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  • Image: Gardens of Villandry Chateau, France\n
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  • Image: Gardens of Villandry Chateau, France\n
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  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • In recent years, these concerns have been addressed by writers who have sought to identify various types of Christian spirituality, and to relate these types to differing mental and emotional character traits. For example, Allan H. Sager in Gospel-Centered Spirituality adapted a phenomenology of spirituality developed by Urban T. Holmes in his important book, A History of Christian Spirituality. This typology involves both a horizontal and a vertical continuum. The vertical scale concerns a person’s relational orientation to God, and this can range from purely cognitive and speculative illumination of the mind at one end of the spectrum, to purely affective and emotional illumination of the heart at the opposite end of the spectrum. \n
  • In recent years, these concerns have been addressed by writers who have sought to identify various types of Christian spirituality, and to relate these types to differing mental and emotional character traits. For example, Allan H. Sager in Gospel-Centered Spirituality adapted a phenomenology of spirituality developed by Urban T. Holmes in his important book, A History of Christian Spirituality. This typology involves both a horizontal and a vertical continuum. The vertical scale concerns a person’s relational orientation to God, and this can range from purely cognitive and speculative illumination of the mind at one end of the spectrum, to purely affective and emotional illumination of the heart at the opposite end of the spectrum. \n
  • In recent years, these concerns have been addressed by writers who have sought to identify various types of Christian spirituality, and to relate these types to differing mental and emotional character traits. For example, Allan H. Sager in Gospel-Centered Spirituality adapted a phenomenology of spirituality developed by Urban T. Holmes in his important book, A History of Christian Spirituality. This typology involves both a horizontal and a vertical continuum. The vertical scale concerns a person’s relational orientation to God, and this can range from purely cognitive and speculative illumination of the mind at one end of the spectrum, to purely affective and emotional illumination of the heart at the opposite end of the spectrum. \n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
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  • In reality, no one is purely cerebral with no emotion or solely heart without mind (the vertical scale). \n
  • In reality, no one is purely cerebral with no emotion or solely heart without mind (the vertical scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • \n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • \n\n\n
  • Intuitive: Subjective\nRevelation: Objective\nFeelings: Heart\nUnderstanding: Mind\n\nOne size won’t fit all when teaching a large audience; the more angles I take, the better.\nYou as a teacher will tend to fit more in one category than another.\n\nAH: Responds to film\nKH: \nHeart/Mind and Authority(Objective)/Intuition(Subjective)\n
  • Intuitive: Subjective\nRevelation: Objective\nFeelings: Heart\nUnderstanding: Mind\n\nOne size won’t fit all when teaching a large audience; the more angles I take, the better.\nYou as a teacher will tend to fit more in one category than another.\n\nAH: Responds to film\nKH: \nHeart/Mind and Authority(Objective)/Intuition(Subjective)\n
  • Intuitive: Subjective\nRevelation: Objective\nFeelings: Heart\nUnderstanding: Mind\n\nOne size won’t fit all when teaching a large audience; the more angles I take, the better.\nYou as a teacher will tend to fit more in one category than another.\n\nAH: Responds to film\nKH: \nHeart/Mind and Authority(Objective)/Intuition(Subjective)\n
  • Intuitive: Subjective\nRevelation: Objective\nFeelings: Heart\nUnderstanding: Mind\n\nOne size won’t fit all when teaching a large audience; the more angles I take, the better.\nYou as a teacher will tend to fit more in one category than another.\n\nAH: Responds to film\nKH: \nHeart/Mind and Authority(Objective)/Intuition(Subjective)\n
  • Visual Learners:\n\nlearn through seeing... .\n\nThese learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.\n\nAuditory Learners:\n\nlearn through listening...\n\nThey learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.\n\nTactile/Kinesthetic Learners:\n\nlearn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthic - \n\nTactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. \n
  • Visual Learners:\n\nlearn through seeing... .\n\nThese learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.\n\nAuditory Learners:\n\nlearn through listening...\n\nThey learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.\n\nTactile/Kinesthetic Learners:\n\nlearn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthic - \n\nTactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. \n
  • Visual Learners:\n\nlearn through seeing... .\n\nThese learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.\n\nAuditory Learners:\n\nlearn through listening...\n\nThey learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.\n\nTactile/Kinesthetic Learners:\n\nlearn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthic - \n\nTactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Visual/Spatial Intelligence\n\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n
  • Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n\n
  • Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n
  • Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n
  • Social, Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\n
  • Solitary, Intrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \nYour application will be person-specific. But its good to have a growing repertoire of techniques.\n
