upon 3 assumptions:
a. that you learn best when you are personally
in the learning experience.
b. that knowledge has to be discovered by yourself if it
makes a difference in your behavior.
c. commitment to learning is highest when you are
to set your own learning goals and actively pursue
G. COOPERATIVE LEARNING
- this model presents the sharpest contrast to direct instruction.
- can be used to teach rather complex academic materials and can
help teachers accomplish important social learning and human
- stems from both social learning theory and cognitive –
constructivist perspective of learning.
- classroom environment is characterized by a cooperative task
and incentive structures and by small group activity.
- cooperative goal structures exist when students can obtain their
goal only when other students with whom they are linked can
obtain their characteristics of cooperative learning lessons:
a. students work cooperatively in teams to master academic
b. teams are made up of high, average and low achievers
c. whenever possible, teams include a racial, cultural and
sexual mix of students.
d. reward system are group oriented rather than individually
1. Go over objectives, present goals and establish learning set.
2. Present information to students with demo or text.
3. Organize students into learning teams.
4. Assist team works and study and group effort
5. Test over learning materials or groups present results of their
6. Provide recognition to both individual and group efforts and
Important Distinctive Features:
1. Students are not just required to do something as a team, they are
required to learn something as a team.
2. Because the team’s success depends on each student’s learning, it
is necessary for students to tutor one another rather than simply
share ideas and information with one another.
3. In some versions of cooperative learning where marks or grades
are allocated to students, there is opportunity for each member of
each team to succeed, because success is based on improvement
on past performance rather than on absolute scores.
1. Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD - Slavin)
- simplest and most straight forward among the cooperative
- referred to as student team learning
1. Teacher presents new academic information to students each week
using verbal presentation or text.
2. Students in a class are divided into four or five member
heterogeneous learning teams.
3. Members in the team help each other learn by using a variety of
cooperative study methods, quizzing and scoring procedures.
2. Jigsaw (Aronson, Slavin)
- students are assigned to 5 or 6 members heterogeneous study team.
- academic materials are presented to the students in text form.
- each student has the responsibility to learn a portion of the
- members from different teams with the same topic (called the
expert group) meet to study and help each other learn their topic.
- then students return to home team and teach each other members
what they have learned.
3. Group Investigation (Thelan Sharan)
- the most complex of the cooperative learning approaches and the
most difficult to implement.
- in contrast to STAD and Jigsaw, students are involved in planning
both the topics for study and how to proceed with their
- teachers who use the GI divide their classes into 5 or 6 members
- students select topics for study, pursue in depth investigation of
chosen sub – topic then prepare and present a report to the whole
Steps of the GI Approach:
a. Topic selection
b. Cooperative planning
d. Analysis and synthesis
e. Presentation of final product
4. Structural Approach (Kagen 1983)
- has much in common with other approaches, the structural
approach emphasizes the use of a particular structures designed
to influence students interaction patterns.
- call for students to work independently in small groups and are
characterized by cooperative rather than individual rewards.
- some structures have the goal of increasing student acquisition
of academic content (think – pair – share numbered heads
- others are designed to teach social and group skills (active
listening and time tokens).
5. Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) (De Vries and Slavin)
- similar to STAD in that the teacher presents information to
students and have them help one another learn. The difference lies
in the quizzes being replaced with tournaments and students
compete to gain points for their home team.TGT is suited to the
same subject matter and objectives as STAD.
6. Dyadic Cooperative Learning
- simplest form of cooperative learning and in many cases most
efficient form of group work.
- students interrupt in pairs after reading a section of the material.
They come to agreement to the important points and over all
meaning of each section. Afterwards, students quiz each other.
Lastly, teacher gives the whole class a test.
OVERVIEW OF SELECTED STRUCTURES IN COOPERATIVE
STRUCTURE BRIEF DESCRIPTION ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL
A. TEAM BUILDING
1. Round robin Each student in turn shares something
with his or her team mates.
Expressing ideas or opinions,
creation of stories. Getting
acquainted with team mates.
