A Project in Philippine Literature Submitted To: Ms. Thelma Villaflores “Spanish Period”
AngBarlaan at Josaphat
Irbana at Felisa
Florante at Laura
Baybayin is the name of the former Filipino writing system. It comes from the word baybáy which means spelling. According to David Diringer, the renowned expert on ancient scripts, the baybayin possibly came directly from the ancient Kavi script of Java, Indonesia. Or, it may have its roots in Kavi but was introduced to the Philippines by way of the ancient script used by the Buginese people of Sulawesi, Indonesia.Another name for the Baybayin is Alibata. This term was just invented in 1914 by Dean Paul Versoza of the University of Manila. it comes form alif, ba and t a, the first letters in the Arabic dialect of Maguindanao. Versoza did not explain why he chose that particular language; it has absolutely no relationship to the baybayin.
AngBarlaan at Josaphat
King Abenir (Abenner or Avenier) reigns over a vast Indian Kingdom outstretched beyond the lands of Egypt. He lives in luxury and worldly honors, and is known for his bravery and victory in battles. Yet despite being mighty in wealth and power, his happiness is marred, for he has no heir to inherit his throne, kingdom, and glory. Meanwhile, he learns that noblemen and senators have abandoned their luxurious lives and started laying their lives for Christ’s sake. Those who embrace the monastic life are growing in number. Hence, the king starts passing on decrees forcing Christians to renounce their religions, and later mastered various methods of torture to persecute them. Many of the followers who are weak in spirit are unable to endure the torture and yield to the king. The others who rebuke him suffer and become martyrs. The threatened few seek refuge in the deserts and mountains. The king rules for many years and in this terrible state of error, the queen bears a child. The comely babe, they name Josaphat (Ioasaph). The king is filled with joy, and orders his men to gather his people to celebrate his son’sbirthday. Although in shroud of fear, the people come, bringing offerings according to what each man has in store. King Abenir’s joy is however short-lived when he learns from the oracles of kings that his son will embrace the Christian faith: “From that which I learn from the courses of the stars, O king, the advancement of the child, now born unto thee, will not be in thy kingdom, but in another, a better and a greater one beyond compare. Methinketh also that he will embrace the Christian religion, which thou persecutest, and I trow that he will not be disappointed of his aim and hope.” thus spoke the astrologer
King Abenir’s wrath and disillusionment is such as to have his men build a castle for his only son in a secluded city. There Josaphat (Ioasaph) lives, devoid of any contact from the outside world, except for instructors, servants, and guards–whom the king thinks fit to serve him. The young prince grows to manhood. Meanwhile, in the wilderness of Senaar, there lives a hermit saint. This elder’s name is Barlaan (Barlaam). Upon witnessing an apparition, Barlaan leaves for the young prince Josaphat’s palace. In disguise as a merchant, he starts imparting the Christian teachings and works to Josaphat until the latter accepts the faith and finally gets baptized. When King Abenir discovers his son’s baptism, he is outraged. But after six years of his son’s persistent urging and encouragement, the king himself gets baptized. Not long after, the king dies, and Josaphat honors his body by burying him in a sepulchre where the devoted men lay and clothing him in a robe of penitence.
After erecting and establishing a church, Josaphat leaves his father’s land and entrusts the kingdom to a faithful servant and follower, Barachias. He embarks in a journey in search of true happiness and a life unobstructed by worldly confusions. Enduring sundry misfortunes and hardships, Josaphat finally finds his friend, Barlaan. The rest of their lives they devote inliving godly lives and venerating the Lord. They took to an ascetic lifestyleuntil Barlaan’s death. Two years later, Josaphat followed. The news of their death reaches King Bacharias, upon which he orders the remains of Barlaan and Josaphat to be brought back to India and buried in the church that Josaphat has built. Since then, the believers considered Barlaan and Josaphat saints:
AngPasyon ay isangnaratibongtulangPilipinas, nanagsasaadngbuhayniKristo, mulakapanganakanhanggangsapagkapakoniyasakrus. AngunangPilipinongsumulat at kumantangpasyonsaTagalog ay si Padre Gaspar Aquilino de Belen, isangkatutubong Rosario, BatangasAngkanyangsalin ay makikitasaMangaPanalanginNagtatagubilinsaCalolowa Nang TaongNaghihingalo. Dahilsabinigyanngpermisomulasasimbahanni Padre Antonio del Pueblo si de Belen, napahintulutannailimbagniyaangPasyonsaMaynilanoong 1704. Bilangkauna-unahangakdangganitonguringpanitikan, ito ay nakatanggapngkarangalan. Nagingmabenta pa angakdangitosamaramingtaonkayanailimbagitongmulisaikalimangpagkakataonnoong 1750. Dahilsakamangha-manghangpagtanggapsaPasyonni Padre de Belen, ito ay nagingdahilanupangsumunodangibangmanunulatsakanyangmgayapak.