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  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • When these four preferential pairs are combined, they result in sixteen basic personality types ranging from ESTJ to INFP. But there are many nuances within each of these personality types, since each pair constitutes a continuum that can range, for example, from a strong E to a borderline E or I to a strong I. Thus, this typology allows for the uniqueness of each individual while offering insights into the way people can be grouped according to preferential patterns. (It should be noted that there is no hint of superiority or inferiority in these patterns, since they are based on personal preferences. Additional factors such as intelligence, abilities, skills, drive, and maturity add an enormous number of personality nuances.)\n\n\n
  • When these four preferential pairs are combined, they result in sixteen basic personality types ranging from ESTJ to INFP. But there are many nuances within each of these personality types, since each pair constitutes a continuum that can range, for example, from a strong E to a borderline E or I to a strong I. Thus, this typology allows for the uniqueness of each individual while offering insights into the way people can be grouped according to preferential patterns. (It should be noted that there is no hint of superiority or inferiority in these patterns, since they are based on personal preferences. Additional factors such as intelligence, abilities, skills, drive, and maturity add an enormous number of personality nuances.)\n\n\n
  • Those who follow Christ tend to gravitate toward the spiritual activities that nurture their preferential patterns. Up to a point, this is healthy since it provides great diversity within the unity of the body of Christ. But as M. Robert Mulholland Jr. observes in Invitation to a Journey, each of the four preferential pairs, when carried to either extreme (e.g., all T and no F or all F and no T) can lead to a spiritually unhealthy one-sidedness. For instance, when extraversion is carried too far, it can result in such an emphasis on the social dynamics of the spiritual life that there is no room for the depth that solitude and reflection can provide. Strong introverts, on the other hand, can avoid community and practice spiritual isolation. Similarly, strong thinkers can be too prone to a highly analytical and systematic approach to the spiritual life, while strong feelers can be vulnerable to sentimentality, emotionalism, and the quest for repeated experiential authentication. \n\n\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
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  • 1. Lecture: Telling the Truth\n2. Stories: Finding Truth in Life\n3. Visual Aid: Picturing the Truth\n4. Questions and Answer: Clarifying the Truth\n5. Discussion: Learning the Truth Together\n6. Drama: Acting Out the Truth\n7. Projects: Putting Truth to Work\n\n\n
  • 1. Lecture: Telling the Truth\n2. Stories: Finding Truth in Life\n3. Visual Aid: Picturing the Truth\n4. Questions and Answer: Clarifying the Truth\n5. Discussion: Learning the Truth Together\n6. Drama: Acting Out the Truth\n7. Projects: Putting Truth to Work\n\n\n
  • 1. Lecture: Telling the Truth\n2. Stories: Finding Truth in Life\n3. Visual Aid: Picturing the Truth\n4. Questions and Answer: Clarifying the Truth\n5. Discussion: Learning the Truth Together\n6. Drama: Acting Out the Truth\n7. Projects: Putting Truth to Work\n\n\n
  • 1. Lecture: Telling the Truth\n2. Stories: Finding Truth in Life\n3. Visual Aid: Picturing the Truth\n4. Questions and Answer: Clarifying the Truth\n5. Discussion: Learning the Truth Together\n6. Drama: Acting Out the Truth\n7. Projects: Putting Truth to Work\n\n\n
  • Made to Stick by Chip Heath and Dan Heath; Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die\n
  • Made to Stick by Chip Heath and Dan Heath; Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die\n
  • Made to Stick by Chip Heath and Dan Heath; Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die\n
  • Made to Stick by Chip Heath and Dan Heath; Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die\n
  • Made to Stick by Chip Heath and Dan Heath; Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die\n
  • Made to Stick by Chip Heath and Dan Heath; Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die\n
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Transcript

  • 1. Learning Styles Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen © Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen 2007. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Yogi Berra
  • 3. “Sometimes you can observe a lot by watching...” Yogi Berra
  • 4. “Sometimes you can observe a lot by watching...” Yogi Berra“A lot of people my age are dead at the present time”
  • 5. “Sometimes you can observe a lot by watching...” Yogi Berra“A lot of people my age are dead at the present time”“If people don’t want to come out to the park, nobody’s gonna stop ‘em”
  • 6. “Half the lies they tell me aren’t true”
  • 7. “Half the lies they tell me aren’t true”“99% of this game is half mental”
  • 8. “Half the lies they tell me aren’t true” “99% of this game is half mental” “I want to thank all thepeople that made this night necessary”
  • 9. Appendix A:The Need for Diversity Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen © Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen 2007. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality
  • 11. A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality Types of Christian Spirituality
  • 12. A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality Types of Christian Spirituality Finding/Following Your Spiritual Path
  • 13. Types of Christian Spirituality
  • 14. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life
  • 15. Multi-Faceted Spiritual LifeExchanged Life
  • 16. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life Corporate SpiritualityExchanged Life
  • 17. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life Corporate SpiritualityExchanged Life Warfare Spirituality
  • 18. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life Corporate SpiritualityExchanged Life Holistic Spirituality Warfare Spirituality
  • 19. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit All
  • 20. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit All No formulas,
  • 21. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit All No formulas, No recipes
  • 22. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit All No formulas, No recipes No single panacea
  • 23. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit All
  • 24. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllComplementary components
  • 25. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllComplementary components Symbiotic
