A Matter of Degree: Significance, Spatial Planning, and the Historic Environment Kae Neustadt,  BA, MA Centre for Archaeol...
Significance: What does it matter what matters? <ul><li>The act of ‘valuing’ is embedded into human nature </li></ul><ul><...
Planning and Significance <ul><li>How to meet the demands of the modern world without sacrificing history, identity, and a...
Planning and Consents: Where does the Historic Environment fit in? <ul><li>National Level: Planning Policy Statements (to ...
Planning and Consents: Where does the Historic Environment fit in? cont’d <ul><li>Local Development Framework </li></ul><u...
Planning and Consents: Where does the Historic Environment fit in? cont’d <ul><li>Archaeology, Listed Building Consent, an...
The intersection of Heritage and Planning <ul><li>Legislation is based on the presumption in favour of preservation of “sp...
The case for and against valuing significance <ul><li>FOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease and transparency in decision making <...
The Big Philosophical Questions <ul><li>Does the historic environment have any inherent value absent human perception? </l...
Bridging the Gap <ul><li>A tool for planning and management of the historic environment, easily accessible in a format und...
Historic Landscape Characterisation:  A Holistic Approach <ul><li>HLC was designed to be a comprehensive approach to the h...
How does HLC address value and significance? <ul><li>HLC is mostly informative – it provides information without guidance....
The Role of English Heritage’s  Conservation Principles <ul><li>The historic environment is a shared resource </li></ul><u...
How to Evaluate Historic Resources: English Heritage’s Heritage Values <ul><li>Evidential Value </li></ul><ul><li>Historic...
Assessing Significance from Heritage Values <ul><li>Consideration: fabric and evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material rem...
Evaluating Significance: A US Example <ul><li>Legal definition of ‘historic’  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings, District, S...
Evaluating Significance: A US Example <ul><li>Significance is evaluated against criteria set out by the Keeper of the Nati...
Eligibility Analysis Matrix (Arizona) © Jim Garrison, Arizona SHPO Materials Workmanship Workmanship Materials Location Ma...
Using the Matrix: An Arizona Example <ul><li>The Wigwam Motel, Holbrook, Arizona (US Route 66). </li></ul><ul><li>Built in...
Reviewing proposed change <ul><li>Materials (change would need to use sympathetic materials to those originally used) </li...
English Heritage’s Heritage Values as Criteria for Evaluating Significance <ul><li>Fabric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical r...
DRAFT Public Value Use Public Value Use Public Value Use Spiritual Public Value Use Time Depth Public Value Use Time Depth...
Summary <ul><li>Spatial planning and development control measures do not always provide adequate guidance for addressing t...
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A Matter Of Degree

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Signficance, Spatial Planning and the Historic Environment

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  • What are the questions I’ll be addressing today? All of the questions relate to the theme of how the historic environment is treated within the planning and development control systems in the UK. Key among issues surrounding this theme is the concern over what is significant: what is worth preserving and why, and what is less sensitive to change? How can we ensure that proposed change respects those aspects of the historic environment that are most important, without being stuck in a place that prohibits any change.
  • First quote from Kate Clark, Deputy Director for Policy and Research, Heritage Lottery Fund, at conference “capturing the public value of heritage”. Second quote is from White Paper “Heritage Protection for the 21 st Century”
  • Picture is from Belgium, I don’t know of what.
  • RSS: must require an implementation plan, but not a process. Implementation plan includes delivery mechanisms, targets, and key indicators, not necessarily a process for implementing the strategy. Information from Cullingworth &amp; Nadin 2004
  • “ The concerns of the majority who opposed the abolition of structure and local plans have largely been borne out. The outcome is on the face of it a very complex revision of the tools of local development planning” (Cullingworth &amp; Nadin 2004:118) Problem inherent in the need for development control to refer to the development plan when making decisions: if plan does not reference historic environment, how can development control measures weigh proposals for change to the historic environment against the development plan.
  • Number 3 from Booth 1996, in Cullingworth and Nadin.
  • Inherent value appears to be the assumption in most local government plans for treatment of the historic landscape (Worthing, Shropshire, etc). This is often based off Landscape Character Assessments done for Countryside planning purposes, which also assume an inherent value in the historic landscape. However, HLC is based on landscape historical and archaeological notions that reject the idea of inherent value. How does this translate into applicability for HLC in planning and management.
  • Points 1 &amp; 2 are from Fairclough 1999. The Bishop 1999 quote is from a paper at the same conference, given on the practical use of HLC in Nottinghamshire.
  • Image from Cranborne Chase and West Wiltshire Downs AONB.
