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Biochemistry

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  • 1. Biochemistry Chapter 3 Mr. Hunter BiologyKennedy High School 10/18/2011
  • 2. Biology Mr. Hunter 10/23/2012• Objectives• SWBAT• Analyze the structure of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.• Identify polymer and monomer units and their construction process
  • 3. Bell Ringer 03/19/2013 - Biology1. What are the independent and dependent variables?2. On which axis is the dependent variable located on?3. On which axis is the independent variable on?4. At what time is the temperature approximately 80 degrees?
  • 4. Carbon Compounds• All compounds can be classified into two categories: Organic and Inorganic• Most matter in living organisms that is not water is made of organic compounds.• Organic compounds are made of carbon atoms.• Inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms.
  • 5. Carbon Compounds• Carbon atoms are able to form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms of different elements.• Carbon can bond in different ways to produce molecules of different shapes. pg. 51 text.
  • 6. Functional Groups• Influence the chemical characteristic of the molecule that they are attached to.• Common functional groups: Hydroxyl, Carboxyl, Amino and Phosphate pg. 52 text.
  • 7. Large Carbon Molecules• Many large carbon molecules are built from smaller components called monomers• Monomers bond to each other to form polymers via condensation reactions. pg. 53
  • 8. Structure of ATP –Energy Molecule
  • 9. Polymers and Macromolecules Mini-Quiz1. All compounds can be classified into two categories _________ and __________2. _______compounds are made of carbon atoms and _________ compounds do not contain carbon.3. Carbon atoms are able to form _____ covalent bonds.4. _________ is the functional group that causes a molecule to classified as polar.5. __________ is the functional group that causes a molecule to be classified as an acid.6. Polymers are large molecules that can be formed from smaller molecules called _________ by a _________ chemical reaction.7. The opposite chemical reaction which breaks apart polymers is called ______________.8. The molecule _________ is hydrolyzed by a reaction to produce energy.
  • 10. Molecules of Life• Four main classes of compounds are essential to life processes of all living things.• Carbohydrates• Lipids• Proteins• Nucleic acids
  • 11. Carbohydrates• Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen• The chemical ratio is:• 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen• Can serve as a source of energy and can be used as structural materials.• Can be in the form of monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides.
  • 12. Carbohydrates• A monomer unit of a carbohydrate is called a monosaccharide. The ratio for the atoms is 1:2:1• The most common monosaccharides are:• Glucose: main source of energy for cells• Fructose: found in fruits, very sweet• Galactose: found in milk• All are isomers – They have the same chemical formula but they are different in structure. pg. 55 fig 3.6• Question: What are the monomer units of carbohydrates?
  • 13. Carbohydrates• Disaccharides – formed by two monomer sugar units bonding together by a condensation reaction.• Ex. Glucose and Fructose combine to form Sucrose.• Polysaccharides – composed of three or more monosaccharides.• Glucose is stored in the polysaccharide form, glycogen in animals.• Glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for energy.• Question: How is glucose stored in liver and muscle ?
  • 14. Carbohydrates• Plants store glucose molecules in the form of the polysaccharide – Starch / utilized for energy.• Plants also make a polysaccharide called cellulose. Cellulose provides the plant with strength and rigidity – makes up about 50% of wood.• Question: What are two forms of glucose found in plants?
  • 15. Molecules of Life Quiz1. The four main classes of compounds essential to all living things are A.____________ B.____________ C.____________ D.____________2. The ratio of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is ____ : ____ : ____3. Organic compounds can serve as a source of _____ and can be used as ____________.4. A monomer unit of a carbohydrate is called a _________5. The monosaccharide found in milk is called _________.6. The monosaccharide which is the main energy source for cells is ___________.7. Disaccharides are formed by ________________.8. Polysaccharides are composed of __________________.9. Plants store glucose in the form of ______ and _________.10. Starch is used for _______ by plants.
  • 16. Proteins• Composed of monomer units called amino acids. pg. 56 fig b.• Ex. Skin, muscle, hair, enzymes etc. are composed of proteins.• Amino acids link together by peptide bonds to form proteins.• Enzymes are protein molecules that are biological catalysts – they are able to increase the rate of reactions.
  • 17. Amino acids• 20 different amino acids. All share a basic structure.• Contains central carbon covalently bonded to other atoms or functional groups.• The main difference in amino acids are the R groups.• Question: What are the monomer units of proteins?
  • 18. Amino acids• Amino acids join via a condensation reaction to form peptide bonds• Amino acids also form long chains called polypeptides• Proteins are made of one or more peptide bonds• Longer polypeptides can be of different shapes due to hydrogen bonding interactions. - heat and acidity can affect proteins.