B. CLASS BUILDING
1. Corners Each student moves to a corner of the
room representing a teacher –
determined alternative. Students
discuss within corners, then listen to
and paraphrase ideas from the other
Seeing other alternative
hypothesis, values, problem
C. COMMUNICATION BUILDING
2. Match Mine Students attempt to match the
arrangement of object on a grid of
another student using oral
communication skills, role
The teacher asks a question, students consult
to make everyone knows the answer, then
one student is called upon to answer
Review, checking for
2. Color coded
Co – op - cards
Students memorized facts using a flash card
game. The game is structured so that there is
a maximum probability of success at each
step moving from short term to long term
memory. Scoring is based on improvement.
3. Praise Check Students work in pairs of four. Within pairs
students alternate – one solves a problem
while the other coaches. After every two
problems, the pair checks to see if they have
the same answers as the other pair.
Practicing skills, helping,
E. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
1. THREE - Step
Students interview each other in pairs, first
one way, then the other. Students each share
with the group information they learned in
information such as
hypotheses, reactions to
a poem, conclusions from
2. Think – Pair
Students think to themselves on a topic
provided by the teacher; they pair up with
another student to discuss it; they then
share their thoughts with the class.
Generating and revising
3. Team Word
Students write simultaneously on a piece of
chart paper, drawing main concepts,
supporting elements, and bridges
representing the relation of ideas in a
Analysis of concepts into
multiple relations among
1. Roundtable Each student in turn writes one answer as a
paper and a pencil are passed around the
group. With simultaneous Roundtable more
than one pencil and paper are used at once.
Assessing prior knowledge,
practicing skills, recalling
cooperative art. Team
building, participation of all.
2. Inside –
Students stand in pairs in two concentric
circles. The inside circle face out, the
outside circle faces in. students use
flashcard or respond to teacher questions as
they rotate to each new partner.
Checking for understanding,
review, processing, helping.
Tutoring, sharing, meeting
3. Partners Students work in pairs to create or
master content. They consult with
partners from other teams. They then
share their products or understanding
with the other partner in their team.
Mastery and presentation
of new material, concept,
and communication skills.
4. Jigsaw Each student on the team becomes an
“expert” on one topic by working with
members from the other teams assigned
the corresponding expert topic. Upon
returning to their teams, each one in turn
teaches the group, and the students are all
assessed on all aspects of the topic.
Acquisition and presentation
of new material, review,
5. Co – op – Co
Students work in groups to produce a
particular group product to share with the
whole class. Each student makes a
particular contribution to the group.
Learning and sharing
complex material, often with
multiple sources, evaluation,
H. CONTENT – BASED LANGUAGE
- as defined by Brintos, Snow and Wesche, content – based
language instruction is the integration of content learning with
language teaching aims.
- it refers to the concurrent study of language and subject matter,
with the form and sequence of language presentation dictated by
1. The main instruction goal in this approach is to prepare the
students for the academic task they will encounter in school.
2. Students are provided with study skills and a familiarity with
scholarly discourse which they can transfer to other academic
3. It focuses not only on learning, but using the language as a
medium to learn mathematics, science, social science or other
4. Subject matter may consist of topics or themes selected for
students interest or need.
5. CBLI uses the content, learning objectives and activities from the
school curriculum as the vehicle for teaching language skills.
Teaching Methods and Strategies in CBLI
a. Cooperative Learning
b. Task – Based or Experiential Learning
c. Whole – Language Approach
I. INTEGRATIVE MODEL (TAB)
- grounded in cognitive views of learning.
- an inductive strategy designed to help students
1. develop a deep understanding of organized bodies of
knowledge topics that combine facts, concepts,
generalizations and the relationships among them.
2. develop critical thinking skills at the same time.
- closely related to the inductive model.
- planning lessons using integrative model includes identifying
clear goals and then preparing displays of data to help learners
reach the goals
- the data displays are commonly matrices, but can include graphs,
maps and charts in pictorial forms.
1. describe, compare and search for patterns – teacher directs
students attention to the topics for study.
2. Explains similarities and differences – the point where students
are immersed in critical thinking.
