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  • 1. The Middle Ages
    # 2
  • 2. The Bubonic Plague
    “The Black Death”
    Named because of the color of skin of victim and buboes
    Spread throughout Europe from 1347-1350
    Preempted by…
  • 3. Great Famine
    “Seven lean years” (1315-1322)
    A lack of food due to an increase in storms
    Now thought to be a major climate change
    Also known as the Little Ice Age (LIA)
    As a result, people were more susceptible to diseases
  • 4. Caused by bacteria called YersiniaPestis
    Carried in stomach of fleas which bit rats, who then transferred it to humans by biting them
    Can be transmitted
    Bubonic (flea is transmitter)
    Pneumonic, means?from human to human
  • 5. The Bubonic Plague(Cont’d)
    Originated in Asia circa 1331
    Mongol warriors carried it on horseback
    Travelled to Europe on merchant ships headed to Italy
    Introduced to Europe (Messina, Italy) in 1347
    Spread of the plague was instigated by poor living conditions
    Many blamed the Jews
    Thought they poisoned well waters
    Resulting in the killing of thousands of Jews
    Flagellants? If you’ve seen The DaVinci code, you witnessed it.
    • Manuscript illumination…on page 348
    • 6. Dance of Death…fresco…pg. 349
  • Care of the Sick--Plague Doctor—pp. 345
    Review of the “Questions for Analysis”
    Quote by Emperor John VI Kantakouzenous-pp. 345
    Effective treatment?
    1947—effective treatment discovered by, Am. Microbiologist Selman Waksman…streptomycin..6 Centuries later!!!!!!
  • 7. "Ring Around the Rosie"
    Ring around the rosey: Referring to ring that appear on the skin because of the plague.
    -Pocket full of posies: Poises are a strong smelling flower, so people filled their pockets with them to hide the smell that the plague gave off so people wouldn't know they had it.
    -Ashes, Ashes: Refers to people being burnt to ashes after they died because they couldn't be buried or the infection would spread.
    -We all fall down!: Referring to people dying.
    Could be an urban legend????????
  • 8. Giovanni Boccaccio-1313-1375
    Italian writer that described the course of the Black Death
    Pinpointed rats as the spread of the disease
    Preface of his book The Decameron
    Collection of small novels
    7 women and 3 men fleeing from the plague to a villa told stories to pass the time
  • 9. 1st Great Schism (1054)
    Schism means to split
    Split of the Christian world between east and west
    East is the Eastern Orthodox Church
    Led by Bishop of Constantinople (Patriarch)
    Spoke Greek
    West it the Catholic Church
    Led by Bishop of Rome (Pope)
    Spoke Latin
    Patriarch of Constantinople: Bartholomew
    Pope Benedict XVI
  • 10. Great Schism (cont’d)
    Controversy followed over who was the real leader of the Christian world
    Pope Leo IX said that Rome was the only authority
    Petrine Theory: Theory that states that Peter received keys to church and became the first Bishop of Rome (Pope)
    Differences between Orthodox and Catholic Churches
    Philosophical Understanding
    Liturgical Usage
  • 11. Pope Urban II and The Crusades
    Religious wars between Christians and Muslims
    Estimated about 8 different crusades (not definite)
    Christians were called upon by Pope Urban II to take back holy land (Jerusalem) from Turks (Muslims)
    In return, they were promised heaven, to be saved
    Unsuccessful in winning back Jerusalem
    • Council of Clermont
    • 12. Issued cry for first crusade
    • 13. Battle Cry- “God wills it!”
  • Third Crusade
    Also known as “The Crusade of 3 Kings”
    During Pope Gregory VIII term as Pope
    3 Kings accompanied troops to Jerusalem
    Philip Augustus, King of France
    Abandoned the cause and returned to France
    Frederick I (Barbarosa). Holy Roman Emperor
    Fell off horse and drowned in river on the way to Jerusalem
    Richard I the Lion-hearted, King of England
    In Jerusalem, meets Muslim leader Saladin
    Come to a truce: Christians could visit Jerusalem without paying, but it was still under Muslim control
    Saladin dies in 1198, and treaty is broken.
  • 14. Crusades (cont’d)
    “Successful failures”
    Christians did not accomplish their goal, but as a result trade is increased with the middle-east
    As a result of the Crusades,
    Feudalism is weakeneddue to lack of serfs because of the Plague
  • 15. Pope Gregory IX and Inquisition
    Pope Gregory IXWanted to investigate heresy and correct errors within Catholic faith
    Thought it was “poisoning society spiritually”
    Causing people to stray from church
    Eliminated heresy by killing or excommunicating anyone who questioned Catholicism Doctrine
    Occurred in Spain, Rome, and throughout Western Europe
  • 16. Avignon Papacy (1309-1378)
    When the seat of power in the Catholic Church was in Avignon, France(southeastern France)
    Claimed to be more important than Rome
    Papacy was under control of French Kings
    Originally moved because Pope Clement V was pressured by King Philip of France
    Wanted French Monarchy to have more influence on the Catholic church
    7 popes held power while seated in Avignon
  • 17. Avignon Papacy (cont’d)
    AKA: Babylonian Captivity
    70 years Hebrews were held captive by Babylonians
    1378- seat of power moved back to Rome
    1378-1414: Second Great Schism (Papal)
    Confusion as to who was the real Pope;
    Pope in Rome? or Pope in Avignon?
    Cardinals didn’t like incumbent pope Urban VI
    They elected to new pope- Clement VII
    Council of Constance (1414-1418)
    Council created to end Papal Schism
    **both the Babylonian Captivity & Great Schism demonstrate the vulnerability of the papacy to the increasingly powerful monarchies!!!!
  • 18. The Conciliar Movement
    Reform Movement in the Catholic Church following the Second Great Schism (Papal Schism)
    Emerged as response to Avignon Papacy
    Resulted in having two or three different Popes (antipopes)
    Gave Pope supreme power
    Pg. 356…
  • 19. 3 Reformers of Church
    Marsiglio of Padua (1275-1342)
    John Wyclif (1324-1384)
    Jan Huss (1369-1415)
  • 20. Marsiglio de Padua:1275–1342
    Italian Scholar
    Thought that Papacy’s power was dangerous to individual country’s government
    Church should be under state
    **focused on political & administrative issues
    Was excommunicated by Papacy
  • 21. John Wyclif: 1330–1384
    Started the political and religious movement of the mid-14th century
    Followers were called, Lollards(from a Dutch word for mumble)
    Mumbled prayers and songs wherever they went
    Believed that church should lead a simple life
    Such as the Apostles did in biblical times
    Scriptures alone should be standard
    **Focused on theological issues
  • 22. Jan Huss: 1372–1415
    Czech priest, philosopher turned reformer
    Key predecessor of Protestant Movement
    Had similar ideals as Wycliffe
    Criticized the Church's wealth & attached the issuing of indulgences
    Burned at the stake for crimes of heresy
    Examine a the manuscript illustration of his execution on page 357!
  • 23. Peasant revolts
    Jacquerie(zhah-kuh-ree)? Pp. 358
    Uprising of the French peasantry, after the costs of the Hundred Years’ War fell disproportionately on the poor (nobles killed, their families were attacked). The upper class united to put down the revolt
    1381-English peasant revolts?
    Revolt by Eng. Peasants in 1381 in response to changing economic conditions. Could this happen today with our current economic strife?
    View Map on pg. 360 on the 14th C. revolts
  • 24. Lay Piety
    14th & 15th Centuries—rise of laypeople due to the weakening of the Church during this time
    1. confraternities:
    Voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood or charitable activity