Appendix A:The Need for Diversity         Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen     © Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen 2007. All Rights Res...
Yogi Berra
“Sometimes you can observe   a lot by watching...”                             Yogi Berra
“Sometimes you can observe   a lot by watching...”                              Yogi Berra“A lot of people my age are dead...
“Sometimes you can observe   a lot by watching...”                                Yogi Berra“A lot of people my age are de...
“Half the lies they tell me       aren’t true”
“Half the lies they tell me       aren’t true”“99% of this game is half        mental”
“Half the lies they tell me       aren’t true” “99% of this game is half         mental”  “I want to thank all thepeople t...
A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality
A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality     Types of Christian Spirituality
A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality     Types of Christian Spirituality     Finding/Following Your Spiritual Path
Types of Christian Spirituality
Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life
Multi-Faceted Spiritual LifeExchanged   Life
Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life                  Corporate                 SpiritualityExchanged   Life
Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life                  Corporate                 SpiritualityExchanged   Life WarfareSpirituality
Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life                  Corporate                 SpiritualityExchanged   Life                  Holi...
Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit All
Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanacea
Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components
Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components  Symbiotic
Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components  Symbiotic  Di...
Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components  Symbiotic  Di...
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God            HEART             To Sense God
Types of Christian Spirituality                 MIND                 To Know God             * Purely Cognitive         * ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                 MIND                 To Know God             * Purely Cognitive         * ...
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God            HEART             To Sense God
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God                            KATAPHATIC            ...
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God                            KATAPHATIC            ...
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God                            KATAPHATIC            ...
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God                             KATAPHATIC           ...
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God                             KATAPHATIC           ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                       MIND                       To Know GodAPOPHATIC                     ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                       MIND                       To Know GodAPOPHATIC                     ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                       MIND                       To Know GodAPOPHATIC                     ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                       MIND                       To Know GodAPOPHATIC                     ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                       MIND                       To Know GodAPOPHATIC                     ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                       MIND                       To Know GodAPOPHATIC                     ...
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God            HEART             To Sense God
Types of Christian Spirituality             MIND             To Know God                            KATAPHATIC            ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know God  * IntuitionAPOPHATIC          ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know God  * Intuition                   ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                           MIND                           To Know God  * Intuition         ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      * Understanding/Speculative                               MIND       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                          MIND                          To Know God                      * ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                          MIND                          To Know God                      * ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                       ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                MIND                                To Know GodAPOPHATIC   ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                  MIND                                  To Know God        ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                  MIND                                  To Know God        ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                  MIND                                  To Know God        ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                  MIND                                  To Know God        ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                            +              ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                             +             ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                             +             ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                             +             ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                             +             ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                                        +  ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                                        +  ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                                        +  ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                                           ...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                    +                                           KATAPHAT...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                    +                                           KATAPHAT...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                    +                                           KATAPHAT...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                      +                                             KATA...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                      +                                             KATA...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                      +                                               KA...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                      +                                               KA...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                      +                                               KA...
Types of Christian Spirituality              -   -                        +                                               ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                  +            To Know God ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                      +            To Know ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                      +            To Know ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                      +            To Know ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                                           ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                                           ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                                           ...
Types of Christian Spirituality            MIND                                                                           ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                  MIND                                     ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                    MIND                                   ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                     MIND                                  ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                     MIND                                  ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                        MIND                               ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                      MIND                 ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                      MIND                 ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                       MIND                ...
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                                         MIND              ...
Types of Christian Spirituality
Types of Christian Spirituality                                                 MIND                                      ...
Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC          ...
Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality                                         MIND                                 ...
Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality                                         MIND                                 ...
Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality                                         MIND                                 ...
Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality                                         MIND                                 ...
Correlation of the Monastic Orders                      MIND                      To Know GodAPOPHATIC                    ...
Correlation of the Monastic Orders                      MIND                      To Know God                             ...
Correlation of the Monastic Orders                              MIND                              To Know God             ...
Correlation of the Monastic Orders                              MIND                              To Know God             ...
Correlation of the Monastic Orders                               MIND                               To Know God           ...
Finding Your Spiritual Path
The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs        Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I   Extraversion           Introversion
The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs        Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I   Extraversion           IntroversionS/N    Sens...
The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs        Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I   Extraversion           IntroversionS/N    Sens...
The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs        Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I   Extraversion           IntroversionS/N    Sens...
The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs        Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I   Extraversion           IntroversionS/N    Sens...
The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs        Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I   Extraversion           IntroversionS/N    Sens...
The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs        Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I   Extraversion           Introversion
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale  Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people           ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts        ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale                 The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I   Thinking                               ...
Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale                Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P   Judging                     ...
Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale                Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P   Judging                     ...
Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale                Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P   Judging                     ...
Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale                Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P   Judging                     ...
Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale                Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P   Judging                     ...
Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale                Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P   Judging                     ...
Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale                Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P   Judging                     ...
16 Personality Types MBTIExtraversion          IntroversionSensing                  IntuitionThinking                   Fe...
16 Personality Types MBTI Extraversion                        Introversion Sensing                                Intuitio...
16 Personality Types MBTI Extraversion                               Introversion Sensing                                 ...
Spiritually Unhealthy One-Sidedness    Extraversion                        Introversion    Sensing                        ...
Spiritually Unhealthy One-Sidedness            Extraversion                        Introversion            Sensing        ...
Finding Your Spiritual Path
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing   Intuition   Thinking   Feeling   Jud...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing   Intuition   Thinking   Feeling   Jud...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion     Sensing      Intuition     Thinking    Feeli...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion      Sensing     Intuition     Thinking     Feel...
Finding Your Spiritual Path
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing   Intuition   Thinking   Feeling   Jud...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing      Intuition   Thinking      Feeling...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion      Sensing      Intuition    Thinking       Fe...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion      Sensing       Intuition   Thinking       Fe...
Finding Your Spiritual Path
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing   Intuition   Thinking   Feeling   Jud...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing     Intuition   Thinking      Feeling ...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing      Intuition   Thinking       Feelin...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion    Sensing       Intuition    Thinking       Fee...
