Cold Weather Injuries, Hypothermia, Frostbite, Frostnip, Trenchfoot, Immersion Foot, Chilblains, First Aid
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Cold Weather Injuries, Hypothermia, Frostbite, Frostnip, Trenchfoot, Immersion Foot, Chilblains, First Aid



Learn what to do with many Cold Weather Injuries such as Hypothermia, Frostbite, Frostnip, Trenchfoot, Immersion Foot, Chilblains. I give a lot of First Aid Information.

Learn what to do with many Cold Weather Injuries such as Hypothermia, Frostbite, Frostnip, Trenchfoot, Immersion Foot, Chilblains. I give a lot of First Aid Information.



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Cold Weather Injuries, Hypothermia, Frostbite, Frostnip, Trenchfoot, Immersion Foot, Chilblains, First Aid Presentation Transcript

  • 1.
  • 2.  Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people, such as those without shelter, outdoor enthusiasts, and those who in an area that is poorly insulated or without heat.
  • 3.  What constitutes cold injury and its effects can vary across different parts of the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for “cold injury.” Whenever temperatures drop decidedly below normal and as wind speed increases, heat can more rapidly leave the body. These weather-related conditions may lead to serious health problems.
  • 5.   When exposed to cold, your body loses heat faster than it can be produced. Prolonged exposure to cold will eventually use up your body’s stored energy. The result is hypothermia, or abnormally low body temperature.  A body temperature that is too low, body reduces circulation to extremeties to heat core (including brain) making the victim unable to think clearly or move well.  This makes hypothermia particularly dangerous because a person may not know it is happening and will not be able to do anything about it.
  • 6.  Symptoms of hypothermia vary based on how long you have been exposed to the cold.
  • 7.  EARLY SYMPTOMS  LATE SYMPTOMS  Shivering  No shivering  Slurred Speech  Blue skin  Fatigue  Dilated pupils  Loss of coordination  Confusion and disorientation   Slowed pulse and breathing Loss of consciousness And Obviously THEY MAY BECOME IRRITABLE AND IRRATIONAL
  • 8.      Move the victim into a warm room or shelter Remove their wet clothing, replace with warm dry clothing or blankets, if possible. Warm the center of their body first-chest, neck, head, and groin using an electric blanket, if available; or use skin to skin contact under loose, dry layers of blankets, clothing, towels, or sheets. Have victim drink warm sugar water or sports drinks, if alert. No caffeine or Alcohol. NO BODY RUBBING OR WARM WATER BATHS!   This can stop their heart No Pulse… CPR
  • 9.   Heat is lost 25 times faster in water!!! Keep all clothing on. Button, buckle, zip, & tighten all collars, cuffs, shoes, and hoods.      Keep head out of water and covered with hat or hood… if possible Get out, or find something to float on Swimming reduces survival time by 50%, so only do so in extreme situation, in close proximity to your goal. To conserve body heat   Trapped layer of water provides insulation slowing loss of heat Fold arms across chest, keep thighs together, bend knees, cross ankles. Multiple People: Huddle chests together closely.
  • 10.  Chilblains are caused by the repeated exposure of skin to temperatures just above freezing to as high as 60degrees F. The cold exposure causes damage to the capillary beds (groups of small blood vessels) in the skin. This damage is permanent and the redness and itching will return with additional exposure. The redness and itching typically occurs on cheeks, ears, fingers, and toes.
  • 11.
  • 12.  Redness (Possibly Red Pimples)  Itching  Possible blistering  Inflammation  Possible ulceration in sever cases
  • 13.  Avoid scratching  Slowly warm the skin   Use corticosteroid creams to relieve itching and swelling Keep blisters and ulcers clean and covered
  • 14.  Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, is an injury of the feet resulting from prolonged exposure to wet and cold conditions. Trench foot can occur at temperatures as high as 60 degrees F if the feet are constantly wet. Injury occurs because wet feet lose heat 25-times faster than dry feet. Therefore, to prevent heat loss, the body constricts blood vessels to shut down circulation in the feet. Skin tissues begins to die because of lack of oxygen and nutrients and due to the buildup of toxic products.