  • 26. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllComplementary components Symbiotic Divine-human dynamic
  • 27. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllComplementary components Symbiotic Divine-human dynamic Dependence and discipline
  • 28. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God HEART To Sense God
  • 29. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God HEART To Sense God
  • 30. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely Cognitive * Speculative illumination HEART To Sense God
  • 31. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely Cognitive * Speculative illumination * Purely affective * Emotional illumination HEART To Sense God
  • 32. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God HEART To Sense God
  • 33. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 34. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” HEART To Sense God
  • 35. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” HEART To Sense God
  • 36. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western HEART To Sense God
  • 37. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
  • 38. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
  • 39. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
  • 40. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
  • 41. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
  • 42. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western* Stresses God’s * Knowing throughtranscendence & general/Special revelationmystery HEART To Sense God
  • 43. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western* Stresses God’s * Knowing throughtranscendence & general/Special revelationmystery* Emphasizes HEART To Sense GodGod’s hiddenness
  • 44. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western* Stresses God’s * Knowing throughtranscendence & general/Special revelationmystery * Uses symbols,* Emphasizes HEART images, metaphors To Sense GodGod’s hiddenness
  • 45. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God HEART To Sense God
  • 46. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 47. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 48. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * IntuitionAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 49. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Intuition * RevelationAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 50. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Intuition * RevelationAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Feelings/Affective HEART To Sense God
  • 51. Types of Christian Spirituality * Understanding/Speculative MIND To Know God * Intuition * RevelationAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Feelings/Affective HEART To Sense God
  • 52. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 53. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely cerebralAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 54. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely cerebralAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Purely emotional HEART To Sense God
  • 55. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 56. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 57. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * God is completely knowable HEART To Sense God
  • 58. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * God is completely knowable HEART To Sense God
  • 59. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * God is * God is utterly hidden completely knowable HEART To Sense God
  • 60. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
  • 61. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
  • 62. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
  • 63. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
  • 64. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) + + HEART To Sense God
  • 65. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation + + HEART To Sense God
  • 66. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Inner peace + + HEART To Sense God
  • 67. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Inner peace * Monastic life + + HEART To Sense God
  • 68. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Inner peace * Monastic life * Prayer leading to mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
  • 69. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation * Inner peace * Monastic life * Prayer leading to mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
  • 70. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation* Stresses prayer and solitude * Inner peace * Monastic life * Prayer leading to mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
  • 71. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation* Stresses prayer and solitude * Inner peace * Monastic life* Theologians: Bernardof Clairvaux, Thomas à * Prayer leading toKempis, Thomas Merton mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
  • 72. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation* Stresses prayer and solitude * Inner peace * Monastic life* Theologians: Bernardof Clairvaux, Thomas à * Prayer leading toKempis, Thomas Merton mystical union + + Excess = Quietism/Escapism HEART To Sense God
  • 73. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) + + HEART To Sense God
  • 74. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again + + HEART To Sense God
  • 75. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again * Holiness of life + + HEART To Sense God
  • 76. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again * Holiness of life * Feeling in worship + + HEART To Sense God
  • 77. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again * Holiness of life * Feeling in worship * Prayer leading to presence + + HEART To Sense God
  • 78. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Feeling in worship * Prayer leading to presence + + HEART To Sense God
  • 79. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Stresses outward expression of inner * Feeling in worship change and societal transformation * Prayer leading to presence + + HEART To Sense God
  • 80. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Stresses outward expression of inner * Feeling in worship change and societal transformation * Prayer leading * Theologians: St. Benedict, several Puritan to presence writers, Charles Wesley, many modern Evangelicals + + HEART To Sense God