3. Hypothesize outcomes for different conditions.
4. Generalize to form broad relationships – lesson is summarized
and comes to course as students derive one or more
generalizations that summarize the content.
J. GROUP COOPERATIVE LEARNING /
- a model which enables students to inquire into a social problem
and observe themselves as inquirers while the teacher serves as
counselor – consultant and friendly critic.
K. INDEPENDENT LEARNING
providing a high level of cognitive and affective development,
independent learning is a kind of instructional process where
students proposes a study project, investigation, research, or
production of something which she or he will carry out almost
independently. The teacher’s role is to stimulate student
participation, advise and counsel on possible projects, grant
approval if appropriate, supervise students and evaluate
- a teaching model designed to increase students’ creativity
through formulating analogies or metaphors. It is built on
assumptions that creativity, even though an essentially emotional
process can be learned and creativity can be fostered through
INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES CONTINUUM FROM PASSIVE TO
- Guided Practice
- Independent Practice
- Role Playing
- Reflective Inquiry/
- is a day to day, step by step approach to learning. It sets forth the
proposal program or the instructional activities for the day.
a. BRIEF – an outline of teacher’s activities and is usually done by
b. SEMI – DETAILED – all activities and teacher’s questions are listed
and usually done by neophyte teachers.
c. DETAILED – all activities, teacher’s questions and students’
expected answers are reflected and usually done by pre – service
II. SUBJECT MATTER
- Values Integrated
III. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
A. Preparatory Activities
1. Drill – activity that will enable the students to automatize
response to pre – requisite skill of the new lesson.
2. Review – activity that will refresh or renew previously
3. Introduction – an activity that will set the purpose of the
4. Motivation – all activities that arouse the interest of the
a. Intrinsic Motivation – sustaining self – interest to
- maintains self – curiosity and involvement in
the work by using surprise, doubt, novel as
well as familiar things.
b. Extrinsic Motivation – interest that is ignited by an
outward force like awards – monetary or
material things, scholarships, inspiration
from love ones.
B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation of the Lesson – real life situation or within the
experience of the learners are incorporated.
- teacher uses different activities as a vehicle to translate
the knowledge, values and skills into learning that could
be applied in their lives outside the school.
2. Discussion / Analysis – asking a series of affective or
cognitive questions about the lesson presented.
3. Abstraction / Generalization – the summary of the lesson.
- organizing significant information about the lesson
- completing graphic organizers like concept map, Venn
Diagram, fish bone, table, matrices and etc.
C. Closure / Application – relates the lesson to other situations in
the forms of:
- dramatization, simulation and play
- story telling
- oral reading
- construction and drawing
- written composition
- singing or reciting a poem
- creative works
- solving problems
IV. Evaluation – determines whether the objectives are met and
- comparing present and previous learning
- assigning work – project, research
- administering short quiz
1. An activity done outside the classroom/at home to:
- reinforce or enrich the day’s lesson
- set the materials that students have to bring to school to
implement the next lesson.
2. The activity should help attain the day’s lesson objective. It
should be interesting and differentiated (with provision for
remedial, reinforcement and enrichment activities.)
DIFFERENCE AMONG AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
AIMS – are the most general objectives of the Philippine Education
System. They are broad and value – laden statements expressing
philosophical and ethical considerations that:
a. answer the needs and demands of the society especially
children and youth.
b. are formulated by experts as policy – making bodies, panels
c. are societal in nature or in a national level concern.
Example: Prepare students for a democratic citizenship.
GOALS – descriptions of the general objectives of school’s
curricula/courses that are expected to:
a. accomplish and organize learning experiences stressed on
system – wide basis.
b. represent the entire school program prepared by
a professional associations or any local
Example: Development of reading skills.
Understanding mathematical concepts.
Appreciation of art works.