Finding Your Spiritual Path
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing   Intuition   Thinking   Feeling   Jud...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion   Sensing   Intuition   Thinking    Feeling    J...
Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion       Sensing         Intuition    Thinking     ...
Following Your Spiritual Path
Following Your Spiritual PathSpiritual   Action   Reflection   Service   Awareness Knowledge   Devotion   Discipline Spont...
Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual     Action     Reflection     Service    Awareness Knowledge         Devotion    D...
Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual     Action     Reflection     Service    Awareness Knowledge           Devotion   ...
Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual     Action     Reflection     Service    Awareness Knowledge           Devotion   ...
Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual     Action      Reflection    Service     Awareness Knowledge          Devotion   ...
Following Your Spiritual Path
Following Your Spiritual PathSpiritual   Action   Reflection   Service   Awareness Knowledge   Devotion   Discipline Spont...
Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual     Action     Reflection     Service    Awareness Knowledge         Devotion     ...
Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual     Action      Reflection      Service    Awareness Knowledge       Devotion     ...
Approaches to Prayer
Approaches to Prayer                              Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality      nonco...
Approaches to Prayer                              Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality      nonco...
Approaches to Prayer                               Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality       non...
Approaches to Prayer                               Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality       non...
Approaches to Prayer                                 Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality        ...
Approaches to Prayer                                 Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality        ...
Approaches to Prayer                                 Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality        ...
Approaches to Prayer                                 Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality        ...
The Four Temperaments      SJ           SP      NF            NTP
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
Appendix A: The Need for Diversity
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Appendix A: The Need for Diversity

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Appendix A from Dr. Ken Boa's book "Conformed to His Image"

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  • Image: Gardens of Villandry Chateau, France\n
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  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • The facets of spirituality discussed in Conformed to His Image point to the centrality of the Lord Jesus Christ, and each of them adds a unique dimension to the gem of the spiritual life. Thus, it would be a mistake to reduce our understanding of the sanctification process to any one of these approaches, and yet this is commonly done. For instance, a number of writers who stress the truths of the exchanged life virtually ignore the need for the disciplines of the faith or the corporate aspects of spiritual growth. There are others who are so concerned about the reality of the spiritual warfare that they overlook the process of integrating our relationship with Christ in the routines of daily living. \nWhen we get excited about the power of the Holy Spirit, or about corporate worship, or about the spiritual disciplines, or about sharing our faith with others in a relational way, it is easy to focus so intently on the insights we have gained in one of these areas that we come to view this single approach as the panacea for spiritual development. This leads to a one-sidedness that leaves us vulnerable to the latent weaknesses of any of these approaches when carried too far. For instance, devotional spirituality left to itself can lead to an individualistic sentimentality, while disciplined spirituality left to itself can lead to an overemphasis on willpower and self-effort. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • But when these approaches are fit together into a more comprehensive whole, they inform and balance one another. When we view them as complementary components, we are less inclined to think of them as formulas or recipes. Instead, each of the twelve facets is really a symbiotic, divine-human dynamic that requires both dependence and discipline. When we reduce these approaches to techniques, we miss the Augustinian truth that we come to God by love and not by navigation. It is essential to acknowledge the primacy of God’s grace over determined self-actualization, or we will deceive ourselves into thinking that our efforts and methods are the means of spiritual growth. As soon as we succumb to this illusion, we will try to control God by our formulas and routines.\nEven when we acknowledge that there are several legitimate and complementary approaches to growth in the spiritual life, there is a natural tendency to limit ourselves to the one that best fits our personality and to assume that if it works for us, it should work for others. And because of this tendency, many new believers are exposed to only one or two approaches, neither of which may be particularly helpful in view of their temperaments and predispositions. \n
  • In recent years, these concerns have been addressed by writers who have sought to identify various types of Christian spirituality, and to relate these types to differing mental and emotional character traits. For example, Allan H. Sager in Gospel-Centered Spirituality adapted a phenomenology of spirituality developed by Urban T. Holmes in his important book, A History of Christian Spirituality. This typology involves both a horizontal and a vertical continuum. The vertical scale concerns a person’s relational orientation to God, and this can range from purely cognitive and speculative illumination of the mind at one end of the spectrum, to purely affective and emotional illumination of the heart at the opposite end of the spectrum. \n
  • In recent years, these concerns have been addressed by writers who have sought to identify various types of Christian spirituality, and to relate these types to differing mental and emotional character traits. For example, Allan H. Sager in Gospel-Centered Spirituality adapted a phenomenology of spirituality developed by Urban T. Holmes in his important book, A History of Christian Spirituality. This typology involves both a horizontal and a vertical continuum. The vertical scale concerns a person’s relational orientation to God, and this can range from purely cognitive and speculative illumination of the mind at one end of the spectrum, to purely affective and emotional illumination of the heart at the opposite end of the spectrum. \n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • The horizontal scale concerns a person’s preferred means of pursuing the spiritual life, and this can range from a purely kataphatic orientation to a purely apophatic orientation. The term kataphatic is derived from a Greek word that means affirmative, and this refers to the tradition known as the via affirmativa, the way of affirmation. This tradition, more characteristic of the West, stresses the knowledge of God through general and special revelation. The term apophatic is derived from a Greek word that means negative, and this speaks of the tradition known as the via negativa, the way of negation. This tradition, more characteristic of the East, stresses God’s transcendence and mystery. Thus, a kataphatic style of spirituality uses symbols, images, and metaphors while an apophatic style emphasizes God’s hiddenness. \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
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  • In reality, no one is purely cerebral with no emotion or solely heart without mind (the vertical scale). \n
