Chapter 14 : Reformations pp. 406-433
Causes of the Reformation <ul><li>Corruption in the Roman Catholic Church.(simony,pluralism,absenteeism,sale of indulgence...
Causes of the Reformation? <ul><li>Marsilius of Padua     Defensor Pacis  [ Defender of the Peace ] </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Transubstantiation:  Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist: when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by...
MARTIN LUTHER <ul><li>1517 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 31 st,  1517 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wittenburg, Germany </li>...
Johann Tetzel (1465-1519) <ul><li>Merely a friar </li></ul><ul><li>Authorized by Pope Leo X to sell  indulgences : </li></...
Why did Luther oppose the selling of indulgences  so much ? <ul><li>1.  it was corruption on the part of the Church </li><...
FUGGER Family <ul><li>German mercantile and banking dynasty that dominated European business during the 15th and 16th cent...
MARTIN LUTHER (con’t) <ul><li>“ salvation by faith: ”  Luther believed that God’s grace alone, without any element of indi...
MARTIN LUTHER (con’t) <ul><li>BELIEFS :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held the belief that religious authority  resides in Script...
TENETS OF LUTHERANISM : <ul><li>Salvation by faith. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible is the ultimate authority. </li></ul><ul><...
Diet of Worms <ul><li>Luther called to the  Diet of Worms (1521) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire...
Edict of Worms <ul><li>25 May 1521 by Emperor Charles V, declaring,  &quot;For this reason we forbid anyone from this time...
Peasant Revolts <ul><li>Reason?? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Martin Luther feel about the 15 th  Century revolts in Germany?...
The Spread of Lutheranism
Religious Wars in Germany <ul><li>Between Catholic & Lutherans </li></ul><ul><li>Ended with the  Peace of Augsburg   was a...
<ul><li>The Early Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage and Sexuality  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Attack on Clerical Celibacy  ...
<ul><li>The Reformation and German Politics </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty  </li></ul><ul><li>1. St...
GROWTH OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
Ulrich Zwingli(1484-1531) <ul><li>Swiss Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Student of humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Established wh...
Calvinism <ul><li>1.  John Calvin(1509-1564) </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Calvin’s Theology </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Impact </li></ul>
John Calvin <ul><li>1536:  Institutes of Christian Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination; no free will! </li></ul><ul>...
Calvin’s World in the 16 c
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre <ul><li>August 24, 1572—What country? </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic mobs attack Protestants, b...
Edict of Nantes <ul><li>The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre will lead to the Edict Of Nantes(1598) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pari...
Calvin’s World in the 16 c
Anabaptists=“to baptize again” <ul><li>Believed in:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adult baptism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ch...
The Anabaptists Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites)
John Knox <ul><li>founder of the  Presbyterianism;  Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>presbyters=laymen, elders, or presbyters </...
<ul><li>Renaissance women in religious orders took more active roles  </li></ul><ul><li>Before Renaissance, lived in seclu...
Great Women <ul><li>Mary Ward lived in a time of civil unrest, when changing religious allegiances divided families and so...
English Reformation..Anglicanism  <ul><li>War of the Roses: 1455-1556 </li></ul><ul><li>houses of Lancaster and York (the ...
Henry VII <ul><li>Henry Tudor married  Elizabeth of York (daughter of Edward IV).  </li></ul><ul><li>Henry had defeated Ri...
Henry VIII <ul><li>Second son of Henry VII  </li></ul><ul><li>After his elder brother  Arthur  died, Henry became heir to ...
I need a son.  I have been married for 20 years and my wife, Catherine of Aragon is too old to have any more children. Who...
Henry VIII-ruled 1509-47 <ul><li>King from 21 April 1509-1547 </li></ul><ul><li>Will break the Anglican Church from the Ro...
Acts of Succession & Supremacy <ul><li>The Act of Succession in the same year made Anne Boleyn’s children legitimate heirs...
Sir Thomas More <ul><li>counselor to Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>refused to acknowledge the king's supremacy over the chu...
Henry VIII & Sir Thomas More <ul><li>April, 1534, More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy...
The Wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon - daughter of Ferdinand & Isabella(Spain) <ul><li>Born in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Had been married to ...
Dispensation from Pope Julius II <ul><li>Henry even came to believe that his union with Catherine, who had many miscarriag...
Anne Boleyn <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>Had two children but only one survived, a daughter, Elizabeth </li><...
Jane Seymour <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>Jane was betrothed to Henry within 24 hrs of Anne’s death </li></ul...
Anne of Cleves <ul><li>Born in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Henry had a painting of her but when he met her he thought she wa...
Catherine Howard <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>She was the lady in waiting for Anne </li></ul><ul><li>She was ...
Catherine Parr <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>She had been married twice before </li></ul><ul><li>They had no c...
The Wives of Henry VIII Anne Boleyn Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Anne of Cleves Jane Seymour Catherine of Aragon
Jingle <ul><li>“ To King Henry the 8 th  six wives was wedded; one died, one survived, two divorced, and two beheaded!” </...
The Children of Henry VIII <ul><li>Mary I  (DOB 18/2/1516 Mother: Catherine of Aragon marriage was annulled) </li></ul><ul...
Edward VI (1547-1553) <ul><li>son and successor, was only nine years old. Under the regencies of the duke of Somerset and ...
<ul><li>Edward opted for religion and plotted to get rid of Mary (and Elizabeth, as he thought she would not go along w/ h...
Jane Grey <ul><li>In need of a lady of the household, he brought  in Lady Jane Grey  (Henry VIII’s grand-niece), saying he...
Mary I (Bloody Mary)-1553-58 <ul><li>Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII and  Catharine of Aragon.  </li></ul><ul><li>Duri...
