C a u s e s o f W o r l d M A N II- - A Wa r -M ilitarism – policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for warA lliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one anotherN ationalism – pride in or devotion to one’s countryI mperialism – when one country takes over another country economically and politicallyA ssassination – murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
NationalismPan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
Causes of World War I - NationalismPan-Slavism - movement to unify all of the Slavic people
Causes of World War I - NationalismPan-Germanism - movement to unify the people of allGerman speaking countries Germanic Countries Austria * Luxembourg Belgium Netherlands Denmark Norway Iceland Sweden Germany * Switzerland * Liechtenstein * United Kingdom * = German speaking country
Causes of World War I – Alliances-map, Triple Entente: page 816 Triple Alliance: Great Britain Germany France Austria-Hungary Tension Russia Italy
Order of International Crises leading to the assassination!!• European powers…before WWI confronted each other in a series of diplomatic clashes that could have resulted in war.• Moroccan Crisis of 1905:(also known as the Tangier Crisis) was the international crisis over the international status of Morocco between March 1905 and May 1906.Kaiser Wilhelm II protested Fr. dominance of Morocco, aTerritory considered by the Fr. to be a private sphere ofInfluence. Wilhelm II advocated Moroccan indep. & senta warship to the country.
Balkans Crisis of 1908-09• The Balkan Crisis of 1908 was the Annexation of Bosnia by Austria-Hungary despite the vocal complaints from the Serbs who wanted the territory with its 3 million Serbs. Map, pg. 820• Russia sides with Serbia• Crisis is checked when Germany joined Austria’s cause & balancedthe Russian threat.
Second Moroccan Crisis 1911• Also known as the Agadir Crisis, or the Panther Sprung• the international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther, to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911 Gunboat Panther on Agadir harbor
First Balkan War 1912-13• pitted the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) against the Ottoman Empire
Second Balkan War 1913• Serbia(backed by Russia), Montenegro, Greece, Rumania, & Turkey joined to defeat Bulgaria.• This crisies brought Russia & Serbia closer together & intensified the animosity of Russia & Serbia for the A- H empire
Causes of World War I - AssassinationArchduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie Sarajevo, Bosnia - June 28th, 1914.
Causes of World War I - AssassinationAustrianArchduke Franz Ferdinand was killed inBosnia by aSerbiannationalistwho believedthat Bosniashould belongto Serbia.
The Assassination! June 28, 1914 Black Hand (Serbian: Црна рука, Crna ruka), officially Unity or Death
Causes of World War I - AssassinationGavrilo Princip after hisassassination of AustrianArchduke Franz Ferdinand.
COUNTRIES TAKE A SIDE • Shocked Francis Joseph blames Serbia, feels Serb Gov’t knew of the plot • Believed that Serbia wanted south Slav empire • Wanted to deal harshly with the Serbs • Needed German backing first • Kaiser Wilhelm II told Austria that Germany would support any action they saw fit • Essentially giving Austria a blank check to do anything.
AUSTRIA vs. SERBIA• Austria sends Serbia a severe ultimatum or final set of demands 7/23/14• Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish and Serbian official involved in the murder.• Dismiss all officials hostile to Austria-Hungary• Allow Austrian officials into Serbia to investigate the Archduke’s murder themselves• Serbia agrees to all of the terms except the last, rejecting it as an infringement on Serbian sovereignty.• 7/28/14 Austria and declares war on the Serbs—1 Month after the assassination!!
“Blank Check”• Germany issues “blank check” to Austria• Will back her up no matter what course they take• Serbia agree’s to most terms but wants to negotiate others• A-Hungaryabsolutely not!• July 28, 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia!!