  • In reality, no one is purely cerebral with no emotion or solely heart without mind (the vertical scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Similarly, no believer behaves as if God is utterly hidden or completely knowable (the horizontal scale). \n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Instead, as the Types of Christian Spirituality chart shows, there is a wide range for diversity that incorporates elements from each of the types in manifold ways.\nA K+/M+ (high kataphatic/high mind) is very different in orientation and style from an A+/H+ (high apophatic/high heart). There are also differences within each quadrant; for example, within the K/H quadrant, there are nine combinations that range from a K-/H- to a K+/H+. \n\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Apophatic/Heart (A/H) spirituality involves both intuition and feelings, and this combination encourages a diligent pursuit of an inward consciousness of God that stresses prayer and solitude. Theologians of the inner life include Bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, and Cistercian monastics such as Thomas Merton. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to quietism—a neglect of the world and an excessive introspection.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Heart (K/H) spirituality involves both revelation and feelings, and this combination encourages outward expression of inner change and transformation of society one life at a time. Proponents of personal renewal include St. Benedict, several Puritan writers, Charles Wesley, and many modern evangelicals. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to pietism—an excessive emotionalism, experientialism, and an anti-intellectualism.\n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Kataphatic/Mind (K/M) spirituality involves both revelation and understanding, and this combination encourages rational engagement with spiritual truth. Advocates of theological renewal include Thomas Aquinas, Ignatius of Loyola, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Karl Barth. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to rationalism—an overly dogmatic emphasis that stresses logic to the exclusion of mystery and propositional truth over against personal response. \n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • Apophatic/Mind (A/M) spirituality involves both intuition and understanding, and this combination encourages bold action and a concern for social justice. Champions of societal regeneration include the prophet Amos, Francis of Assisi, Albert Schweitzer, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Taken too far, this form of spirituality can lead to moralism—a mindset of cultural condemnation and an excessive emphasis on action over being. \nEncratism = an excessive concern for right behavior\n\n
  • \n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \n\n\n
  • \n\n\n
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  • \n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • A different, but equally helpful typology of spiritual orientations can be derived from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This preference indicator was adapted by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers from Carl G. Jung’s personality classifications in his book on Psychological Types. \n The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • The MBTI uses four pairs of preferences, and each of these pairs forms a continuum:\n1. The extraversion/introversion (E/I) scale concerns a person’s relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas. Extraverts are active, outgoing, participative, open, and verbal thinkers. Introverts are reflective, inwardly directed, reserved, and mental thinkers. \n2. The sensing/intuition (S/N) scale concerns one’s relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationships. Sensors are oriented toward tangible sensory data, details, and present reality. Intuitives are oriented toward abstract idealistic associations, future possibilities, and theoretical patterns. \n3. The thinking/feeling (T/F) preference concerns the way people arrive at conclusions. Thinkers base their judgments more on impersonal, objective analysis, and are concerned with justice, truth, and logic. Feelers base their judgments more on personal, subjective values, and are concerned with harmony, tact, and humane treatment.\n4. The judging/perceiving (J/P) scale concerns people’s preferential orientation to outer life. Judgers are more inclined toward a systematic, organized, and planned lifestyle that involves goals, deadlines, and controlled procedures. Perceivers are more inclined toward a flexible and spontaneous lifestyle that welcomes change, surprise, and open-ended approaches. \n\n
  • When these four preferential pairs are combined, they result in sixteen basic personality types ranging from ESTJ to INFP. But there are many nuances within each of these personality types, since each pair constitutes a continuum that can range, for example, from a strong E to a borderline E or I to a strong I. Thus, this typology allows for the uniqueness of each individual while offering insights into the way people can be grouped according to preferential patterns. (It should be noted that there is no hint of superiority or inferiority in these patterns, since they are based on personal preferences. Additional factors such as intelligence, abilities, skills, drive, and maturity add an enormous number of personality nuances.)\n\n\n
  • When these four preferential pairs are combined, they result in sixteen basic personality types ranging from ESTJ to INFP. But there are many nuances within each of these personality types, since each pair constitutes a continuum that can range, for example, from a strong E to a borderline E or I to a strong I. Thus, this typology allows for the uniqueness of each individual while offering insights into the way people can be grouped according to preferential patterns. (It should be noted that there is no hint of superiority or inferiority in these patterns, since they are based on personal preferences. Additional factors such as intelligence, abilities, skills, drive, and maturity add an enormous number of personality nuances.)\n\n\n
  • Those who follow Christ tend to gravitate toward the spiritual activities that nurture their preferential patterns. Up to a point, this is healthy since it provides great diversity within the unity of the body of Christ. But as M. Robert Mulholland Jr. observes in Invitation to a Journey, each of the four preferential pairs, when carried to either extreme (e.g., all T and no F or all F and no T) can lead to a spiritually unhealthy one-sidedness. For instance, when extraversion is carried too far, it can result in such an emphasis on the social dynamics of the spiritual life that there is no room for the depth that solitude and reflection can provide. Strong introverts, on the other hand, can avoid community and practice spiritual isolation. Similarly, strong thinkers can be too prone to a highly analytical and systematic approach to the spiritual life, while strong feelers can be vulnerable to sentimentality, emotionalism, and the quest for repeated experiential authentication. \n\n\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • Earle C. Page, in connection with the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, has developed two helpful charts that illustrate several connections between the MBTI preferences and one’s spiritual orientation. The first of these, “Finding Your Spiritual Path,” is a useful diagnostic tool: Table A.3\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • The second chart, “Following Your Spiritual Path,” points to the positive and negative spiritual expressions that are associated with the four preference pairs:\n\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Several authors relate these personality styles to the practice of spirituality and distinctive approaches to prayer. In the following chart, I have summarized the prayer typology developed by Charles J. Keating in his book Who We Are Is How We Pray:\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • Using the twelve facets of spirituality that are presented in this book, we can draw a very general correlation between these facets and the four types of spirituality we have just discussed.\nClearly, these generalizations admit many exceptions, since there are aspects of each of the twelve facets that relate to each of the four quadrants above. But it is helpful to note, for example, that people with a K/H bent are far more likely to be drawn to exchanged life or Spirit-filled spirituality than they will be to corporate spirituality or an emphasis on social justice that is more characteristic of those with an A/M orientation. \nWhile there seems to be a broad correspondence between these four temperaments and the Performax Personal Profile System (DISC), I must stress that because of the uniqueness of each individual, there are many exceptions. For instance, a person with an NT temperament can be a high D (dominance) instead of a high C (compliance). It is also important to remember that no person is all one temperament, since each of us displays unique combinations and degrees of these personality qualities. But ideally, the personal and spiritual maturation process should move us in the direction of becoming a blended synthesis of all four temperaments, so that we can adapt to people and situations in increasingly flexible and appropriate ways.\n\n\n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • As an exercise, consider where you think you best fit in regard to the four preference pairs, the sixteen types, and the four temperaments. Then select an approach to spirituality or prayer that would draw you to a greater depth and balance by forcing you to stretch yourself in new and unfamiliar territory. The more you accept the need for this dynamic tension between affirming your natural dispositions and engaging in less preferred ways of being and doing, the more full-orbed and Christlike you will become in your spiritual journey. The Lord Jesus enjoyed the richness of a mystical union with His heavenly Father, but coupled this profound personal experience with social passion and engagement. \n\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \n\n
  • In Rediscovering Holiness, J. I. Packer addresses the problem of “rhapsody without realism” and “rule-keeping without relating,” and argues that all of us, regardless of temperament and natural aptitude, need a healthy balance of doctrine, experience, and practice. We should ask God for the grace to give us the desire and power to choose this biblical combination of knowing, being, and doing. \n\n