  • Peveril castle, Derbyshire
  • Comparability would include group value (contribution to a similar group), as well as rare or unique qualities. Setting/ context will be highly important for landscape evaluation
  • A Matter Of Degree

    1. 1. A Matter of Degree: Significance, Spatial Planning, and the Historic Environment Kae Neustadt, BA, MA Centre for Archaeology, Anthropology and Heritage School of Conservation Sciences Bournemouth University
    2. 2. Significance: What does it matter what matters? <ul><li>The act of ‘valuing’ is embedded into human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage resources are finite </li></ul><ul><li>Development and change are inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>Governments are accountable </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions must be made </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency in decision-making is required </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you do not understand what is important, how can you possibly make decisions about it?” </li></ul><ul><li>The first step in an effective heritage protection system is “identifying those aspects of the past that are most important to us and explaining why they are important.” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Planning and Significance <ul><li>How to meet the demands of the modern world without sacrificing history, identity, and a ‘sense of place’? </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary to answer this question to be able to achieve “sustainability.” </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday decisions relating to development control and infrastructure maintenance must answer this question. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Planning and Consents: Where does the Historic Environment fit in? <ul><li>National Level: Planning Policy Statements (to replace Planning Policy Guidance Notes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General policy guidance such as PPG 15/16 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Level: Regional Spatial Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must contain a vision statement, a spatial strategy with a key in diagrammatic form, sustainability appraisal and an implementation plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other strategies may be integral with the RSS, but prepared as separate plans and documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be sub-regional or extra-regional. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional authorities develop regional plans, but also involve county authorities, national parks, unitary districts, and others. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Planning and Consents: Where does the Historic Environment fit in? cont’d <ul><li>Local Development Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes local development schemes, statements of community involvement, site-specific allocations and proposal maps, monitoring reports, planning zones, and supplementary documents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term spatial strategies and broad policies. The historic environment is not specifically addressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should refer to the local development plan/ framework. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the day-to-day planning operations fall under this category. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heritage management is a critical issue at this level. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Planning and Consents: Where does the Historic Environment fit in? cont’d <ul><li>Archaeology, Listed Building Consent, and Scheduled Ancient Monument Consent. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case-by-case consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May correspond to development control measures and planning permissions, but are not the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of limited options: excavate archaeological sites, refuse other requests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other types of heritage resources (parks and gardens, battlefields, conservation areas, trees and woodlands, AONB) will have separate procedures and guidelines which may be apart from listed building/ SAM consent procedures. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The intersection of Heritage and Planning <ul><li>Legislation is based on the presumption in favour of preservation of “special architectural and historic interest” (per PPG 15/16) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, these special architectural and historic elements must be defined in order to comply with heritage management legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions taken in the course of development control have long-term impacts and can profoundly effect societal welfare and quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Significance and value are thus the cornerstones of developing proactive and sustainable plans for the management of the historic environment. </li></ul>
    8. 8. The case for and against valuing significance <ul><li>FOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease and transparency in decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform for public input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to prioritize management needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased opportunity for education and promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management & Planning Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AGAINST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance varies depending on individual perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of introducing bias into the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to remain ‘scientific’ in approaches to heritage management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of creating an imperfect system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic & Theoretical Issues </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Big Philosophical Questions <ul><li>Does the historic environment have any inherent value absent human perception? </li></ul><ul><li>If it does not, whose perception matters when determining what the best treatment for the historic environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: Is this trip necessary? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Bridging the Gap <ul><li>A tool for planning and management of the historic environment, easily accessible in a format understood by heritage management professionals, planners, and presentable to the general public. </li></ul><ul><li>Something that could build on what has already been done by other amenity organisations and can adapt to the changing needs and resources of both planning and heritage management. </li></ul><ul><li>A tool that can be both locally specific and cross-sectoral. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Historic Landscape Characterisation: A Holistic Approach <ul><li>HLC was designed to be a comprehensive approach to the historic landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical tool for planning and management. </li></ul><ul><li>HLC is presented as a value-neutral approach to the historic landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, HLC “permits all degrees of importance to be considered against differing spatial and temporal parameters, relating importance for its own sake to importance for its contribution to the present, and to local character.” (Bishop 1999). </li></ul>
    12. 12. How does HLC address value and significance? <ul><li>HLC is mostly informative – it provides information without guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with the premise that all is of interest and value (Herring 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative approach is to look at change in terms of being consistent or divergent from the inherited character of the landscape (Lake 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Most HLCs, however, do not currently provide guidance regarding value or sensitivity to change. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Role of English Heritage’s Conservation Principles <ul><li>The historic environment is a shared resource </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should be able to participate in sustaining the historic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the significance of places is vital </li></ul><ul><li>Significant places should be managed to sustain their values </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions about change must be reasonable, transparent, and consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting and learning from decisions is essential </li></ul>