The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandAustria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared waron Serbia. Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary. · example of Pan-German nationalism Russia pledged their support for Serbia. · example of Pan-Slavic nationalism
The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
The Major Players: 1914-17Allied Powers: Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
Allied Powers: Central Powers:Great Britain Germany France Austria-Hungary World War I Russia Ottoman Empire Italy
July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungarydeclared war on SerbiaJuly 30, 1914 – Russia preparedto defend SerbiaAugust 1, 1914 – Germanydeclares war on Russia
August 3, 1914 – Germany declaredwar on FranceAugust 3, 1914 – Germany invadedneutral BelgiumAugust 4, 1914 – British declaredwar on Germany
WWI: A “FAMILY AFFAIR”• many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related• The British monarch George Vs predecessor, Edward VII, was the German Kaisers uncle and, via his wifes sister, uncle of the Russian Tsar as well. His niece, Alexandra, was the Tsars wife. Edwards daughter, Maud, was the Norwegian Queen, and his niece, Ena, Queen of Spain; Marie, a further niece, was to become Queen of Romania.
Lecture 2: Course of the war• Schlieffen Plan• Maginot Line• Trench Warfare• New Kind of War• “Total War”• Slaughter• Battles
“The lamps are going out allover Europe; we shall not see lit again in our lifetime.”British Foreign Minister Edward Grey What does this mean?
Maginot LineAfter André Maginot (1877-1932), French Minister of WarThe Maginot Line was a line of concrete and steel defenses that stretched between Luxembourg and Switzerland along Frances border with GermanyHow effective was it?????
Legacy of the “line”• Considered one of the great failures of the war• Metaphor for someting that is relied upon despite being ineffectual
STRATEGIES TRENCH WARFARE In trench warfare both armies could fight from fortified positions. It was a slow form of combat with heavy reliance on defense. The soldiers built complex trench and dugout systems and stocked them with weapons. Barbed wire protected the trenches. The space between opposing armies’ trenches was “no man’s land.” Attacks almost always resulted in injury and death for the attacking
The Horror’s of Trench warfare• Confined to the western front in WWI• It has become a byword for stalemate in conflict, with a slow wearing down of opposing forces• Trenches & dugouts opposed each other, protected by barbed wire• “no man’s land-” land in between; not occupied!• One reason the war dragged on for 4 years!
Trench WarfareTrench Warfare – type of fighting during World War I inwhich both sides dug trenches protected by mines and barbedwire; on the Western Front! Cross-section of a front-line trench
British trench, France, July 1916 (during the Battle of the Somme)
French soldiers firing over their own deadAll Quiet on the Western Front – trench warfare (9:27)
An aerialphotograph of theopposing trenchesand no-mans landin Artois, France,July 22, 1917.German trenchesare at the right andbottom, Britishtrenches are at thetop left. Thevertical line to theleft of centreindicates thecourse of a pre-warroad.
Officers walking through a flooded communication trench.
A photograph of a man suffering from trench foot.
Soldiers digging trenches while protected against gas attacks
Trench RatsMany men killed in the trenches were buried almost wherethey fell. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that litteredthe trenches, attracted rats.Quotes from soldiers fighting in the trenches:"The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat awounded man if he couldnt defend himself.""I saw some rats running from under the dead mensgreatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heartpounded as we edged towards one of the bodies. His helmethad rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, strippedof flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from theyawning mouth leapt a rat."
All is Quiet on the Western Front Film Released 1930• All Quiet on the Western Front is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I, who experienced trench warfare first-hand, wrote about the horrors of that war and also the deep detachment from German civilian life felt by many men returning from the front. The book was first published in German as Im Westen nichts Neues in January 1929.
Weapons of WarWORLD WAR 1 WAS THE FIRST MODERN WAR.THERE WERE MANY DIFFERENT VARIETIES OFBATTLE EQUIPMENT. THERE WERE MANY TYPESOF NEW, DIFFERENT KINDS OF GUNS SUCH AS ,MACHINE GUNS, LEBELM1866.THERE WERE NEWWAYS OF BATTLE TECHNOLOGY SUCH ASTANKS ,PLANES AND EXPLOSIVES. THESE NEWTECHNOLOGIES WERE WAYS THAT MADE WW 1THE FIRST MODERN WAR.