OBJECTIVES – are the descriptions of what eventually take place in
a. They should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable,
realistic, time bound)
b. These are used as a standard way of judging what has been
achieved or not achieved.
c. Their chief functions is to guide the teachers in making
decisions on what to cover, what to emphasize, what
content to select, and what learning experience, activity,
strategy or method best suit a certain learning plan.
d. Have 2 essential components namely behavior and
content but for assessment purposes, the objective should be
written with the following elements:
A – audience or the performer
B – behavior or the action verb specifying the learning
C – content of the subject matter
C – criterion or the degree of performance considered
sufficient to demonstrate mastery
Example: The student (audience) should distinguish (behavior) all
(criterion) objectives indicating learning outcomes (content) from
a set of objectives having both learning outcomes and learning
2 types of Objectives:
1. Terminal – an important learning outcome that should be attained
at the end of the instruction.
2. Enroute or enabling – the objective leading to the attainment of
the terminal objective.
SPECIFICATIONS OF OBJECTIVES
- it refers to the process of formulating objectives in a functional
form( i.e. complex to simple). It follows the following steps:
1. State the general unit objectives in terms of expected learning
outcomes (terminal objectives).
Dimensions of Learning Outcomes:
a. Knowledge – recall and remembering of information
essential to a discipline or subject area.
b. Reasoning – student ability to use knowledge to reason and
c. Skills – student ability to demonstrate achievement –
related skills such as reading aloud, interpersonal
interaction, speaking a second language and
performing psychomotor behaviors.
d. Products – student ability to create achievement – related
products such as written report, oral presentations,
e. Affective – (attitudes, values and appreciations) – moods
and connections or dispositions to act in a given
manner toward a person, thing, or event and the
sensitive awareness or perception of worth of an object
2. State terminal learning outcome in measurable learner
performance or product
- avoid terms like KNOW, UNDERSTAND, LEARN, THINK, and
APPRECIATE because they are not observable behaviors.
3. Obtain representative samples of essential and supportive pre-
requisites (enroute or enabling objectives).
Sequencing of Objectives
- the process of ordering or arranging the behavior of the
objectives in the same content in hierarchical order from simplest
to most complex.
The designers of objectives in many forms were finalized based
1. TYLER – interprets philosophical and psychological concerns of
2. Gronlunds – distinguishes objectives between general and specific
3. Mager – relies on three major characteristics as behavioral,
conditional and with proficiency level in the formulation of
4. Gagne – just as precise as Mager – defines types of learning
objectives as measurable and observable.
5. Bloom and his associates (1956) – developed the taxonomy of
6. Krathwohl and Associates (1964) – developed the taxonomy of
7. Simpson – developed the taxonomy of psychomotor objectives
Domains and Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives
Taxonomy – classification systems of learning heirarchy.
LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL
1. Knowledge Recalling and remembering
previously learned material
including specific facts, events,
persons , dates, methods,
procedures concepts, principles
Name, match, list,
Understanding and grasping the
meaning of something,
including translation from one
symbolic form to another
prediction, inferences, restating,
estimation and other uses that
Change fractions to
A. Cognitive – refers to the mental or thought complexity
LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL
3. Application Using abstract ideas, rules
or generalized methods in
novel and concrete
apply, solve, prepare,
implement, carry out,
Add two to four
4. Analysis Breaking down a
communication into a
constituent parts or
elements and understanding
the relationship among
subtraction of similar
5. Synthesis Arranging and combining
elements and parts into
novel patterns or structures
create, plan, propose,
Solve non – routine
6. Evaluation Judging the quality worth,
or value of something
according to established
reasonableness of a
given solution to a
LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL
Develops an awareness ,
shows willingness to
receive, shows controlled
or selected attention,
attend, look, watch,
Pay attention to the
traits of a well – kept
2. Responding Shows willingness to
respond and finds some
initial level of satisfaction
Keep the house clean
and orderly as told.
3. Valuing Shows the object, person or
situation has worth.
Something is perceived as
holding appositive value, a
commitment is made.