  • 81. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Stresses outward expression of inner * Feeling in worship change and societal transformation * Prayer leading * Theologians: St. Benedict, several Puritan to presence writers, Charles Wesley, many modern Evangelicals + + Excess = Pietism/Emotionalism HEART To Sense God
  • 82. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 83. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Reasons for belief - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 84. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Reasons for belief * Right thinking - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 85. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Reasons for belief * Right thinking * Prayer leading to insight - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 86. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Reasons for belief * Right thinking * Prayer leading to insight - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 87. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Stresses rational engagement with * Reasons for belief spiritual truth * Right thinking * Prayer leading to insight - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 88. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Stresses rational engagement with * Reasons for belief spiritual truth * Right thinking * Prayer leading to * Theologians: Thomas Aquinas, insight Ignatius of Loyala, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Karl Barth - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 89. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God Excess = Rationalism/Dogmatism + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Stresses rational engagement with * Reasons for belief spiritual truth * Right thinking * Prayer leading to * Theologians: Thomas Aquinas, insight Ignatius of Loyala, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Karl Barth - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
  • 90. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 91. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 92. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 93. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 94. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance * Prayer leading to witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 95. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance * Prayer leading to witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 96. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal* Stresses bold action & concern forsocial justice * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance * Prayer leading to witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 97. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal* Stresses bold action & concern forsocial justice * Social action * Justice, peace* Theologians: prophet Amos, Francis of * RelevanceAssisi, Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther * Prayer leading toKing, Jr. witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 98. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Excess = Moralism (Encratism) Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal* Stresses bold action & concern forsocial justice * Social action * Justice, peace* Theologians: prophet Amos, Francis of * RelevanceAssisi, Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther * Prayer leading toKing, Jr. witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
  • 99. Types of Christian Spirituality
  • 100. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Excess = Excess = Societal Theological Moralism + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM) Rationalism * Social action * Reasons for belief * Justice, peace * Right thinking * Relevance * Prayer leading * Prayer leading to insightAPOPHATIC + to witness - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Theological + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Born again * Inner peace * Holiness of life * Monastic life * Feeling in worship Excess = * Prayer leading * Prayer leading Excess = Quietism to mystical union ++ to presence Pietism HEART To Sense God
  • 101. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 102. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Warfare spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 103. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Paradigm spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Motivated spirituality * Warfare spirituality * Nurturing spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
  • 104. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Paradigm spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Motivated spirituality * Warfare spirituality * Nurturing spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Devotional spirituality * Disciplined spirituality * Process spirituality HEART To Sense God
  • 105. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Paradigm spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Motivated spirituality * Warfare spirituality * Nurturing spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Devotional spirituality * Relational spirituality * Disciplined spirituality * Exchanged life spirituality * Process spirituality * Spirit-filled spirituality HEART To Sense God
  • 106. Correlation of the Monastic Orders MIND To Know God Franciscan JesuitAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God Cistercian Benedictine HEART To Sense God
  • 107. Summary: Learning Styles MIND To Know God Societal Theological Regeneration Renewal (AM) (KM) APOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God The Theological Inner Renewal Life (KH) (AH) HEART To Sense God
  • 108. Summary: Learning Styles MIND To Know God Societal Theological Regeneration Renewal (AM) (KM) AH: intuition and feelings APOPHATIC The Mystery of God The Inner Theological Renewal (KH) KATAPHATIC The Revealed God Life (AH) HEART To Sense God
  • 109. Summary: Learning Styles MIND To Know God Societal Theological Regeneration Renewal (AM) (KM) AH: intuition and feelings APOPHATIC The Mystery of God The Inner Theological Renewal (KH) KATAPHATIC The Revealed God Life (AH) HEART KH: revelation and feelings To Sense God