New Weapons of War Poisonous Gas Tanks Airplanes• German military • When soldiers • Both sides used scientists planes to map and began to carry gas to attack trenches experimented with masks, they still from above. gas as a weapon. faced a stalemate. • Planes first• Gas in battle was dropped brinks and risky: Soldiers didn’t • British forces soon heavy objects on know how much to developed armored enemy troops. use, and wind tanks to move into • Soon they changes could no-man’s-land. mounted guns and backfire the gas. bombs on planes. • These tanks had• Then Germans threw limited success • Skilled pilots canisters of gas into because many got sought in air the Allies’ trenches. battles called stuck in the mud. dogfights.• Many regretted using • Germans soon • The German Red gas, but British and French forces began found ways to Baron downed 80 destroy the tanks Allied planes, until using it too, to keep he was shot down. things even. with artillery fire.
Riflethe main weapon used by British soldiers in thetrenches was the bolt-action rifle. 15 roundscould be fired in a minute and a person 1,400metres away could be killed.
Machine Guns • Machine guns needed 4-6 men to work them and had to be on a flat surface. They had the fire- power of 100 guns. • Could fire anywhere from 400 to 600 rounds per minute. • Overheated and jammed easily. Had to be cooled with water or later with air.
Poison gas• There types were used: – Chlorine- used at the Battle of Ypres in 1915 killing thousands. – Phosgene – Mustard- burned the lungs of the inhaler leaving them to die in agony.
GasThe German army were the first to use chlorine gas at the battle of Ypres in1915. Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains.Death is painful - you suffocate! The problem with chlorine gas is that theweather must be right. If the wind is in the wrong direction it could end up killingyour own troops rather than the enemy. Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was fired into the trenchesin shells. It is colourless and takes 12 hours to take effect. Effects include:blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding. Death cantake up to 5 weeks.
Artillery• These were the new versions of cannons. Never in the history of man were so many cannons used, than in WW1.• Germans developed a stronger artillery nicknamed “Big Bertha”• It could fire a shot at Paris from 120 km away.• Improved shells that would explode with tiny pellets.
Advent of the TankTanks were used for the first time in the First World Warat the Battle of the Somme. They were developed tocope with the conditions on the Western Front. The firsttank was called Little Willie and needed a crew of 3. Itsmaximum speed was 3mph and it could not crosstrenches.The more modern tank was not developed until justbefore the end of the war. It could carry 10 men, had arevolving turret and could reach 4mph.
Tanks • Tanks were known as “Chariots of God” • The first tanks were giant blocks of metal and would carry 1 to 2 people at speeds of 3-4 mph. • Scientist worked on this and by 1918 had developed a tank that would carry 8 men and fire 208 shells and 13,000 bullets. • These tanks were not reliable.
Planes • The Zeppelin, also known as blimp, was an airship that was used during the early part of the war in• New types of weapons use bombing raids by the in advanced warfare. Germans. They carried• Had everything from mini machine guns and bombs. scout planes to huge However, they were zeppelins. abandoned because they• At first they were used to were easy to shoot out of deliver bombs and for the sky. spying work but became fighter aircraft armed with machine guns, bombs and some times cannons. Fights between two planes in the sky became known as dogfights
PlanesPlanes were also used for the first time. At first theywere used to deliver bombs and for spying work butbecame fighter aircraft armed with machine guns,bombs and some times cannons. Fights between twoplanes in the sky became known as dogfights
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Francesco Eddie “Mick”Rickenbacher, Barraco, It. Mannoch, Br. US Rene Pauk Manfred vonWilly Coppens Fonck, Fr. Richtoffen, Ger. de [The “RedHolthust, Belg. Baron”]
2 Famous Flying Aces Manfred von Richthofen better known as the Red Baron. likely the most famous flying ace of all time This German fighter scored the most kills. Richthofen was killed just after 11 a.m. on 21 April 1918, while flying over Morlancourt Ridge, near the Somme River. Richthofen was hit by a single .303 bullet…then a crash landing. Controversy and contradictory hypotheses continue to surround the identity of the person who fired the shot that actually killed Richthofen.