Virbana At Felisa
Urbana at Felisa, a novel written in 1938 by Modesto de Castro was tremendously popular from the 19th-century to the first half of the 20th-century.The story relates the importance of purity and ideal virtues that married people should practice and enrich. "Written in Tagalog by a priest famous for his powerful sermons, Urbana at Felisa is an example of the book of conduct that emerged in Europe during the Renaissance. Its author used the epistolary style wherein a series of thirty-four letters, members of a family in Paombong, Bulacan gave each other advice on the ideal conduct and behavior expected of a middle-class and Christian family. Thus in her letters to her younger siblings Felisa and Honesto, who remained in Paombong, Urbana, who left for Manila to study, wrote not only of the need to follow the values and norms found in Christian teaching, but as importantly, to observe the proper mode of conduct as one dealt with people in society. The series of correspondences, including a letter from a priest on the duties and responsibilities of married life, touched on various facets of experience that a person underwent from birth to death both in the secular and spiritual realms. In retrospect, Urbana at Felisa should be perceived as a text not only meant to regulate conduct and behavior, but as a discourse to contain the moral excesses of the period and affirm basic Christian tenets."
AngIbongAdarna ay may isangnapakahabangbuntotna may maramingmgamaningningnakulaynaparangbahaghari. May alamsiyangpitongawitna kung ito'ykanyanginaawit ay siyangnatutuloganglahatngtaongnakakarinig. KayangIbongAdarnagamutinanglahatnguringsakit. Mataposangikapitongawit, ito ay naglalabasngmgakahima-himalakapangyarihan, naginagamitparaibahinanganyonganumangbuhaynaorganismoupangmagingbato.
The Adarna bird has a fantastically long tail, shiny with metallic colors. It knows a total of seven songs that are believed to lull people to sleep and cure all sicknesses. After each song, the IbongAdarna changes its feathers of colors and shades. After the last song, it excretes magic, and then finally, sleeps with its eyes wide open. Its droppings can transform any living organism into stone.In the story, Don Fernando, the ruler of the Kingdom of Berbania, fell ill after having a bad dream about Don Juan. In his dream, Don Juan his favorite son, was attacked by two people and then thrown into a well. None of the healers in the kingdom could heal Don Fernando, and his condition worsened. One day, an old doctor arrived in the Berbania and said that the illness of Don Fernando, which was caused by a nightmare, may be cured only by the singing of the bird Adarna (IbongAdarna). The doctor warned that the bird is really a witch, but it must be captured and brought to Berbania to cure Don Fernando.
To catch the bird, the leper advised Don Juan to stay awake to avoid its droppings, which could turn him into a figure of stone, like what happened to his two brothers, Don Pedro and Don Diego, who tried to stay awake in vain. To maintain his vigilance, Don Juan cut his palm with a razor and poured lime juice on his injury. When the bird finished its seven songs, Don Juan climbed the tree and used a gold cord to tie the IbongAdarna's legs so that it would not escape. Afterwards, he poured water on the stone figures of his brothers under the tree and restored them back to humanity.
Florante at Laura
Florante at Laura (“Florante and Laura”) by Francisco Baltazar (also known as Balagtas) is one of the masterpieces of Philippine literature. “Florante at Laura” is an abbreviation of the actual title which is: “PinagdaanangBuhay Nina Florante at Laura saKahariangAlbanya: KinuhasaMadlangCuadrohistorico o pinturangnagsasabisamganangyarinangunangpanahonsaimperyongGresya, at tinulangisangmatuwainsabersongTagalog.” (“The Life of Florante and Laura in the Kingdom of Albania: culled from historical accounts and paintings which describe what occurred in ancient times in the empire of Greece, and penned by someone who enjoys Tagalog verse”).
Awit At Corrido
An lagaylay saróngrelihiyosongpagrokyáwsadebosyonsa Banal naKrus. Ginigíboinílambángbulannin Mayo samgabanwáankanCanaman , Magarao , Bombonasín Calabangasa CamarinesSur siring man sa Pilar, Sorsogon, Filipinas. Pigtatàwanpag-omawsakaogmáhan an pagkadukáykankrusnapigpakóanki Hesukristoni Reyna Elena kanConstantinople. Guminíkan an ritwalnainísapaganongkawatna halea napiggígibotuyongbulánon. Si Haliya an dyosakanbulansasuánoynapagtubód. Pigpopònan an selebrasyonsasaróng novena sa Sta. Cruz asínpagbaylesagkódpag-awitkanmgaparalagayláysa ikatolóngaldáwkanMayo, an suboótaldáwkannadukayán an Banal naKrus. An mgapartisipantekainíipigpanatàsa Sta. Cruz kansaindángmgamagúrang. Binibíloginíninmgadarágakabáli: an saróng Sta. Elena, an igwángpinakamagayónnatingog; saróngagómninparaduyág, saradítnaakìsagilidkan Elena; mgapadisnainaapódnapanampáran; asín an pinakaenotnapadis, iyó an mgaresponde. Igwánganómna parte an Lagaylay: timbakó, duyag, pag-atangkankorona, pasyon, pagkoronaki Sta. Elena, asíndanza.