  • 110. Summary: Learning Styles MIND To Know God Societal Theological Regeneration Renewal (AM) (KM) AH: intuition and feelings APOPHATIC The Mystery of God The Inner Theological Renewal (KH) KATAPHATIC The Revealed God Life (AH) HEART KH: revelation and feelings To Sense God KM: revelation and understanding
  • 111. Summary: Learning Styles MIND To Know God Societal Theological Regeneration Renewal (AM) (KM) AH: intuition and feelings APOPHATIC The Mystery of God The Inner Theological Renewal (KH) KATAPHATIC The Revealed God Life (AH) HEART KH: revelation and feelings To Sense God KM: revelation and understanding AM: intuition and understanding
  • 112. Classic Learning Styles
  • 113. Classic Learning StylesVisual Learners: Learn through seeing
  • 114. Classic Learning StylesVisual Learners: Learn through seeingAuditory Learners: Learn through listening
  • 115. Classic Learning StylesVisual Learners: Learn through seeingAuditory Learners: Learn through listeningTactile/Kinesthetic Learners: Learn throughmoving, doing, and touching
  • 116. Learning Styles
  • 117. Learning Styles al i su V
  • 118. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V
  • 119. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V erb V al
  • 120. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V erb V Physical al
  • 121. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V V ral erb Au Physical al
  • 122. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral erb Au Physical al
  • 123. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 124. Learning Styles You prefer using pictures, images, andspatial understanding Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 125. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 126. Learning Styles You prefer using logic, Lo reasoning and systems al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 127. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 128. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) You prefer using words, al both in speech and writing Physical
  • 129. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 130. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical alYou prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch
  • 131. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 132. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb You prefer using Au (Intrapersonal) alsound and music Physical
  • 133. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 134. Learning Styles You prefer to learn in Lo al gi groups or with other people i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 135. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical al
  • 136. Learning Styles Lo al gi i su ca l V Social (Interpersonal) V ral Solitary erb Au (Intrapersonal) Physical alYou prefer to work alone and use self-study
  • 137. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice
  • 138. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism”
  • 139. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism” “rule-keeping without relating”
  • 140. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism” “rule-keeping without relating” D
  • 141. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism” “rule-keeping without relating” D E
  • 142. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism” “rule-keeping without relating” D E P P
  • 143. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism” “rule-keeping without relating” D E P P Knowing
  • 144. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism” “rule-keeping without relating” D E P P Knowing Being
  • 145. Healthy Balance of Doctrine, Experience, and Practice “rhapsody without realism” “rule-keeping without relating” D E P P Knowing Being Doing
  • 146. Learning Styles and Teaching Formats Head Heart Hands Mind Emotion Will Conceptual Creative Concrete Reasoning Motivation Action Thinking- Logic Senses- Feeling Goals - Product Words Pictures Outcomes Explanation Stories Application
  • 147. Process in Learning and Teaching 100 75 Energy 50 25 Awareness Understanding 0 Implementation Time Multiplication
  • 148. Finding Your Spiritual Path
  • 149. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion Introversion
  • 150. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition
  • 151. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition T/F Thinking Feeling
  • 152. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition T/F Thinking Feeling J/P Judging Perceiving
  • 153. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition T/F Thinking Feeling
  • 154. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition
  • 155. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion Introversion
  • 156. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion
  • 157. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active
  • 158. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing
  • 159. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing * Participative
  • 160. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing * Participative * Open
  • 161. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing * Participative * Open * Verbal thinkers
  • 162. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Participative * Open * Verbal thinkers
  • 163. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Inwardly directed * Participative * Open * Verbal thinkers
  • 164. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Inwardly directed * Participative * Reserved * Open * Verbal thinkers
  • 165. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Inwardly directed * Participative * Reserved * Open * Verbal thinkers * Mental thinkers
  • 166. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition
  • 167. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward:
  • 168. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data
  • 169. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data * Details
  • 170. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data * Details * Present reality
  • 171. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data * Details * Present reality
  • 172. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data *Abstract idealistic * Details associations * Present reality
  • 173. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data *Abstract idealistic * Details associations * Present reality * Future possibilities
  • 174. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data *Abstract idealistic * Details associations * Present reality * Future possibilities * Theoretical patterns