  • Visual Learners:\n\nlearn through seeing... .\n\nThese learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.\n\nAuditory Learners:\n\nlearn through listening...\n\nThey learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.\n\nTactile/Kinesthetic Learners:\n\nlearn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthic - \n\nTactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. \n
  • Visual Learners:\n\nlearn through seeing... .\n\nThese learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.\n\nAuditory Learners:\n\nlearn through listening...\n\nThey learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.\n\nTactile/Kinesthetic Learners:\n\nlearn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthic - \n\nTactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. \n
  • Visual Learners:\n\nlearn through seeing... .\n\nThese learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.\n\nAuditory Learners:\n\nlearn through listening...\n\nThey learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.\n\nTactile/Kinesthetic Learners:\n\nlearn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthic - \n\nTactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • Source: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html\n\nBody/Kinesthetic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which control bodily motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance.\nCapacities involved: --control of "voluntary" movements \n\n--control of "preprogrammed" movements \n\n--expanding awareness through the body \n\n--the mind and body connection \n\n--mimetic abilities \n\n--improved body functioning \nInterpersonal Intelligence\nThis intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication, working together with others for a common goal, and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important.\nCapacities involved: --effective verbal/non-verbal communication \n\n--sensitivity to other's moods, temperaments, motivations, and feelings \n\n--working cooperatively in a group \n\n--ability to discern other's underlying intentions and behavior \n\n--"passing over" into the perspective of another \n\n--creating and maintaining synergy \nIntra-personal Intelligence\nThis intelligence relates to inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (i.e. thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self, such as awareness of our feelings, thinking processes, self-reflection, and spirituality.\nCapacities involved: --concentration of the mind\n\n--mindfulness\n\n--metacognition\n\n--awareness and expression of different feelings\n\n--transpersonal sense of the self\n\n--higher-order thinking and reasoning\nLogical/Mathematical lntelligence\nOften called "scientific thinking," this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning, numbers, and the recognition of abstract patterns. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition.\nCapacities involved: --abstract pattern recognition\n\n--inductive reasoning\n\n--deductive reasoning \n\n--discerning relationships & connections\n\n--performing complex calculations\n\n--scientific reasoning\n \nMusical/Rhythmic Intelligence\nThis intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns, including various environmental sounds, and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibrational effect of music and rhythm on the brain, including such things as the human voice, sounds from nature, musical instruments, percussion instruments, and other humanly produced sounds.\nCapacities involved: --appreciation for the structure of music\n\n--schemes or frames in the mind for hearing music\n\n--sensitivity to sounds \n\n--recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm\n\n--sensing characteristic qualities of tone\n\n\nVerbal/Linguistic Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which is related to words and language both written and spoken, dominates most Western educational systems. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word, by reading someone's ideas thoughts, or poetry, or by writing one's own ideas, thoughts, or poetry, as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words," jokes, and "twists" of the language.\nCapacities involved: --understanding order & meaning of words\n\n--convincing someone of a course of action\n\n--explaining, teaching, and learning \n\n--humor \n\n--memory & recall \n\n--"meta-linguistic" analysis \nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\nThis intelligence, which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object, includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual, delightful, and colorful designs, patterns, shapes, and pictures, and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery, and pretending exercises.\nCapacities involved: --active imagination \n\n--forming mental images \n\n--finding your way in space \n\n--image manipulations \n\n--graphic representation\n\n--recognizing relationships of objects in space \n\n--accurate perception from different angles \n
  • http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/Source: \nhttp://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#Verbal/Spatial%20Intelligence\n\nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\n\n ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers\n\n Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\nIntrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
  • http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/Source: \nhttp://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#Verbal/Spatial%20Intelligence\n\nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\n\n ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers\n\n Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\nIntrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
  • http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/Source: \nhttp://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#Verbal/Spatial%20Intelligence\n\nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\n\n ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers\n\n Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\nIntrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
  • http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/Source: \nhttp://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#Verbal/Spatial%20Intelligence\n\nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\n\n ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers\n\n Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\nIntrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
  • http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/Source: \nhttp://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#Verbal/Spatial%20Intelligence\n\nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\n\n ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers\n\n Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\nIntrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
  • http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/Source: \nhttp://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#Verbal/Spatial%20Intelligence\n\nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\n\n ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers\n\n Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\nIntrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
  • http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/Source: \nhttp://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#Verbal/Spatial%20Intelligence\n\nVisual/Spatial Intelligence\n\n ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n navigators, sculptors, visual artists, inventors, architects, interior designers, mechanics, engineers\n\n Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence\n\n ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.\n\n Possible career interests:\n\n Poet, journalist, writer, teacher, lawyer, politician, translator\n\n Logical/Mathematical Intelligence\n\n ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Scientists, engineers, computer programmers, researchers, accountants, mathematicians\n\n Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence\n\n ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans\n\n Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence\n\n ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps).\n\n Their skills include:\n\n singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music\n\n Possible career paths:\n\n musician, disc jockey, singer, composer\n\n Interpersonal Intelligence\n\n ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others.\n\n Their skills include:\n\n seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.\n\n Possible Career Paths:\n\n Counselor, salesperson, politician, business person\n\nIntrapersonal Intelligence\n\nability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.\n\nTheir Skills include:\n\nRecognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others\n\nPossible Career Paths:\n\nResearchers, theorists, philosophers\n
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  • Appendix A: The Need for Diversity

    1. 1. Appendix A:The Need for Diversity Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen © Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen 2007. All Rights Reserved.