AngSenakulo ay tradisyonalnapagsasadulangmgapangyayarihinggilsamgadinanasniHesukristobago at pagkaraangipakosiyasakrus. HangoangnasabingtradisyonsaBibliya at iba pang tekstongapokripa. Kadalasangginaganapitosalansangan o kaya'ysabakuranngsimbahan. Angmagkakaibigan, magkakamag-anak, at magkakababayan ay magkikita-kitaupangpanoorin at palakasinangloobngmgatauhansadula. Angmgakasuotanngmgagumaganap ay ginagadsasuotngmgakawalna Romano at iba pang personalidad at kasaysayan at may matitingkadnakulay. Angmgamanonoodnaman ay may baongsarilingupuan at pagkainupanghindisilamainipsapanonood. Karaniwan ding makikitaangiba'tibangtindahannanakapaligidsapinagdarausanngsenakulo. Hindi man atentibosapanonoodangilangtao ay madali pa ring masundanangtakbongpagsasadulasapagkatpamilyarangbawatmgaeksena.
AngPanunuluyan ay isangkaugaliangKristyanongmga Filipino nanagtatanghalngmasalimuotnapaglalakbaynina Santo Jose at Birheng Maria mulasa Nazareth patungong Bethlehem upangmaghanapngmatutuluyannamapagsisilangankayHesukristo. Ito ay hangosasalitang-ugatna “tuloy” naisangmagiliwnapag-anyaya o pagpapatuloyngpanauhinsaloobngtahanan.
SALUBONG NaritopoAko, Inay...mulipoAkongnabuhayupangangsanlibuta'y'dinamalumbaysapag-aalayKongbuhay.NaritopoAkoupangpawiinangiyongmgaluhangtangingparasa Akin;huwagnapokayongmalungkot, Inay.MasdanninyopoAkongtinupadangloobngAma;masdanninyopoAkongmatagumpaysakamatayan, kadiliman, at kasamaan.NaisKopokayongpasalamatandahiltinanggapponinyoangkaloobanngAma'tPanginoonngsangkatauhan.Naispokitangyakapingmuliupangmapatunayanponinyonghindi kayo nagkakamali.NaritopoAko!Mulingnabuhayparaposainyo at sabuongmundo!
Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operaticand popular song, as well as dance. The etymology of the name is not totally certain but some propose it may derive from the name of a Royal hunting lodge, the Palacio de la Zarzuela near Madrid, where, allegedly, this type of entertainment was first presented to the court.[The palace was named after the place called "La Zarzuela" because of the profusion of brambles (zarzas) which grew there and so the festivities held within the walls became known as Zarzuelas. There are two main forms of zarzuela: Baroque zarzuela (c.1630–1750), the earliest style, and Romantic zarzuela (c.1850–1950), which can be further divided into two. Main sub-genres are génerogrande and génerochicoalthough other sub-divisions exist. Zarzuela spread to the Spanish colonies, and many Hispanic countries – notably Cuba – developed their own traditions. There is also a strong tradition in the Philippines where it is also known as zarzuelta.Other regional and linguistic variants in Spain includes the Basqueezartzuela and the Catalan sarsuela. A masque like musical theatre had existed in Spain since the time of Juan del Encina The zarzuela genre was innovative in giving a dramatic function to the musical numbers, which were integrated into the argument of the work. Dances and choruses were incorporated as well as solo and ensemble numbers, all to orchestral accompaniment.
While Moro resistance was already widely established during and immediately after colonial rule, it was not until the early 70s that the "formalization" of the Moro revolutionary movements took place. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) emerged as the very first revolutionary group among the young Moro radicals. Its emergence came in the wake of a growing Islamic consciousness among Philippine Muslims. The MNLF was in the forefront of the separatist movement among the Moros: it was then representing the general sentiment among the Moros of national oppression in the hands of a Christian-dominated Philippine government. Perhaps many of us vividly remember the series of violent encounters between Muslim/Moro militias and Christian military and paramilitary groups in various parts of Mindanao. For many, the wounds of such wars have not yet healed completely, and these have cut deeply along the faith identities of both its protagonists and innocent victims. The separatist struggle of the MNLF from 1971 to 1976 took a heavy toll on both sides (Mercado, 1992). Estimates of lives lost range from 50,000 to 80,000, and about 300,000 displaced, many of whom have sought refuge in neighboring Sabah.
