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The middle ages #2
 

The middle ages #2

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    The middle ages #2 The middle ages #2 Presentation Transcript

    • The Middle Ages
      # 2
    • The Bubonic Plague
      “The Black Death”
      Named because of the color of skin of victim and buboes
      Spread throughout Europe from 1347-1350
      Preempted by…
    • Great Famine
      “Seven lean years” (1315-1322)
      A lack of food due to an increase in storms
      Now thought to be a major climate change
      Also known as the Little Ice Age (LIA)
      As a result, people were more susceptible to diseases
    • Caused by bacteria called YersiniaPestis
      Carried in stomach of fleas which bit rats, who then transferred it to humans by biting them
      Can be transmitted
      Bubonic (flea is transmitter)
      Pneumonic, means?from human to human
    • The Bubonic Plague(Cont’d)
      Originated in Asia circa 1331
      Mongol warriors carried it on horseback
      Travelled to Europe on merchant ships headed to Italy
      Introduced to Europe (Messina, Italy) in 1347
      Spread of the plague was instigated by poor living conditions
      Many blamed the Jews
      Thought they poisoned well waters
      Resulting in the killing of thousands of Jews
      Flagellants? If you’ve seen The DaVinci code, you witnessed it.
      • Manuscript illumination…on page 348
      • Dance of Death…fresco…pg. 349
    • Care of the Sick--Plague Doctor—pp. 345
      Review of the “Questions for Analysis”
      Quote by Emperor John VI Kantakouzenous-pp. 345
      Effective treatment?
      1947—effective treatment discovered by, Am. Microbiologist Selman Waksman…streptomycin..6 Centuries later!!!!!!
    • "Ring Around the Rosie"
      Ring around the rosey: Referring to ring that appear on the skin because of the plague.
      -Pocket full of posies: Poises are a strong smelling flower, so people filled their pockets with them to hide the smell that the plague gave off so people wouldn't know they had it.
      -Ashes, Ashes: Refers to people being burnt to ashes after they died because they couldn't be buried or the infection would spread.
      -We all fall down!: Referring to people dying.
      Could be an urban legend????????
    • Giovanni Boccaccio-1313-1375
      Italian writer that described the course of the Black Death
      Pinpointed rats as the spread of the disease
      Preface of his book The Decameron
      Collection of small novels
      7 women and 3 men fleeing from the plague to a villa told stories to pass the time
    • 1st Great Schism (1054)
      Schism means to split
      Split of the Christian world between east and west
      East is the Eastern Orthodox Church
      Led by Bishop of Constantinople (Patriarch)
      Spoke Greek
      West it the Catholic Church
      Led by Bishop of Rome (Pope)
      Spoke Latin
      Patriarch of Constantinople: Bartholomew
      Pope Benedict XVI
    • Great Schism (cont’d)
      Controversy followed over who was the real leader of the Christian world
      Pope Leo IX said that Rome was the only authority
      Petrine Theory: Theory that states that Peter received keys to church and became the first Bishop of Rome (Pope)
      Differences between Orthodox and Catholic Churches
      Philosophical Understanding
      Liturgical Usage
      Language
      Custom
    • Pope Urban II and The Crusades
      Religious wars between Christians and Muslims
      Estimated about 8 different crusades (not definite)
      Christians were called upon by Pope Urban II to take back holy land (Jerusalem) from Turks (Muslims)
      In return, they were promised heaven, to be saved
      Unsuccessful in winning back Jerusalem
      • Council of Clermont
      • Issued cry for first crusade
      • Battle Cry- “God wills it!”
    • Third Crusade
      Also known as “The Crusade of 3 Kings”
      During Pope Gregory VIII term as Pope
      (1189-1192)
      3 Kings accompanied troops to Jerusalem
      Philip Augustus, King of France
      Abandoned the cause and returned to France
      Frederick I (Barbarosa). Holy Roman Emperor
      Fell off horse and drowned in river on the way to Jerusalem
      Richard I the Lion-hearted, King of England
      In Jerusalem, meets Muslim leader Saladin
      Come to a truce: Christians could visit Jerusalem without paying, but it was still under Muslim control
      Saladin dies in 1198, and treaty is broken.
    • Crusades (cont’d)
      “Successful failures”
      Christians did not accomplish their goal, but as a result trade is increased with the middle-east
      As a result of the Crusades,
      Feudalism is weakeneddue to lack of serfs because of the Plague
    • Pope Gregory IX and Inquisition
      Pope Gregory IXWanted to investigate heresy and correct errors within Catholic faith
      Thought it was “poisoning society spiritually”
      Causing people to stray from church
      Eliminated heresy by killing or excommunicating anyone who questioned Catholicism Doctrine
      Occurred in Spain, Rome, and throughout Western Europe
    • Avignon Papacy (1309-1378)
      When the seat of power in the Catholic Church was in Avignon, France(southeastern France)
      Claimed to be more important than Rome
      Papacy was under control of French Kings
      Originally moved because Pope Clement V was pressured by King Philip of France
      Wanted French Monarchy to have more influence on the Catholic church
      7 popes held power while seated in Avignon
    • Avignon Papacy (cont’d)
      AKA: Babylonian Captivity
      70 years Hebrews were held captive by Babylonians
      1378- seat of power moved back to Rome
      1378-1414: Second Great Schism (Papal)
      Confusion as to who was the real Pope;
      Pope in Rome? or Pope in Avignon?
      Cardinals didn’t like incumbent pope Urban VI
      They elected to new pope- Clement VII
      Council of Constance (1414-1418)
      Council created to end Papal Schism
      **both the Babylonian Captivity & Great Schism demonstrate the vulnerability of the papacy to the increasingly powerful monarchies!!!!
    • The Conciliar Movement
      Reform Movement in the Catholic Church following the Second Great Schism (Papal Schism)
      Emerged as response to Avignon Papacy
      Resulted in having two or three different Popes (antipopes)
      Gave Pope supreme power
      Conciliarists—Definition?
      Pg. 356…
    • 3 Reformers of Church
      Marsiglio of Padua (1275-1342)
      John Wyclif (1324-1384)
      Jan Huss (1369-1415)
    • Marsiglio de Padua:1275–1342
      Italian Scholar
      Thought that Papacy’s power was dangerous to individual country’s government
      Church should be under state
      **focused on political & administrative issues
      Was excommunicated by Papacy
    • John Wyclif: 1330–1384
      Started the political and religious movement of the mid-14th century
      Followers were called, Lollards(from a Dutch word for mumble)
      Mumbled prayers and songs wherever they went
      Believed that church should lead a simple life
      Such as the Apostles did in biblical times
      Scriptures alone should be standard
      **Focused on theological issues
    • Jan Huss: 1372–1415
      Czech priest, philosopher turned reformer
      Key predecessor of Protestant Movement
      Had similar ideals as Wycliffe
      Criticized the Church's wealth & attached the issuing of indulgences
      Burned at the stake for crimes of heresy
      Examine a the manuscript illustration of his execution on page 357!
    • Peasant revolts
      Why?
      Jacquerie(zhah-kuh-ree)? Pp. 358
      Uprising of the French peasantry, after the costs of the Hundred Years’ War fell disproportionately on the poor (nobles killed, their families were attacked). The upper class united to put down the revolt
      1381-English peasant revolts?
      Revolt by Eng. Peasants in 1381 in response to changing economic conditions. Could this happen today with our current economic strife?
      View Map on pg. 360 on the 14th C. revolts
    • Lay Piety
      14th & 15th Centuries—rise of laypeople due to the weakening of the Church during this time
      1. confraternities:
      Voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood or charitable activity