    2. 2. Yogi Berra
    3. 3. “Sometimes you can observe a lot by watching...” Yogi Berra
    4. 4. “Sometimes you can observe a lot by watching...” Yogi Berra“A lot of people my age are dead at the present time”
    5. 5. “Sometimes you can observe a lot by watching...” Yogi Berra“A lot of people my age are dead at the present time”“If people don’t want to come out to the park, nobody’s gonna stop ‘em”
    6. 6. “Half the lies they tell me aren’t true”
    7. 7. “Half the lies they tell me aren’t true”“99% of this game is half mental”
    8. 8. “Half the lies they tell me aren’t true” “99% of this game is half mental” “I want to thank all thepeople that made this night necessary”
    9. 9. A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality
    10. 10. A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality Types of Christian Spirituality
    11. 11. A Synthesis of Christian Spirituality Types of Christian Spirituality Finding/Following Your Spiritual Path
    12. 12. Types of Christian Spirituality
    13. 13. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life
    14. 14. Multi-Faceted Spiritual LifeExchanged Life
    15. 15. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life Corporate SpiritualityExchanged Life
    16. 16. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life Corporate SpiritualityExchanged Life WarfareSpirituality
    17. 17. Multi-Faceted Spiritual Life Corporate SpiritualityExchanged Life Holistic Spirituality WarfareSpirituality
    18. 18. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit All
    19. 19. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanacea
    20. 20. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components
    21. 21. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components Symbiotic
    22. 22. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components Symbiotic Divine-human dynamic
    23. 23. Spiritual Growth:One Size Does Not Fit AllNo formulas, no recipes, no singlepanaceaComplimentary components Symbiotic Divine-human dynamic Dependence and discipline
    24. 24. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God HEART To Sense God
    25. 25. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely Cognitive * Speculative illumination HEART To Sense God
    26. 26. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely Cognitive * Speculative illumination * Purely affective * Emotional illumination HEART To Sense God
    27. 27. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God HEART To Sense God
    28. 28. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    29. 29. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” HEART To Sense God
    30. 30. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” HEART To Sense God
    31. 31. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western HEART To Sense God
    32. 32. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
    33. 33. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
    34. 34. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
    35. 35. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva” * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
    36. 36. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western * Knowing through general/Special revelation HEART To Sense God
    37. 37. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western* Stresses God’s * Knowing throughtranscendence & general/Special revelationmystery HEART To Sense God
    38. 38. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western* Stresses God’s * Knowing throughtranscendence & general/Special revelationmystery* Emphasizes HEART To Sense GodGod’s hiddenness
    39. 39. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God* “negative” * “affirmative”* “Via negativa” * “Via affirmitiva”* Eastern * Western* Stresses God’s * Knowing throughtranscendence & general/Special revelationmystery * Uses symbols,* Emphasizes HEART images, metaphors To Sense GodGod’s hiddenness
    40. 40. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God HEART To Sense God
    41. 41. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God KATAPHATIC The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    42. 42. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    43. 43. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * IntuitionAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    44. 44. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Intuition * RevelationAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    45. 45. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Intuition * RevelationAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Feelings/Affective HEART To Sense God
    46. 46. Types of Christian Spirituality * Understanding/Speculative MIND To Know God * Intuition * RevelationAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Feelings/Affective HEART To Sense God
    47. 47. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    48. 48. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely cerebralAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    49. 49. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God * Purely cerebralAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Purely emotional HEART To Sense God
    50. 50. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    51. 51. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    52. 52. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * God is completely knowable HEART To Sense God
    53. 53. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * God is completely knowable HEART To Sense God
    54. 54. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * God is * God is utterly hidden completely knowable HEART To Sense God
    55. 55. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
    56. 56. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
    57. 57. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
    58. 58. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal Theological + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM)APOPHATIC + - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Personal + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) ++ HEART To Sense God
    59. 59. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) + + HEART To Sense God
    60. 60. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation + + HEART To Sense God
    61. 61. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Inner peace + + HEART To Sense God
    62. 62. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Inner peace * Monastic life + + HEART To Sense God
    63. 63. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Inner peace * Monastic life * Prayer leading to mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
    64. 64. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation * Inner peace * Monastic life * Prayer leading to mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
    65. 65. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation* Stresses prayer and solitude * Inner peace * Monastic life * Prayer leading to mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
    66. 66. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation* Stresses prayer and solitude * Inner peace * Monastic life* Theologians: Bernardof Clairvaux, Thomas à * Prayer leading toKempis, Thomas Merton mystical union + + HEART To Sense God
    67. 67. Types of Christian Spirituality + + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God - - + + Personal The Inner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)* Involves intuition and feelings * Contemplation* Stresses prayer and solitude * Inner peace * Monastic life* Theologians: Bernardof Clairvaux, Thomas à * Prayer leading toKempis, Thomas Merton mystical union + + Excess = Quietism/Escapism HEART To Sense God
    68. 68. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) + + HEART To Sense God
    69. 69. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again + + HEART To Sense God