Formulate a cleaning
schedule in the house
indicating tasks that
need cleaning daily,
4. Organization Brings together a complex
set of values and organizes
them in an ordered
relationship that is
harmonious and internally
Keep the house clean
and orderly everyday
B. Affective Domain – reflects underlying emotions, feelings or values
LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL
5.Characterization Organized system of
values becomes a
person’s like outlook
and the basis for a
philosophy of life
orderliness of one’s
house and other
places at all times
c. Psychomotor – observable reflexive behavior, which involves cognitive and
1. Perception Uses the sense organ
to obtain cues that
guide motor activity;
cue selection to
Observe how to
position the fingers
in the keyboard
2. Set Readiness to take a
Perception is an
Show, prepare, set-
Tell the order of the
alphabet in the
LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL
Concerned with the early stages
of learning a complex skill.
Includes imitation, trial and
position in the
4. Mechanism Concerned with the habitual
responses that can be
performed with some
confidence and proficiency. Less
collect, draw, use,
Type at least 60
words per minute
using the correct
position of the
Skillfully performs acts that
require complex movement
patterns, like the highly
coordinated motor activities.
Proficiency indicated by quick,
smooth and accurate
performance, requiring a
minimum of effort.
Execute the print
6. Adaptation Concern with skills so well
learned that they are modified
to fit special requirement or to
meet problem situations.
Use the desktop
LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL
7. Origination Creates new
to fit a particular
situation or problem
Creates one’s own
Levels of Cognitive Domain
COMPLEX OVERT RESPONSE
Levels of Psychomotor Domain
Art of Questioning –
Questioning – key technique in teaching
- used for a variety of purposes.
Purposes of Questions:
1. Arouse interest and curiosity
2. Review content already learned
3. Stimulate learners to ask questions
4. Promote thought and the understanding of ideas
5. Change the mood/tempo, direction of the discussion
6. Encourage reflection and self – evaluation
7. Allow expression of feelings
Types of Questions:
1. According to thinking process involved:
a. low – level questions – focus on facts
- do not test level of understanding or problem solving skills
Ex. Who discovered the cell?
b. High level questions – go beyond memory and factual
information, more advance, stimulating and more challenging,
involves abstraction and point of view.
Ex. How did Robert Hooke discover the cell?
2. According to the type of answer required:
a. Convergent questions – tend to have one correct and best
- use to drill learners on vocabulary, spelling and oral skills
but not appropriate in eliciting thoughtful responses.
- usually start with what, who, where and when
- are referred to as low level questions
- are useful when applying the inductive approach and
requires short and specific information from the learners.
b. Divergent questions - open – ended and usually have many
- reasoning is supported by evidence and examples.
- associated with high level thinking processes and
encourage creative thinking and discovery learning.
- usually start with how and why, what or who
followed by why
3. According to the cognitive taxonomy:
level Knowledge memorize, recall, label, specify, define, list, cite etc
level Comprehension Describe, discuss, explain, summarize, translate, etc
level application Solve, employ, demonstrate, operate, experiment, etc.
level analysis Interpret, differentiate, compare, invent, develop, generalize
level synthesis Invent, develop, generalize
level evaluation Criticize, judge, interpret
4. According to questions used by teachers during open discussion
a. eliciting questions – these are employed to:
1. encourage initial response
2. encourage more students to participate in the discussion
3. rekindle a discussion that is lagging or dying out
b. Probing question – seek to extend ideas, justify ideas, and clarify
c. Closure – seeking questions – used to help students form
conclusions, solutions or plans for investigating problems.
Guidelines in Asking questions
1. wait time – the interval between asking a question and the
student response. This is a 3-4 seconds think – time.
2. prompting – uses hints and techniques to assist students to
come up with a response successfully.
3. Redirection – involves asking of a single question for which there
are several answers.
4. Probing – a qualitative technique use d for the promotion of
effective thought and critical thinking
- provides the students a chance to support and defend a stand
or point of view.
5. Commenting and prompting – used to increase achievement and
Tips on asking questions:
1. Ask questions that are:
- stimulating / thought provoking
- within students level of abilities
- relevant to students daily life situations
- sequential – a stepping stone to the next
- clear and easily understood
2. Vary the length and difficulty of the question.
3. Have sufficient time for deliberation
4. Follow up incorrect answer
5. Call on volunteers or non – volunteers
6. Call on disruptive students
7. Move around the room for rapport / socialization
8. Encourage active participation
9. Phrase questions clearly.
10. Ask as many learner as possible to answer certain question.
APPROPRIATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASES
OF THE LESSON
A. Introductory/Opening/Initiatory activities:
- starters and unfreezing activities to make students feel at ease
- used to motivate the students to participate and to set the tone
for the day.