  • 175. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling
  • 176. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on:
  • 177. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis
  • 178. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Objective analysis
  • 179. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Objective analysis * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
  • 180. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Objective analysis * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
  • 181. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Personal values * Objective analysis * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
  • 182. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Personal values * Objective analysis * Subjective values * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
  • 183. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsT/F Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Personal values * Objective analysis * Subjective values * Concerned with justice, * Concerned with truth, and logic harmony, tact, and humane treatment
  • 184. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging Perceiving
  • 185. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward:
  • 186. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: * A systematic, organized, planned lifestyle
  • 187. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: * A systematic, organized, planned lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, controlled procedures
  • 188. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: Inclined toward: * A systematic, organized, planned lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, controlled procedures
  • 189. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: Inclined toward: * A systematic, organized, * A flexible and planned lifestyle spontaneous lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, controlled procedures
  • 190. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: Inclined toward: * A systematic, organized, * A flexible and planned lifestyle spontaneous lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, * Welcomes change, controlled procedures surprise, open-ended approaches
  • 191. 16 Personality Types MBTIExtraversion IntroversionSensing IntuitionThinking FeelingJudging Perceiving
  • 192. 16 Personality Types MBTI Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judging PerceivingESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP INFP
  • 193. 16 Personality Types MBTI Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judging PerceivingESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP INFP Superiority Inferiority
  • 194. Spiritually Unhealthy One-Sidedness Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judging Perceiving ESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP IIFP
  • 195. Spiritually Unhealthy One-Sidedness Extraversion Introversion Sensing IntuitionUnhealthy Thinking Feeling Unhealthy extreme Perceiving extreme Judging ESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP IIFP
  • 196. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Primary World/Other Ideas/Self Body Spirit Mind Heart Will Awareness Arena Sensory Possibilities Preference reality Objective Subjective Action Reflection Patterns Initiative Response for Details values values Change Status QuoSignificant Feeling, Immediacy Anticipation Theory Product Process Aspects of Exterior Interior Memory, Concreteness Vision Principles Categorical Conditional Reality Ideal
  • 197. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Window People Individual Insight through Events Society Experience Imagination Reason Relationships Order Serendipitywhich God’s Scripture Institutions Inspiration “The Speculation Emotions “Ought” “Is”Revelation Natural “The Seen” Inner World Unseen”is Received World TranscendenceSignificant Immanence The Absolute Relational Identity of Mystery Judge Redeemer Aspects of Creator Incarnation Principle Familial God and Holy Spirit Ruler Healer God Imago Dei First Cause (e.g. Father) inner selfApproach to Bible, Practical Symbolic Analytical Personal Of-the- Social Solitary Systematic Religious Literal Metaphorical Abstract Immediate MomentExperience
  • 198. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Avoids Exclusion Intrusions Restriction Inconsistency Conflict Helplessness Regimentation Ambiguity (Hell) Loneliness Confusion Repetition Ignorance Estrangement Disorder Deadlines Physical Aesthetic Conceptual Personal Closure Openness Seeks Participation Incorporation harmony harmony harmony harmony Enlightenment Productivity Receptivity (Heaven) Reunion Fulfillment Faithfulnes Mystical Communion s Justice, Work ethic Play ethic union Appreciation Obedience Truth Sensuous (eyes, ears, Prayer Corporate Private nose, Intuitive Cognitive Affective Planned Unplanned hands, mouth)
  • 199. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Natural Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path AwarenessNeeded for Action or Service or Reflection or Devotion Knowledge Spontaneity DisciplineWholeness Participation Embodiment Understanding
  • 200. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Some Assertiveness Independence Compassion Love Ecstasy Equanimity Discrimination Acceptance Positive Building Deepening Rapport, Pleasure Anticipation Objectivity Competence SerenityExpressions community community Trust Inappropriate Some Sentimentality Failure to Anger Fear Elation Apathy control Negative Attachment Overprotec- take Attack Withdrawal Depression Criticalness JudgingExpressions tiveness responsibility others Premature Under- Isolation Loss of Emptiness Abstraction Coldness closuredevelopment Lack of Flatness Confusion purpose Dependence Overlooking Distrust BaselessMay Lead to circumspection Indecision conclusions Withholding Idolatry Illusion Reductionism Over- Credulity Passivity Impatience Idiosyncrasy Frivolity Impracticality Cynicism Rigiditydevelopment Personalizing Impulsiveness Shallowness Inappropriate Inappropriate Stubbornness Dogmatism PerfectionismMay Lead to Blaming Procrastination intensity conformity Fickleness Rumination