    70. 70. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again * Holiness of life + + HEART To Sense God
    71. 71. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again * Holiness of life * Feeling in worship + + HEART To Sense God
    72. 72. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Born again * Holiness of life * Feeling in worship * Prayer leading to presence + + HEART To Sense God
    73. 73. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Feeling in worship * Prayer leading to presence + + HEART To Sense God
    74. 74. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Stresses outward expression of inner * Feeling in worship change and societal transformation * Prayer leading to presence + + HEART To Sense God
    75. 75. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Stresses outward expression of inner * Feeling in worship change and societal transformation * Prayer leading * Theologians: St. Benedict, several Puritan to presence writers, Charles Wesley, many modern Evangelicals + + HEART To Sense God
    76. 76. Types of Christian Spirituality - - + KATAPHATIC - - + The Revealed Godr Life (AH) Personal Renewal (KH) * Involves revelation and feelings * Born again * Holiness of life * Stresses outward expression of inner * Feeling in worship change and societal transformation * Prayer leading * Theologians: St. Benedict, several Puritan to presence writers, Charles Wesley, many modern Evangelicals + + Excess = Pietism/Emotionalism HEART To Sense God
    77. 77. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    78. 78. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Reasons for belief - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    79. 79. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Reasons for belief * Right thinking - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    80. 80. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Reasons for belief * Right thinking * Prayer leading to insight - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    81. 81. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Reasons for belief * Right thinking * Prayer leading to insight - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    82. 82. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Stresses rational engagement with * Reasons for belief spiritual truth * Right thinking * Prayer leading to insight - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    83. 83. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Stresses rational engagement with * Reasons for belief spiritual truth * Right thinking * Prayer leading to * Theologians: Thomas Aquinas, insight Ignatius of Loyala, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Karl Barth - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    84. 84. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND + To Know God Excess = Rationalism/Dogmatism + Societal + + Theologicalgeneration (AM) Renewal (KM) * Involves revelation and understanding * Stresses rational engagement with * Reasons for belief spiritual truth * Right thinking * Prayer leading to * Theologians: Thomas Aquinas, insight Ignatius of Loyala, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Karl Barth - - + KATAPHATIC - - Personal + The Revealed GodInner Life (AH) Renewal (KH)
    85. 85. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    86. 86. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    87. 87. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    88. 88. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    89. 89. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance * Prayer leading to witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    90. 90. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance * Prayer leading to witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    91. 91. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal* Stresses bold action & concern forsocial justice * Social action * Justice, peace * Relevance * Prayer leading to witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    92. 92. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal* Stresses bold action & concern forsocial justice * Social action * Justice, peace* Theologians: prophet Amos, Francis of * RelevanceAssisi, Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther * Prayer leading toKing, Jr. witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    93. 93. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Excess = Moralism (Encratism) Societal + + Theolog* Involves intuition and understanding Regeneration (AM) Renewal* Stresses bold action & concern forsocial justice * Social action * Justice, peace* Theologians: prophet Amos, Francis of * RelevanceAssisi, Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther * Prayer leading toKing, Jr. witness + - - APOPHATIC The Mystery of God + - - Perso The Inner Life (AH) Renewal
    94. 94. Types of Christian Spirituality
    95. 95. Types of Christian Spirituality MIND To Know God Excess = Excess = Societal Theological Moralism + Regeneration (AM) + Renewal (KM) Rationalism * Social action * Reasons for belief * Justice, peace * Right thinking * Relevance * Prayer leading * Prayer leading to insightAPOPHATIC + to witness - - + KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God + The Inner - - Theological + The Revealed God Life (AH) Renewal (KH) * Contemplation * Born again * Inner peace * Holiness of life * Monastic life * Feeling in worship Excess = * Prayer leading * Prayer leading Excess = Quietism to mystical union ++ to presence Pietism HEART To Sense God
    96. 96. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    97. 97. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Warfare spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    98. 98. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Paradigm spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Motivated spirituality * Warfare spirituality * Nurturing spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    99. 99. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Paradigm spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Motivated spirituality * Warfare spirituality * Nurturing spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Devotional spirituality * Disciplined spirituality * Process spirituality HEART To Sense God
    100. 100. Correlation of the 12 Facets of Spirituality MIND To Know God * Corporate spirituality * Paradigm spirituality * Holistic spirituality * Motivated spirituality * Warfare spirituality * Nurturing spiritualityAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God * Devotional spirituality * Relational spirituality * Disciplined spirituality * Exchanged life spirituality * Process spirituality * Spirit-filled spirituality HEART To Sense God
    101. 101. Correlation of the Monastic Orders MIND To Know GodAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    102. 102. Correlation of the Monastic Orders MIND To Know God JesuitAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    103. 103. Correlation of the Monastic Orders MIND To Know God Franciscan JesuitAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God HEART To Sense God
    104. 104. Correlation of the Monastic Orders MIND To Know God Franciscan JesuitAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God Benedictine HEART To Sense God
    105. 105. Correlation of the Monastic Orders MIND To Know God Franciscan JesuitAPOPHATIC KATAPHATIC The Mystery of God The Revealed God Cistercian Benedictine HEART To Sense God
    106. 106. Finding Your Spiritual Path
    107. 107. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion Introversion
    108. 108. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition
    109. 109. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition E/I Thinking Feeling
    110. 110. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition E/I Thinking Feeling J/P Judging Perceiving
    111. 111. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition E/I Thinking Feeling