  • 15. Trench Foot
  • 16. Trench Foot
  • 17.         Reddening of the skin Numbness Leg cramps Swelling Tingling pain Blisters or ulcers Bleeding under the skin Gangrene (the foot may turn dark purple, blue, or gray)
  • 18.  Remove shoes/boots and wet socks  Dry their feet   Avoid walking on feet, as this may cause tissue damage A common military practice to reduce chance of TF is to change socks every few hours.
  • 19.  An untreated chilblain may develop into frostnip. Frostnip freezes the outer layers of fingers, toes, face and ears. Other than exposure to severe cold, contact with cold metal or liquid is often the cause. Poor circulation in the extremities worsens the situation. If treated immediately, the injury is generally reversible. If not, the condition develops further into the dangerous frostbite
  • 20.  Looks a lot like Frostbite: White and Waxy, but rubbery, not hard since the deep layers are not frozen yet.  Blistering  Inflammation  Possible Ulceration.  Turns Red, Painful, and Swollen when rewarmed
  • 21.  Similar to Immersion Foot      Remove victim from cold wet environment. Remove shoes/boots and wet socks Dry their feet Avoid walking on feet, as this may cause tissue damage Re-Warm Area  Contact with warm object (Hands, Breath, Victim’s Own Body)  The affected part will often tingle & become red during warming.  A common military practice to reduce chance of TF is to change socks every few hours.
  • 22.  Frostbite is an injury to the body that is caused by freezing. Frostbite causes a loss of feeling and color in the affected areas. It most often affects the nose, ears, cheeks, chin, fingers, or toes. Frostbite can permanently damage body tissues, and severe cases can lead to amputation. In extremely cold temperatures, the risk is increased in people with reduced blood circulation and among people who are not dressed properly.
  • 23.      Reduced blood flow to hands and feet (fingers or toes can freeze) Numbness Tingling Aching Bluish or pail, waxy skin
  • 24.  The following pictures are graphic in nature and show the severity and the affects of frostbite.
  • 25. Frostbite
  • 26. Frostbite
  • 27. Frostbite
  • 28.    Get next to a fire or into a warm room as soon as possible and remove tight clothing. Unless absolutely necessary, do not walk on frostbitten toes-this increases the damage. Immerse the affected area in warm (105F)-not hot-water (the temperature should be comfortable to the touch for unaffected parts of the body.      Don’t Pour it over the area, you will cause damage! This should take 25-40 min. Warm the affected area using body heat; for example, the heat of an armpit can be used to warm frostbitten fingers. Do not rub or massage the frostbitten area; doing so may cause more damage Do not use a heating pad, heat lamp or heat of a stove, fireplace, or radiator for warming. Affected areas are numb and can be easily burned.
  • 29.  Gangrene (permanent cell death), can occur when tissue is frozen and certain chemical changes can occur in the cells.
  • 30.  Wind-chill involves the combined effect of air temperature and air movement. Wind-chill cooling rate is defined as heat loss (expressed in watts per meter squared) resulting from the effects of air temperature and wind velocity upon exposed skin. The higher the wind speed and the lower the temperature in the work environment, the greater the insulation value of the protective clothing required. Chart 1 compares the effects of air temperatures with and without wind. For example, when the air temperature is -28.9šC (-20šF) there is little danger of flesh freezing with no wind, increased danger with a wind of 8 km/h, and extreme danger with a wind of 32 km/h or more. When air speed and temperature produce a chill temperature of -32šC (-25.6šF), continuous skin exposure should not be permitted. Unprotected skin will freeze only at temperatures below -1šC (30.2šF), regardless of wind speed.
  • 31.