A breakthrough came after five years of bloody confrontations with the signing of the now famous Tripoli Agreement in December 1976. Among other things, the agreement provided for an establishment of an autonomous region in 13 provinces in Mindanao and Sulu, "within the realm of sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines…, subject to constitutional processes." In April 1978, a referendum was held to ask the voters in the 13 provinces whether they would opt to join the proposed autonomous government. Three of these provinces, namely Davao del Sur, South Cotabato and Palawan, refused to join, so only nine provinces comprised the autonomous government then. While the two autonomous regions were slowly put in place in Zamboanga and Cotabato cities, the MNLF leadership was seriously rocked by disputes allegedly due to the inter-ethnic differences among its top officials. Some observers believe that this was largely concocted by President Marcos’ military lieutenants to divide and weaken the Moro struggle for a separate state.
Ang karagatan ay angpangunahingbahaginganyong tubigat prinsipalnabahagingkalawakanngtubig o hidrosperaTinatayangnasa 72% ngibabawng Daigdig (isang lawak ngmga 361 kilometrokwadradoangnatatakpanngkaragatan, isangpatuloynabahagingtubignanakaugalianghinahatisailangmgapangunahingmgakaragatan at maliliitnamga dagat ..
Ang duplo ay isangpamamaraannaipinasok o isinamasamgaselebrasyonupangmabawasanangkalungkutansapagdadasalparasamganamatay. Ito ay binubuongmga puns, biro at palaisipansabernakular. Kinalaunan, angduplo ay nagingisangmadulaing debate sapamamagitanngberso. Angnakasanayanggawi ay angibangmanlalaro ay magbibintangsaibangmgakathangkrimen, at angmgaakusadonaman ay ipagtatanggolangkanilangsarili. Angusapan o dayalogo ay nagigingmasmasiglagamitangmgakotasyonmulasamga awit at corrido naginagamitsa debate. Kapagangisangnakikipagtalo ay nagbigayngmalingsagotsapalaisipannabinigaysakanya, siya ay kadalasangpinaparusahansapamamagitanngpagpilitsakanyanamagsabingisang dalit parasanamatay.
Angbalagtasan ay isangpagtatalosapamamagitanngpagtutula. InimbentoitonoongpanahonnaangPilipinas ay nasailalimngAmerika, base samgalumangtradisyonngmakatangpagtatalogayangkaragatanhuwego de prenda at duplo. Angpinagmulanngpangalannabalagtasan ay angorihinalnaapelyidoni Francisco BaltazarBalagtas, dahilginawaitoparasaokasyonngpagdiwangnganibersaryongkanyangkaarawan. Angbalagtasan ay hawigsaisangduplo. Angmgakasalidito ay gumaganapnanasaisangkortenasumisiyasatsakasongisangharinanawalaangpaboritongibon o singsing. May gumaganapna fiscal o tagausig, isangakusado,atabogado. Ito ay magigingdibate o sinasabingtagisanngkatwiransapanigngtaga-usig at tagapagtanggol at maaaringpaiba-ibaangpaksa. Bagamatito ay lumalabasnadibatesapamamaraangpatula, layuninrinnitonamagbigayaliwsapamamagitanngpaghahalongkatatawanan, talasngisip, na may kasamangmgaaktorsaisangdula. Angbalagtasan ay ginamitngmgamanunulatupangmaipahiwatigangkanilangpalagaysaaspetongpolitika at mganapapanahongpangyayari at usapan.
Awit At Corrido
Philippine metrical romances, awit and korido in Tagalog, as defined by Dr. Damiana L. Eugenio in her book Awit and Corrido: Philippine Metrical Romances (AC:PMR, 1987), are long verse narratives on chivalric-heroic, religious, legendary and folkloric themes. 'Koridos' or 'corridos,' as Philippine romances are generally called, are heavily influenced by foreign literature. They were the most popular among the Spanish colonial literary forms. They are of uniform stanza pattern -- monoriming and assonant quatrain -- and vary in length, from a few hundred to several thousand lines.
They are more fully described by Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera a distinguished Filipino scholar, as: “stories in verse about historic events, falsified and fanciful, and love tragedies full of wonderful events mixed with divine prodigy and diabolical magic -- all lengthy, exaggerated, puerile, and absurd in the extreme. Not one of the characters is native. All are Turks, Arabs, knight-errant, ambassadors, dukes, warriors in armor, provided with magic arms and with balsams like the famous one of Fierabras, good Castilians and bad strangers. All the characters are at variance with Philippine life; for they are only semblances of the real and true beings of unknown lands and of prodigious races." (AC:PMR, 1987).