    14. 14. How to Evaluate Historic Resources: English Heritage’s Heritage Values <ul><li>Evidential Value </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communal Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commemoration and symbolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual value </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Assessing Significance from Heritage Values <ul><li>Consideration: fabric and evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material remains, change over time, documentary evidence, archaeological evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consideration: Who and Why Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement with stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding history and human behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consideration: relative importance of values </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration: contribution of associated materials </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration: contribution of setting and context </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration: comparison with other places sharing similar values. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Evaluating Significance: A US Example <ul><li>Legal definition of ‘historic’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings, District, Site, Structure, Object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significance is relative, but against a set of fixed criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria (with considerations) + integrity = significance </li></ul><ul><li>Significance = Eligibility (for the National Register) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Evaluating Significance: A US Example <ul><li>Significance is evaluated against criteria set out by the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, known as “National Register Criteria” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: associations with important events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: associations with significant individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C: design and construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D: information potential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must also be evaluated for integrity of: location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Eligibility Analysis Matrix (Arizona) © Jim Garrison, Arizona SHPO Materials Workmanship Workmanship Materials Location Materials Location Materials Workmanship Materials D. Information Potential Design Workmanship Materials Feeling Design Workmanship Materials Feeling Setting Design Feeling Setting Design Feeling Materials Design Workmanship Materials Feeling C. Design/ Construction Materials Feeling Association Materials Feeling Association Location Setting Association Location Setting Materials Materials Feeling Association B. Person Materials Feeling Association Location Materials Feeling Association Location Setting Feeling Association Location Setting Feeling Association Location Materials Feeling Association A. Event/ History Object Structure Site District Building Criteria
    19. 19. Using the Matrix: An Arizona Example <ul><li>The Wigwam Motel, Holbrook, Arizona (US Route 66). </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 1950, listed on the National Register 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Eligible under Criteria A & C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity of Location, Design, Materials, Workmanship, Feeling and Association. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should change be proposed, these aspects of integrity are the ones that must be protected. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Reviewing proposed change <ul><li>Materials (change would need to use sympathetic materials to those originally used) </li></ul><ul><li>Design (change would need to be sympathetic to the ‘wigwam’ design and those design aspects characteristic of 1950’s tourist motor-hotels associated with Route 66) </li></ul><ul><li>Workmanship (again, change would need to be sympathetic to the original – adding pre-fab aluminium clad outbuildings probably wouldn’t be acceptable) </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling & Association (harder to define, but changes that would alter the feeling of the 1950’s motor-hotel, the Route 66 ‘experience’, and such, would not be allowed) </li></ul><ul><li>Should change be proposed for the Wigwam (don’t worry, this is completely hypothetical), designers would need to respect: </li></ul><ul><li>Location (could not be moved from its location, as association with Route 66 is highly significant; could not be moved from roadside, as transportation association is important) </li></ul>
    21. 21. English Heritage’s Heritage Values as Criteria for Evaluating Significance <ul><li>Fabric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical remains/ materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Associated Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts, paintings, literary reference, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting/Context </li></ul><ul><li>Comparability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With similar properties, in terms of preservation, uniqueness, representativeness, or group value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared to other properties (not necessarily similar) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Value </li></ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuation of traditional use </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. DRAFT Public Value Use Public Value Use Public Value Use Spiritual Public Value Use Time Depth Public Value Use Time Depth Public Value Use Time Depth Social Public Value Unlikely to be applicable Public Value Unlikely to be applicable Public Value Use Commemorative/ Symbolic Communal Fabric Time Depth (perceived) Setting/context Public Value Fabric Time Depth Setting/context Comparability Public Value Fabric Time Depth Setting/Context Comparability Public Value Organic development Fabric Comparability Public Value Fabric Comparability Public Value Fabric Comparability Public Value Designed Aesthetic Fabric Setting/context Relative Importance Comparability Fabric Relative Importance Comparability Fabric Relative Importance Comparability Illustrative Fabric Time depth Associated materials Setting/ context Relative importance Comparability Fabric Documentary evidence Associated materials Setting/ Context Public Value Documentary evidence Fabric Associated materials Setting/ Context Public Value Use Associative Historical Fabric Time depth Associated materials Relative importance Comparability Fabric Time depth Setting/Context Public value Fabric Time depth Documentary evidence Public value Evidential Archaeological Site Scheduled Ancient Monument Listed Building Heritage Value
    23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Spatial planning and development control measures do not always provide adequate guidance for addressing the historic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning decisions require judgments to be made about the value and importance of historic resources. If archaeological professionals are not making these judgments, someone else will. </li></ul><ul><li>Historic Landscape Characterisation has the potential to act as a platform and a tool to bridge the gap between planning and heritage management. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for HLC to fulfill this role, the issue of significance needs to be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Significance can be addressed by applying the concepts and guidelines already developed. </li></ul>
    24. 24. THANK YOU

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