    112. 112. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion IntroversionS/N Sensing Intuition
    113. 113. The Four Basic Pairs of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) E/I Extraversion Introversion
    114. 114. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion
    115. 115. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active
    116. 116. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing
    117. 117. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing * Participative
    118. 118. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing * Participative * Open
    119. 119. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Outgoing * Participative * Open * Verbal thinkers
    120. 120. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Participative * Open * Verbal thinkers
    121. 121. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Inwardly directed * Participative * Open * Verbal thinkers
    122. 122. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Inwardly directed * Participative * Reserved * Open * Verbal thinkers
    123. 123. Extraversion/Introversion MBTI Scale Your relative preference for being energized by the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas E/I Extraversion Introversion * Active * Reflective * Outgoing * Inwardly directed * Participative * Reserved * Open * Verbal thinkers * Mental thinkers
    124. 124. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition
    125. 125. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward:
    126. 126. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data
    127. 127. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data * Details
    128. 128. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data * Details * Present reality
    129. 129. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data * Details * Present reality
    130. 130. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data *Abstract idealistic * Details associations * Present reality
    131. 131. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data *Abstract idealistic * Details associations * Present reality * Future possibilities
    132. 132. Sensing/Intuition MBTI ScaleYour relative preference for perceiving and processing information through known facts versus possibilities and relationshipsS/N Sensing Intuition Oriented toward: Oriented toward: * Tangible sensory data *Abstract idealistic * Details associations * Present reality * Future possibilities * Theoretical patterns
    133. 133. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling
    134. 134. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on:
    135. 135. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis
    136. 136. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Objective analysis
    137. 137. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Objective analysis * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
    138. 138. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Objective analysis * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
    139. 139. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Personal values * Objective analysis * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
    140. 140. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Personal values * Objective analysis * Subjective values * Concerned with justice, truth, and logic
    141. 141. Thinking/Feeling MBTI Scale The way you arrive at conclusionsE/I Thinking Feeling Base judgments on: Base judgments on: * Impersonal analysis * Personal values * Objective analysis * Subjective values * Concerned with justice, * Concerned with truth, and logic harmony, tact, and humane treatment
    142. 142. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging Perceiving
    143. 143. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward:
    144. 144. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: * A systematic, organized, planned lifestyle
    145. 145. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: * A systematic, organized, planned lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, controlled procedures
    146. 146. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: Inclined toward: * A systematic, organized, planned lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, controlled procedures
    147. 147. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: Inclined toward: * A systematic, organized, * A flexible and planned lifestyle spontaneous lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, controlled procedures
    148. 148. Judging/Perceiving MBTI Scale Your preferential orientation to outer lifeJ/P Judging PerceivingInclined toward: Inclined toward: * A systematic, organized, * A flexible and planned lifestyle spontaneous lifestyle * Goals, deadlines, * Welcomes change, controlled procedures surprise, open-ended approaches
    149. 149. 16 Personality Types MBTIExtraversion IntroversionSensing IntuitionThinking FeelingJudging Perceiving
    150. 150. 16 Personality Types MBTI Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judging PerceivingESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP INFP
    151. 151. 16 Personality Types MBTI Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judging PerceivingESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP INFP Superiority Inferiority
    152. 152. Spiritually Unhealthy One-Sidedness Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judging Perceiving ESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP IIFP
    153. 153. Spiritually Unhealthy One-Sidedness Extraversion Introversion Sensing IntuitionUnhealthy Thinking Feeling Unhealthy extreme Perceiving extreme Judging ESTJ EITP ENFJ INTP IIFP
    154. 154. Finding Your Spiritual Path
    155. 155. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle
    156. 156. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Primary World/Other Ideas/Self Body Spirit Mind Heart Will Awareness Arena
    157. 157. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Primary World/Other Ideas/Self Body Spirit Mind Heart Will Awareness Arena Sensory Possibilities Preference reality Objective Subjective Action Reflection Patterns Initiative Response for Details values values Change Status Quo
    158. 158. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Primary World/Other Ideas/Self Body Spirit Mind Heart Will Awareness Arena Sensory Possibilities Preference reality Objective Subjective Action Reflection Patterns Initiative Response for Details values values Change Status QuoSignificant Feeling, Immediacy Anticipation Theory Product Process Aspects of Exterior Interior Memory, Concreteness Vision Principles Categorical Conditional Reality Ideal
    159. 159. Finding Your Spiritual Path
    160. 160. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle
    161. 161. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Window People Individual Insight through Events Society Experience Imagination Reason Relationships Order Serendipitywhich God’s Scripture Institutions Inspiration “The Speculation Emotions “Ought” “Is”Revelation Natural “The Seen” Inner World Unseen”is Received World
    162. 162. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Window People Individual Insight through Events Society Experience Imagination Reason Relationships Order Serendipitywhich God’s Scripture Institutions Inspiration “The Speculation Emotions “Ought” “Is”Revelation Natural “The Seen” Inner World Unseen”is Received World TranscendenceSignificant Immanence The Absolute Relational Identity of Mystery Judge Redeemer Aspects of Creator Incarnation Principle Familial God and Holy Spirit Ruler Healer God Imago Dei First Cause (e.g. Father) inner self