  • 19. ENZYMES• Protein or RNA molecules that act as biological catalysts.• Enzymes have specific substrate molecules that fit within the active site of the enzyme.• Enzymes lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction.• Enzyme is unchanged and can be used many times – Temperature and pH can causes changes in the enzyme and substrate pg. 57
  • 20. Polymers and Macromolecules Mini-Quiz1. All compounds can be classified into two categories _________ and __________2. _______compounds are made of carbon atoms and _________ compounds do not contain carbon.3. Carbon atoms are able to form _____ covalent bonds.4. _________ is the functional group that causes a molecule to classified as polar.5. __________ is the functional group that causes a molecule to be classified as an acid.6. Polymers are large molecules that can be formed from smaller molecules called _________ by a _________ chemical reaction.7. The opposite chemical reaction which breaks apart polymers is called ______________.8. The molecule _________ is hydrolyzed by a reaction to produce energy.
  • 21. Biology 10.30.12 Mr. Hunter• Objectives:• SWBAT• Analyze and compare the structure and characteristics of various classes of lipids via active cornell notes.• Read and answer questions from article, Why Some Fats Are Worse Than Others• (*Common Core Technical Reading Standards*)• Bell Ringer: If a substance does not dissolve in water, is it (polar / nonpolar)?
  • 22. Lipids• Large nonpolar organic molecules. They don’t dissolve in water.• They include:• Triglycerides• Phospholipids• Steroids• Waxes• Pigments• Question: What are the five categories of lipids?
  • 23. Lipids• Lipids have a higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms.• Because of this higher ratio they are able to store more energy per gram than carbohydrates.• Question: Why are lipids able to store more energy than carbohydrates?
  • 24. Lipids• Fatty acids: unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids.• The carboxyl end is polar- hydrophilic and the other end is nonpolar-hydrophobic• Question: What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
  • 25. Triglycerides• Three classes of lipids contain fatty acids: triglycerides, phospholipids and waxes.• Triglyceride: three fatty acids joined to glycerol• Can be saturated – high melting point and solid at room temp. Found in butter and fats.• Unsaturated- soft or liquid at room temperature – found in plant seeds.
  • 26. Phospholipids• Two or three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol.• Phosphate group attached to third carbon of glycerol.• Cell membrane is made up of two layers of phospholipids called the lipid bilayer.• Question: What portion of a phospholipid is polar or hydrophilic?
  • 27. Waxes and Steroids • Wax: Structural lipid made of long fatty acid and alcohol chains. They are waterproof and provide a protective outer coating on surfaces. Steroids: Steroid are made of 4 fused carbon rings and various functional groups. Cholesterol is located in the cell membrane and is needed by nerve cells to function properly.
  • 28. Polymers and Macromolecules Mini-Quiz1. All compounds can be classified into two categories _________ and __________2. _______compounds are made of carbon atoms and _________ compounds do not contain carbon.3. Carbon atoms are able to form _____ covalent bonds.4. _________ is the functional group that causes a molecule to classified as polar.5. __________ is the functional group that causes a molecule to be classified as an acid.6. Polymers are large molecules that can be formed from smaller molecules called _________ by a _________ chemical reaction.7. The opposite chemical reaction which breaks apart polymers is called ______________.8. The molecule _________ is hydrolyzed by a reaction to produce energy.
  • 29. Carbohydrates Mini-Quiz1. Carbohydrates can be classified as organic compounds containing the elements _______, ______ and _______2. The chemical ratio of the elements is ____: ____:____3. A polysaccharide is composed of _______ or more_______4. The monomer unit of a carbohydrate is called a _______5. _________, ________ and ______ are common monosaccharides which are all ________. They have the same chemical formula but different chemical structures.6. ________ and _________combine by a condensation reaction to form the disaccharide sucrose.7. ________ is a polysaccharide made of glucose monomers and is stored in liver and muscle cells.8. ________ and ________ are polysaccharides found in plant cells used for energy and structural support.
  • 30. Protein Experiment – Bell Ringer• The pH scale measures the acidity of a solution. The scale ranges from 0 to 14.• 0  6 is acidic,7 is neutral and 8 14 is basic. pg. 44 fig. 2-141. What are the independent and dependent variables?2. For each of the proteins, trypsin and pepsin, what is the best pH value in which the reaction rates are the highest?
  • 31. Assignment• Pg. 60 # 8-10- Critical Thinking• Cornell Format• Due @ end of class!
  • 32. Assignment• Section 2 Review pg. 60 # 1-4• Pg. 62 # 5-14• Cornell Note Format• Due @ end of class!
  • 33. Assignment• Pg. 55 Vocabulary due @ end of class! Pg. 58 Treating and Preventing Diabetes Questions: # 1-3 : due @ end of class.• All in Cornell Format.