Count Cavour [The “Head”/”Architect” Giuseppi Garibaldi [The “Sword”/Cavalier” King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Mazzini [The “Heart”/Poet” Italian Nationalist Leaders Risorgimento-The period of, or the movement for, the liberation and political unification of Italy, beginning about 1750 and lasting until 1870.
Born in Genoa
Studied to be a lawyer
Became member of the Carbonari in 1827
"charcoal burners” were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy
Led failed attempts at revolution during the 1830s
Founded ‘Young Italy’
Criticized new Italian state after 1870
What were Mazzini’s aims? Encouraged people to see themselves as part of a nation Wanted democratic independent Italian Republic Had concept of ‘Third Rome’ – a civilising influence on the world Third Rome describes the idea that some European city, state, or country is the successor to the legacy of the Roman Empire (the "first Rome") and its successor state
What were Mazzini’s methods? ‘ Education and revolution’ Sought support from young educated m/class Italian people to drive the Austrians out Hoped that publicity and propaganda would create revolutionary class Constitutional monarchies seen as stop-gap only
Carbonari Insurrections: 1820-1821 “ Coalmen.”
How big an impact did Mazzini have on the Unification of Italy?
Gave encouragement to Italian patriotism
Presented new view of Italy
Inspired Garibaldi to join movement
Helped to win international publicity for Italian freedom. Defence of Rome in 1849 was heroic failure
By his actions put pressure on Cavour and others to act more positively
How successful was Mazzini?
Had little practical experience
Overestimated level of support – ignored problems of the peasants
Support was limited
All his plots failed!
Some middle class alienated by his revolutionary stance
Made no attempt to win support from peasants and town workers
Mazzini’s verdict on Italy, 1871
Italian territory under foreign control
Foreigners had played too important a role in unification
Unhappy with new constitution
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
Member of Piedmontese ruling class
Great admirer of British system of government
Initially aimed at expanding Piedmont rather than uniting Italy
Cavour – Foreign Policy
Aware of shortcomings of ‘Italia fara da se’
( Italy will operate on its own ”)
Aimed to move Austrians out of Lombardy & Venetia
As PM had considerable control over foreign policy
1854 – outbreak of Crimean War: Britain & France vs Russia
15,000 troops sent to support France & GB
Piedmont-Sardinia Sends Troops to the Crimea What does Piedmont-Sardinia get in return?
Cavour and the Crimean War
Some doubt over motivation but perhaps aimed to gain support from GB & France
Troops played only minor role but did win respect & gratitude from allies
Congress of Paris (1856) dealt with peace negotiations
Cavour not directly involved in talks
Cavour wins support
Foreign support & diplomacy seen as main successes
Also important was link with National Society
Number of its leaders beginning to accept Piedmont as focus for unification
Cavour now looked to France for help against Austria
Napoleon III and Italian Unity
Former member of the Carbonari
His troops had crushed Roman Republic in 1849
Had his own reasons for aiding Piedmont
Probably favoured federation headed by Pope
The Orsini Bomb Plot!
In January 14, 1858 Felice Orsini (an Italian patriot) attempted to assassinate Napoleon III
Felt Nap. III was responsible for failure of earlier revolutions
Hoped that this would aid Italian unity
His act, designed to arouse world interest in the Italian cause, paradoxically influenced Napoleon's own decision to intervene in favor of Italian unification.
Orsini was sent to the guillotine on 13 March 1858.
War with Austria
1859 War provoked with Austria
French (with limited help from Piedmont) won 2 closely fought victories
Austria on brink of surrender
Napoleon III now pulled put of the war – unexpectedly
Cavour was furious – resigned as PM
IV. Italian Unification
Napoleon III committed his troops
Victory for S-P but only the Northern States fell under their control
Someone else would have to unify the south
Cavour and Garibaldi
Garibaldi raised volunteers to fight for Savoy
Instead went to Sicily
Cavour not happy – feared consequences of Garibaldi’s actions
Was torn between trying to stop Garibaldi and offering support
Attempts to stop him failed!
Cavour and the Papal States
Biggest problem for Cavour was fear of French or Austrian intervention
To forestall Garibaldi marching on Rome, Cavour sent troops into the Papal States
Piedmontese troops successful but did not receive the same level of support as Garibaldi’s men
By end of 1861 Victor Emmanuel acclaimed first King of Italy
Cavour died end of 1861
Great romantic figure of the Risorgimento
Charismatic guerrilla leader
Had distinguished himself in the defence of Rome
Was a follower of Mazzini
Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour
Garibaldi & the campaign of 1861
Hi-jacked the popular revolt in Sicily
Used great cunning to gain control of the island
His ‘1000 Red Shirts’ gained more and more support
Had more problems on the mainland but was successful in defeating King of Naples
Handed his conquests over to VE II
A Unified Peninsula!
A contemporary British cartoon, entitled " Right Leg in the Boot at Last ," shows Garibaldi helping Victor Emmanuel put on the Italian boot.
VI. Unified Italy
1. 1861 - Italy formally unified as a nation.
2. Victor Emmanuel II was their first king.
3. Count Cavour their 1st Prime Minister.
4. Florence was first capital.
5. 1871 – capital moved to Rome
The Kingdom of Italy: 1871
Kingdom of Italy declared – Victor Emmanuel II ‘by the grace of God and the rule of the people’
First parliament met in Turin, March 1861
1866 VE II anxious to prove Italian military prowess
Italy 1861-1870 (2)
Venetia occupied after Austrian defeat – voted to join with Italy
Garibaldi made 2 failed attempts to seize Rome (1862, 1867) – little support from the Romans
1870 Franco-Prussian War saw withdrawal of French garrison
Pius XI soon withdrew to the Vatican
How united was Italy by 1870?
Bad relations with the Papacy
Lack of common language
Spread of Piedmontese constitution caused conflict
Franchise restricted – ½ million/22 million
Liberal aims had little in common with peasantry
Severe economic problems
‘ Brigands’ War’ in the South for many years
Political system did not develop well
Pope would continue to govern a section of Rome, known as Vatican City
Lateran Treaty, 1929 made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, ratified June 7, 1929, ending the "Roman Question”(political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929).
Coat of Arms-Vatican City
Papal States con’t…
signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri. The agreements were signed in the Lateran Palace, hence the name by which they are known.
*guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See
*established Catholicism as the religion of Italy
Signer’s of the Lateran Treaty
PM Benito Mussolini; Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri.
The “Holy See”
episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome (who is commonly known as the Pope)
The Holy See is not the same as the Vatican City State, which came into existence only in 1929, while the Holy See dates back to early Christian times.
Flag of Vatican City
VATICAN CITY STATE CELEBRATES 83 YEARS
On February 11th, 1929, an historic treaty was signed between the Italian Government and the Vatican re-establishing the political power and diplomatic standing of the Catholic Church, which had been lost when Italy seized Rome, the last of the Papal States, on September 20th, 1870.