  • 201. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Emotional Idealizing Special Superstition Primitive explosion, authority Inaction Self-Temptations Distraction Inclusion by Suspicion sensuality exploitation, Pseudo- Rebelliousness righteousness and Suggestibility Fear of Psychogenic indulgence objectivity Carelessness others ScrupulosityVulnerabilities change illness Contaminated Hurt thinking feelingsNeeded for Action or Service or Reflection Awareness Devotion Knowledge Spontaneity DisciplineWholeness Participation Embodiment
  • 202. Approaches to Prayer
  • 203. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,
  • 204. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal
  • 205. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with
  • 206. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics,
  • 207. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered and
  • 208. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered andThe Thinking Personality logical approach, truth orientation Orderly prayer - little ambiguity,
  • 209. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered andThe Thinking Personality logical approach, truth orientation Orderly prayer - little ambiguity, The Judging Personality structural orientation Lived prayer - accepts ambiguity, several
  • 210. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered andThe Thinking Personality logical approach, truth orientation Orderly prayer - little ambiguity, The Judging Personality structural orientation Lived prayer - accepts ambiguity, severalThe Perceiving Personality approaches, enthusiastic
  • 211. Application: Pursue Your“Shadow Side” for Growth
  • 212. Application: Pursue Your “Shadow Side” for Growth1. Four Preferences E/I Extraversion Introversion S/N Sensing Intuition T/F Thinking Feeling J/P Judging Perceiving
  • 213. Application: Pursue Your “Shadow Side” for Growth1. Four Preferences E/I Extraversion Introversion S/N Sensing Intuition T/F Thinking Feeling J/P Judging Perceiving2. Sixteen Types Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or Lifestyle E I S N T F J P Window People Individual through Society Insight Events Experience Reason Relationships Order Serendipitywhich God’s Institutions Imagination Scripture Inspiration Speculation Emotions “Ought” “Is”Revelation “The Seen” “The Unseen” Natural World Inner Worldis ReceivedSignificant Immanence Transcendence The Absolute Relational Mystery Judge Redeemer Aspects of Creator Identity of God Incarnation Principle Familial Holy Spirit Ruler Healer God Imago Dei and inner self First Cause (e.g. Father)Approach to Bible, Practical Symbolic Analytical Personal Social Solitary Systematic Of-the-Moment Religious Literal Metaphorical Abstract ImmediateExperience
  • 214. Application: Pursue Your “Shadow Side” for Growth1. Four Preferences 3. Four Temperaments E/I Extraversion Introversion SJ SP S/N Sensing Intuition T/F Thinking Feeling NF NT J/P Judging Perceiving2. Sixteen Types Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or Lifestyle E I S N T F J P Window People Individual through Society Insight Events Experience Reason Relationships Order Serendipitywhich God’s Institutions Imagination Scripture Inspiration Speculation Emotions “Ought” “Is”Revelation “The Seen” “The Unseen” Natural World Inner Worldis ReceivedSignificant Immanence Transcendence The Absolute Relational Mystery Judge Redeemer Aspects of Creator Identity of God Incarnation Principle Familial Holy Spirit Ruler Healer God Imago Dei and inner self First Cause (e.g. Father)Approach to Bible, Practical Symbolic Analytical Personal Social Solitary Systematic Of-the-Moment Religious Literal Metaphorical Abstract ImmediateExperience
  • 215. Application: Pursue Your “Shadow Side” for Growth1. Four Preferences 3. Four Temperaments E/I Extraversion Introversion SJ SP S/N Sensing Intuition T/F Thinking Feeling NF NT J/P Judging Perceiving2. Sixteen Types 4. Prayer Approach Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment Perception The Introverted Personality Prayer within ourselves -Function, or E I S N T F J P complex, nonconforming, Lifestyle The Extraverted Personality Open prayer - outward orientation, communal Window People Individual The Intuitive Personality through Society Insightwhich God’sRevelation Events Scripture Experience Inspiration Institutions “The Seen” Imagination “The Unseen” Reason Speculation Relationships Emotions Order “Ought” Serendipity “Is” Prayer of hope - possibilities, Natural World Inner World spiritual communication,is Received The Sensing Personality Practical prayer - contact with environment, presentSignificant Aspects of Immanence Creator Transcendence Identity of God Incarnation Mystery The Absolute Principle Relational Familial Judge Redeemer The Feeling Personality Feeling prayer - emotional Holy Spirit Ruler Healer Prayer of reasonpersonal God Imago Dei and inner self First Cause (e.g. Father) dynamics, - rationally The Thinking PersonalityApproach to The Judging Personality ordered and logical Orderly prayer - little Bible, Practical Symbolic Analytical Personal Social Solitary Systematic Of-the-Moment Religious Literal Metaphorical Abstract Immediate ambiguity, structuralExperience The Perceiving Personality Lived prayer - accepts ambiguity, several
  • 216. The Four Temperaments SJ SP NF NTP
  • 217. The Four Temperaments SJ SP * James * Duty * Gospel of Matthew * God as one * Prayer style: structured; use of sensible imagination * Traditional (past orientation) NF NTP
  • 218. The Four Temperaments SJ SP * James * D (dominance) * Duty * Motivated by results * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * God as one * Task-initiator * Prayer style: structured; use of sensible imagination * Traditional (past orientation) NF NTP
  • 219. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * James * D (dominance) * Duty * Motivated by results * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * God as one * Task-initiator * Prayer style: structured; use of sensible imagination * Traditional (past orientation) NF NTP
  • 220. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * James * D (dominance) * Peter * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NTP
  • 221. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NTP
  • 222. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * Antagonistic ≅ 38% * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NTP