    163. 163. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Window People Individual Insight through Events Society Experience Imagination Reason Relationships Order Serendipitywhich God’s Scripture Institutions Inspiration “The Speculation Emotions “Ought” “Is”Revelation Natural “The Seen” Inner World Unseen”is Received World TranscendenceSignificant Immanence The Absolute Relational Identity of Mystery Judge Redeemer Aspects of Creator Incarnation Principle Familial God and Holy Spirit Ruler Healer God Imago Dei First Cause (e.g. Father) inner selfApproach to Bible, Practical Symbolic Analytical Personal Of-the- Social Solitary Systematic Religious Literal Metaphorical Abstract Immediate MomentExperience
    164. 164. Finding Your Spiritual Path
    165. 165. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle
    166. 166. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Avoids Exclusion Intrusions Restriction Inconsistency Conflict Helplessness Regimentation Ambiguity (Hell) Loneliness Confusion Repetition Ignorance Estrangement Disorder Deadlines
    167. 167. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Avoids Exclusion Intrusions Restriction Inconsistency Conflict Helplessness Regimentation Ambiguity (Hell) Loneliness Confusion Repetition Ignorance Estrangement Disorder Deadlines Physical Aesthetic Conceptual Personal Participatio harmony Closure Openness Seeks Incorporation harmony harmony harmony n Enlightenment Productivity Receptivity (Heaven) Fulfillment Faithfulness Mystical Communion Reunion Justice, Work ethic Play ethic Obedience union Appreciation Truth
    168. 168. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Avoids Exclusion Intrusions Restriction Inconsistency Conflict Helplessness Regimentation Ambiguity (Hell) Loneliness Confusion Repetition Ignorance Estrangement Disorder Deadlines Physical Aesthetic Conceptual Personal Participatio harmony Closure Openness Seeks Incorporation harmony harmony harmony n Enlightenment Productivity Receptivity (Heaven) Fulfillment Faithfulness Mystical Communion Reunion Justice, Work ethic Play ethic Obedience union Appreciation Truth Sensuous (eyes, ears, Prayer Corporate Private Intuitive Cognitive Affective Planned Unplanned nose, hands, mouth)
    169. 169. Finding Your Spiritual Path
    170. 170. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle
    171. 171. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Natural Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path
    172. 172. Finding Your Spiritual Path Preferred Attitude, Extraversion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgment PerceptionFunction, or E I S N T F J P Lifestyle Natural Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path AwarenessNeeded for Action or Service or Reflection or Devotion Knowledge Spontaneity DisciplineWholeness Participation Embodiment Understanding
    173. 173. Following Your Spiritual Path
    174. 174. Following Your Spiritual PathSpiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P
    175. 175. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Some Assertiveness Independence Compassion Love Ecstasy Equanimity Discrimination Acceptance Positive Building Deepening Rapport, Pleasure Anticipation Objectivity Competence SerenityExpressions community community Trust
    176. 176. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Some Assertiveness Independence Compassion Love Ecstasy Equanimity Discrimination Acceptance Positive Building Deepening Rapport, Pleasure Anticipation Objectivity Competence SerenityExpressions community community Trust Sentimentalit Inappropriat Failure to Some y Anger Fear Elation Apathy e control take Negative Attachment Overprotec- Attack Withdrawal Depression Criticalness Judging responsibilitExpressions tiveness others y
    177. 177. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Some Assertiveness Independence Compassion Love Ecstasy Equanimity Discrimination Acceptance Positive Building Deepening Rapport, Pleasure Anticipation Objectivity Competence SerenityExpressions community community Trust Sentimentalit Inappropriat Failure to Some y Anger Fear Elation Apathy e control take Negative Attachment Overprotec- Attack Withdrawal Depression Criticalness Judging responsibilitExpressions tiveness others y Premature Under- Isolation Loss of Emptiness Abstraction Coldness closuredevelopment Lack of Flatness Confusion purpose Dependence Overlooking Distrust BaselessMay Lead to circumspection Indecision conclusions
    178. 178. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Some Assertiveness Independence Compassion Love Ecstasy Equanimity Discrimination Acceptance Positive Building Deepening Rapport, Pleasure Anticipation Objectivity Competence SerenityExpressions community community Trust Sentimentalit Inappropriat Failure to Some y Anger Fear Elation Apathy e control take Negative Attachment Overprotec- Attack Withdrawal Depression Criticalness Judging responsibilitExpressions tiveness others y Premature Under- Isolation Loss of Emptiness Abstraction Coldness closuredevelopment Lack of Flatness Confusion purpose Dependence Overlooking Distrust BaselessMay Lead to circumspection Indecision conclusions Withholdin Idolatry Illusion Reductionism Over- g Credulity Rigidity Passivity Impatience Frivolity Impracticality Cynicismdevelopment Idiosyncrasy Personalizing Perfectionis Impulsiveness Shallowness Inappropriat Stubbornness DogmatismMay Lead to Inappropriat Blaming m Procrastination e conformity Fickleness Rumination e intensity
    179. 179. Following Your Spiritual Path
    180. 180. Following Your Spiritual PathSpiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P
    181. 181. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Emotional Idealizing Special Superstition Primitive explosion, authority Self- InactionTemptations Distraction Inclusion by Suspicion sensuality exploitation, Pseudo- righteousnes Rebelliousness and Suggestibility Fear of Psychogenic indulgence objectivity s Carelessness othersVulnerabilities change illness Contaminated Hurt Scrupulosity thinking feelings
    182. 182. Following Your Spiritual Path Spiritual Action Reflection Service Awareness Knowledge Devotion Discipline Spontaneity Path E I S N T F J P Emotional Idealizing Special Superstition Primitive explosion, authority Self- InactionTemptations Distraction Inclusion by Suspicion sensuality exploitation, Pseudo- righteousnes Rebelliousness and Suggestibility Fear of Psychogenic indulgence objectivity s Carelessness othersVulnerabilities change illness Contaminated Hurt Scrupulosity thinking feelings Action orNeeded for Service or Reflection Participatio Awareness Devotion Knowledge Spontaneity DisciplineWholeness Embodiment n
    183. 183. Approaches to Prayer
    184. 184. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,
    185. 185. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal
    186. 186. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with
    187. 187. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics,
    188. 188. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered and
    189. 189. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered andThe Thinking Personality logical approach, truth orientation Orderly prayer - little ambiguity,
    190. 190. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered andThe Thinking Personality logical approach, truth orientation Orderly prayer - little ambiguity, The Judging Personality structural orientation Lived prayer - accepts ambiguity, several
    191. 191. Approaches to Prayer Prayer within ourselves - complex,The Introverted Personality nonconforming, personal Open prayer - outward orientation,The Extraverted Personality communal Prayer of hope - possibilities, spiritual The Intuitive Personality communication, reflection Practical prayer - contact with The Sensing Personality environment, present orientation Feeling prayer - emotional dynamics, The Feeling Personality personal integration Prayer of reason - rationally ordered andThe Thinking Personality logical approach, truth orientation Orderly prayer - little ambiguity, The Judging Personality structural orientation Lived prayer - accepts ambiguity, severalThe Perceiving Personality approaches, enthusiastic
    192. 192. The Four Temperaments SJ SP NF NTP

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