2 Famous Flying Acend •Eddie Rickenbacker •American fighter ace in WWI & Medal of Honor receipient •American "Ace of Aces." He recorded 26 official victories against German aircraft during World War I •pioneer in air transportation, particularly as the longtime head of Eastern Air Lines • In 1995, the United States Postal Service issued a postage stamp in honor of Rickenbackers accomplishments as an aviation pioneer •He died in 1973, the same year he published Fighting the Flying Circus(Rickenbackers account of the airwar during World War 1).
Naval Units• British specialized in battleships• Germans specialized in submarines also called U-boats.• The primary weapon of a U-boat was a torpedo, self propelled under water missiles.• The Germans had 375 U- Boats in WW1.
U-boatsTorpedoes were used by submarines(U-boats).The Germans used torpedoes to blow up shipscarrying supplies from America to Britain.
Terms• Total warWar activities which involved mass civilian populations that require rationing, employing both men & women in war industry, exciting society with propaganda• Victory gardens:vegetable, fruit & herb plants planted at private residences in US, Canada, & Br. During WWI & WW II.• SlaughterDescribes extent of the killing, violence & destruction
Battles• 1st Battle of the Marne(Sept. 1914)• Battle of Verdun(Feb.-Dec. 1916)• Battle of Jutland(May-June 1916)• Battle of the Somme(1916)• 2nd Battle of the Marne(Jul.-Aug. 1918)• REFER TO CLASS HANDOUT!
OBJECTIVES ALLIED POWERS CENTRAL POWERS The main objective of the Allied The main objective of the Central Powers was to stop Germany and Powers was to acquire as much the Central Powers’ attempts to land as possible in Europe and expand their land in Europe and Asia. Germany believed France, Asia. The American conflict with England, and Russia prevented Germany stemmed fromGermany’s violation of a neutrality its expansion. Germany was agreement when German determined to expand its submarines attacked American borders. passenger ships.
Armenian Atrocities during WW I- pg. 826-827• aka.,Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres• deliberate and systematic destruction (genocide) of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War• one of the first modern genocides• the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust• starting date of the genocide is conventionally held to be April 24, 1915
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent (omen) of Future Horrors to Come!
Armenian Atrocities, con’t• Ottoman military uprooted Armenians from their homes and forced them to march for hundreds of miles, depriving them of food and water, to the desert of what is now Syria.• The Republic of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, denies the word genocide is an accurate description of the events The remains of Armenians massacred at Erzinjan-
Results• Estimates vary between 300,000 (per the modern Turkish state) to 1,500,000 (per modern Armenia, Argentina, and other states). Encyclopædia Britannica references the research of Arnold J. Toynbee, an intelligence officer of the British Foreign Office, who estimated that 600,000 Armenians "died or were massacred during deportation" in the years 1915–1916.• The Republic of Turkeys formal stance is that the deaths of Armenians during the "relocation" or "deportation" cannot aptly be deemed "genocide," a position that has been supported with a plethora of diverging justifications: that the killings were not deliberate or were not governmentally orchestrated, that the killings were justified because Armenians posed a Russian- sympathizing threat
The Eastern Front of the War• The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe.• In Russian sources, the war was sometimes called the Second Fatherland War• Started under Czar Nicholas II & will end with the rise of Lenin and the collapse of The Russian Empire, as Lenin will get Russian out of the war(Treaty of Brest-Litovsk)
The Eastern Front• Russian army moved into Eastern Germany on August 30, 1914 – Defeated• The Austrians kicked out of Serbia• Italians attacked Austria in 1915• G. came to Austrian aid and pushed Russians back 300 miles into own territory