  • 223. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * Antagonistic ≅ 38% * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NT * John * Vision * Gospel of John * God as good * Prayer style: meditative; use of creative imagination * Idealistic (future orientation)P
  • 224. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * Antagonistic ≅ 38% * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NT * John * S (steadiness) * Vision * Motivated by relationships * Gospel of John * Phlegmatic * God as good * Relational-responder * Prayer style: meditative; use of creative imagination * Idealistic (future orientation)P
  • 225. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * Antagonistic ≅ 38% * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NT * John * S (steadiness) * Vision * Motivated by relationships * Gospel of John * Phlegmatic * God as good * Relational-responder * Prayer style: meditative; use of creative imagination * Agreeable ≅ 12% * Idealistic (future orientation)P
  • 226. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * Antagonistic ≅ 38% * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NT * John * S (steadiness) * Paul * Vision * Motivated by relationships * Ideas * Gospel of John * Phlegmatic * Gospel of Luke * God as good * Relational-responder * God as true * Prayer style: meditative; * Prayer style: discursive use of creative imagination reflection, directed change * Agreeable ≅ 12% * Idealistic (future orientation) * Inventive (possibility orientation)P
  • 227. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * Antagonistic ≅ 38% * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NT * John * S (steadiness) * Paul * C (compliance) * Vision * Motivated by relationships * Ideas * Motivated by being right * Gospel of John * Phlegmatic * Gospel of Luke * Melancholic * God as good * Relational-responder * God as true * Task-responder * Prayer style: meditative; * Prayer style: discursive use of creative imagination reflection, directed change * Agreeable ≅ 12% * Idealistic (future orientation) * Inventive (possibility orientation)P
  • 228. The Four Temperaments * Autocratic ≅ 38% SJ SP * Antagonistic ≅ 38% * James * D (dominance) * Peter * I (influencing) * Duty * Motivated by results * Action * Motivated by recognition * Gospel of Matthew * Choleric * Gospel of Mark * Sanguine * God as one * Task-initiator * God as love * Relational-initiator * Prayer style: structured; * Prayer style: informal, use of sensible imagination spontaneous, brief, practical * Traditional (past orientation) * Adventurous (present orientation) NF NT * John * S (steadiness) * Paul * C (compliance) * Vision * Motivated by relationships * Ideas * Motivated by being right * Gospel of John * Phlegmatic * Gospel of Luke * Melancholic * God as good * Relational-responder * God as true * Task-responder * Prayer style: meditative; * Prayer style: discursive use of creative imagination reflection, directed change * Agreeable * Avoidance ≅ 12% * Idealistic (future orientation) * Inventive (possibility orientation) ≅ 12%P
  • 229. Teaching Formats SJ SP NF NTP
  • 230. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical material NF NTP
  • 231. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical * Informal, aesthetic/ material artistic, spontaneous material NF NTP
  • 232. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical * Informal, aesthetic/ material artistic, spontaneous material NF NT * Creative, verbal materialP
  • 233. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical * Informal, aesthetic/ material artistic, spontaneous material NF NT * Creative, verbal * Logical and reflective material materialP
  • 234. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical * Informal, aesthetic/ material artistic, spontaneous material Programatic and practical resources NF NT * Creative, verbal * Logical and reflective material materialP
  • 235. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical * Informal, aesthetic/ material artistic, spontaneous material Programatic and practical Film, Drama, Arts resources NF NT * Creative, verbal * Logical and reflective material materialP
  • 236. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical * Informal, aesthetic/ material artistic, spontaneous material Programatic and practical Film, Drama, Arts resources NF NT * Creative, verbal * Logical and reflective material material Literature/StoryP
  • 237. Teaching Formats SJ SP * Organized, practical * Informal, aesthetic/ material artistic, spontaneous material Programatic and practical Film, Drama, Arts resources NF NT * Creative, verbal * Logical and reflective material material Literature/Story Ideas/ApologeticsP
  • 238. Teaching Formats SJ SP NF NTP
  • 239. Teaching Formats SJ SP 1. Lecture 2. Projects 3. Q&A ... 6. Stories 7. Drama NF NTP
  • 240. Teaching Formats SJ SP 1. Lecture 1. Stories 2. Projects 2. Drama 3. Q&A 3. Discussion ... ... 6. Stories 6. Lecture 7. Drama 7. Projects NF NTP
  • 241. Teaching Formats SJ SP 1. Lecture 1. Stories 2. Projects 2. Drama 3. Q&A 3. Discussion ... ... 6. Stories 6. Lecture 7. Drama 7. Projects NF NT 1. Drama 2. Visual Aid 3. Stories ... 6. Q&A 7. LectureP
  • 242. Teaching Formats SJ SP 1. Lecture 1. Stories 2. Projects 2. Drama 3. Q&A 3. Discussion ... ... 6. Stories 6. Lecture 7. Drama 7. Projects NF NT 1. Drama 1. Projects 2. Visual Aid 2. Lecture 3. Stories 3. Q&A ... ... 6. Q&A 6. Drama 7. Lecture 7. StoriesP
  • 243. SUCCESS
  • 244. SUCCESS Simple
  • 245. SUCCESS Simple Unexpected
  • 246. SUCCESS Simple Unexpected Concrete
  • 247. SUCCESS Simple Unexpected Concrete Credible
  • 248. SUCCESS Simple Unexpected Concrete Credible Emotional
  • 249. SUCCESS Simple Unexpected Concrete Credible Emotional Stories
  • 250. The End
  • 251. Reflections Ministries Resources
  • 252. Reflections Ministries Resources Reflections - A free monthly teaching letter
  • 253. Reflections Ministries Resources Reflections - A free monthly teaching letter
  • 254. Reflections Ministries Resources Reflections - A free monthly teaching letter
  • 255. Reflections Ministries Resources Reflections - A free monthly teaching letter KenBoa.org website - Daily Growth email and free text and audio resources
  • 256. DVD Series
  • 257. DVD Series- Audio/visual presentations of crucial topics
  • 258. DVD Series- Audio/visual presentations of crucial topics- $20 each
  • 259. DVD Series- Audio/visual presentations of crucial topics- $20 each- Call 800-DRAW NEAR (800-372-9632)
  • 260. KENBOA.ORG KenBoa.org ken_boa Kenneth Boa