- liken to “preparing the ground before sowing or planting”.
- activities given for students not just to enjoy or for the sake of
enjoyment but should have motivational function because they
are related to the day’s lesson.
1. KWL (Know, Want to know, Learned)
2. Video clips
3. Editorial from a current newspaper
4. Posing a scientific question that requires students to formulate
hypothesis or predict what’s going to happen
5. Cartoon or comic strip
8. Puzzle, brain teaser
9. Mysterious Scenario
11. Picture without a caption
12. Quotable quote
14. Compelling stories from history, literature related to the lesson
15. Current Events
16. Diagnostic Test
17. Skit, role playing
19. Ranking, ordering
20. Devil’s advocate
21. Conflict story
23. Buzz session
24. Question and answer
B. Developmental Activities
1. For data gathering
b. library research
c. internet research
f. inviting resource speakers
g. field trip
i. panel discussion
j. hands – on – learning
k. case study
2. For Organizing and Summarizing:
a. using graphic organizer
b. jingles, raps, song
e. power point presentation
3. For Application/Creative Activities
a. solving real world problems
b. performances and demonstrations
c. authentic projects
d. portfolios of students’ best work or work in progress
e. letters to the editor
f. power point presentation
h. writing and performing a song, rap or a musical
i. news report for local news program
j. television talk shows
k. mock debates and mock trials
l. mock job interviews
m. personal narratives
n. cartoons and comic strips
o. organizing a symposium
C. Concluding Activities:
a. finish and review the KWL
b. passport to leave
c. journal writing at the end of the period
d. Preview coming attractions
e. 3/2/1 countdown – 3 – facts I learned today, 2 – ways I will use
the information/skills I learned today, 1 – question I have
f. using analogies
g. completing unfinished sentences
h. synthesize or summarize the lesson
1. All instructional materials are aids of instructions. They do not
replace the teacher.
2. Choose the instructional materials that best suits your
3. If possible, use a variety of tools.
4. Check out your instructional material before class starts to be
sure it is working well.
5. For results, abide by the general utilization guide on the use of
media which includes:
a. learn how to use the instructional material.
b. prepare introductory remarks, questions or initial comments
you may need.
c. provide a conducive environment
d. explain the objectives of the lesson
e. stressed what to be watched or listened to carefully
f. state what they are expected to do with the information they will
g. prepare measure that can assess students’ experiences on the
use of the material based on the objectives.
VARIOUS FORMS OF MEDIA
1. AUDIO RECORDINGS – include tapes, recordings, and compact
discs used by teachers in connection with speech rehearsals,
drama, musical presentations, and radio and television
2. OVERHEAD TRANSPARANCY OR OVERHEAD PROJECTOR (OHP)
- transparency can show pictures, diagrams and sketches at a
3. BULLETIN BOARD – usually stationary on a wall or it can be
movable which contains pictures, newspaper clippings, real
objects or drawings attached on its surface usually made from
cork or soft wall boards.
4. CHALKBOARD – a convenient writing area where illustrations can
instantly be drawn even during discussion.
5. CHARTS - may be in the form of maps, graphs, photographs and
- maybe pre-prepared graphic devices or posters.
6. Mock – ups – is a replica of an object that may be larger or smaller
in scale which can be used to show the essential parts which are
7. REALIA – stands for the real things that are to be studied.
8. VIDEO TAPES OR FILMS – motion pictures clearly show movement
and sequence of events which usually motivates learners easily.
9. MODELS – scaled replicas of real objects which include globe car
10. PICTURES – include flat, opaque and still pictures.
- “Pictures are worth ten thousand words”
11. BOOKS – present accurate facts and details that serve as
permanent sources of information
12. ELECTRONIC MATERIALS – CD’s, DVD’s and CD - ROM’s