  • 32.  Cold conditions can be expected in the coming months. Furthermore, open exposed areas, mean that windy conditions create a greater hazard in cold environments and can contribute significantly to cold temperatures (also know as the wind chill factor). The collective effect of these conditions is heat loss which places extra demands on the body. For example, a drop in core body temperature of just 1 degree C causes the muscles to shiver, which in turn can lead to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) and reduced energy and performance.
  • 33.   BLISTERS-the friction of wet socks and badly fitting footwear can cause blisters to the toes, feet, and the heels. SPRAINS AND STRAINS-cold muscles and connective tissues have less elasticity and are therefore more prone to injury. Falls are also more likely when sporting performance is reduced in cold conditions, and this increases the likelihood of these soft tissue injuries. Ligaments and muscles spanning the knees, shoulders, wrists, and spinal joints are the most common injuries of falls.
  • 34.   SUNBURN-ultraviolet radiation is present, even in cold and cloudy conditions. This, and the reflections off the snow, can cause sunburn to exposed skin. What many people may think is ‘windburn’ is actually sunburn. SNOW BLINDNESS-this is sunburn of the cornea of the eye, caused by ultraviolet radiation. Symptoms include painful, watery eyes and temporary blurring of vision.
  • 35.    Listen regularly to weather reports and avoid weather extremes, such as a predicted snowstorm. The best way to avoid many cold related injuries in winter is to maintain an adequate fitness level all year round. Condition the muscles particular to your chosen winter activities for at least a few weeks or months beforehand.
  • 36.   Acclimatize yourself to exercising in colder weather. Treat any ailments you may have before taking part in winter activities. Feet are particularly vulnerable to cold, so if you have a pre-existing medical condition that can affect your feet, such as bunions or diabetes, see your doctor for information and advice before engaging in cold weather.
  • 37.     Wear insulating, lightweight, multiple layers of clothing as this traps more body heat than one bulky layer. This also allows you to add or subtract layers according to your comfort. Wear adequate headgear since a lot of body heat is lost through the scalp. Avoid getting wet, THIS MEANS SWEATING BECAUSE YOU WORKED TOO HARD! Wear outer layers that waterproof and breathable. Pit zips on jackets and zip on pants are useful to release heat when you’re exerting excessively and in danger of overheating.
  • 38.     Take spare glove, socks and hat in case the ones you are wearing get wet. Wear appropriate footwear (such as insulated and waterproof shoes) and wear a blend sock that wicks sweat away from the skin. Make sure all footwear fits you properly. Footwear that is too tight or too loose will cause a wide range of avoidable injuries, including impaired blood circulation (which could contribute to frostbite) and blisters. Wear close fitting sunglasses or goggles to help avoid eye injuries.
  • 39.     Never go alone in extreme cold weather. With a partner you can use the buddy system to check for signs of hypothermia. Be aware that you are exposed to UV radiation even on cold or cloudy days. Drink plenty of water before, during and after cold weather exposure. Don’t drink alcohol. While and alcoholic drink seems to warm you up, it actually narrows your blood vessels, particularly those in the hands, which can increase your risk of hypothermia.
  • 40.   Carry some snacks or energy bars as fatigue increases the risk of injury. Cold muscles, tendons and ligaments are vulnerable to injury. Warm up thoroughly before performing any work or activities in cold temperatures. Remember to take cold temperatures into account and spend more time warming up than usual. Back pain and muscle strains are always more common in colder temperatures.
  • 41.  If you are wet, you can actually use snow on the skin to dry it off quickly, but you must get to a heat source right away.
  • 42.  When cold environments or temperatures can not be avoided, you should follow these recommendations to protect yourself from cold injury:
  • 43.          Wear several layers of loose clothing. Tight clothing reduces blood circulation. Boots should be waterproof and insulated. Wear a hat. Make sure to protect ears, face, hands, and feet. Move into warm locations during breaks. Spend extra time loosening your body Monitor your physical condition and that of your coworkers. Acclimatize yourself to the cold weather Avoid touching cold metal surfaces with bare skin.