<ul><li>But Mary and Philip had trouble conceiving a child…Philip decided to leave and pursue other kingdoms instead…and h...
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) <ul><li>It was not until the reign of Anne Boleyn’s daughter, Elizabeth I, that a lasting religiou...
Elizabeth I The red-haired daughter of Henry VIII and Anne  Boleyn, she became England’s greatest leader. She kept control...
Supreme Governor <ul><ul><li>In 1559, an Act of Supremacy passed parliament, repealing all the anti-Protestant legislation...
Thirty-Nine Articles <ul><ul><li>In 1563, the issuance of the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, made a moderate Protestant...
Mary (Stuart), Queen of Scots <ul><li>Mary was the daughter of James V and destined to be the Queen of France.  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The Pope entered into things, saying Elizabeth was a heretic…so Elizabeth became a more hard-line Protestant </li>...
Elizabeth I-ruled 1558-1603 <ul><li>Most powerful women in 16 th  C Europe!! </li></ul><ul><li>Known as Good Queen Bess, a...
Elizabeth I…Gloriana <ul><li>“ She was successful among men in a man’s world, despite her gender not because of it. ” </li...
JAMES I-Stuart Dynasty1603-25 <ul><li>James I of England was James VI of Scotland. His mother was  Mary Queen of Scots,  a...
<ul><li>The Spread of Protestant Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>E. The Reformation in Eastern Europe  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bohemi...
Effects of the Reformation The Counter-Reformation/The Catholic Reformation
Church Leaders Reformed the Church <ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>were one of the major spearheads of the Counter-Refor...
St. Ignatius of Loyola <ul><li>Born:  1491 Birthplace:  Loyola, Castile, Spain Died:  31-Jul-1556 Location of death:  Rome...
<ul><li>Women in the church </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Church court established by the Catholic...
Council of Trent(Italy): 1545-63 <ul><li>Doctrines agreed upon </li></ul><ul><li>Church’s interpretation of the Bible was ...
Religious Conflicts  <ul><li>Religious conflicts spread across Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>The Congregation of the Holy Office </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Paul III;  1542; established the  Index Of Forbidden Bo...
Index Librorum Prohibitorum <ul><li>&quot; List of Prohibited Books” was a list of publications prohibited by the Catholic...
Concluding the Reformation <ul><li>Revolution or Continuity??????? </li></ul><ul><li>“ do the sixteenth-century religious ...
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  • I. The Early Reformation E. The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War 1. Radical Reformers — Wanted to create a community of believers separate from the state. Some were pacifists; others believed in communal ownership of property and a life of simplicity. Anabaptists — adopted the baptism of believers (rejected the sacraments). 2. Impact of Radical Reformers — Initially, they triggered persecution, both from Protestant and Catholic authorities. But some groups like the Quakers, the Baptists, and the Congregationalists had an impact on the growth of American religious and democratic ideals. 3. Peasant Rebellion — The peasants, after crop failures in 1523 and 1524 and the seizure of village common lands by the nobility and the imposition of additional rents and taxes, rebelled, citing Luther. Luther initially sided with them, but later turned against them as the Peasants’ War (1525) unfolded, arguing that independence from the Roman church did not mean opposition to legally established secular powers. F. Marriage and Sexuality 1. Attack on Clerical Celibacy — Most Protestant reformers married, arguing that vows of celibacy ran against human nature and God’s commandments. Many sought to close convents and monasteries, and many nuns left. 2. Position of Women — Reformers argued that men and women were to be spiritually equal in marriage but women were still supposed to be subject to men. 3. Marriage — Created by God as a remedy for human weakness, but marriages in which spouses did not support each other endangered their souls and their own communities. Most reformers therefore allowed divorce and remarriage. 4. Condemnations of Prostitution — Believing that marriage was the only proper remedy for lust, most Protestants condemned prostitution and brothels.
  • II. The Reformation and German Politics (The election of Charles V [r. 1519–1556] greatly shaped the course of the Reformation) A. The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty 1. Strategic Marriages — Frederick III (Holy Roman Emperor who ruled most of Austria) to Eleonore of Portugal; his son married Mary of Burgundy (this brought together Burgundy and the Habsburgs). Additional marriages took place among their children and the children of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. 2. Charles V (1550–1558) — Heir to a vast and diverse collection of states and peoples — he believed that it was his duty to maintain the political and religious unity of Western Christendom.
  • III. The Spread of Protestant Ideas E. The Reformation in Eastern Europe 1. Bohemia — Mixed outcome — there was strong appeal of Lutheranism to the Germans in Bohemia, yet the Catholic counter-reformation also took hold there. 2. Poland-Lithuania (diverse population — Germans, Jews, Tartars, Poles, and Lithuanians) — Luther’s ideas took root but the Counter-Reformation effectively took hold, thanks in particular to the activities of the Jesuits. 3.Hungary — (Complicated because of the Turkish conquest in 1526) — many Hungarian nobles embraced Lutheranism, as did peasants — but in late 17 th century, Hungarian nobles recognized Catholic Habsburg rule after the Turkish withdrawal in 1699, and Catholic rule was restored.
  • Ch14 ref

    1. 1. Chapter 14 : Reformations pp. 406-433
    2. 2. Causes of the Reformation <ul><li>Corruption in the Roman Catholic Church.(simony,pluralism,absenteeism,sale of indulgences, nepotism!!)— Do you know what each are?? </li></ul><ul><li>Crises of the 14 th & 15 th centuries hurt the prestige of the clergy: Babylonian Captivity-14 th c., Papal Schism: 1377-1417; Conciliar movement </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of Renaissance humanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Declining prestige of the papacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of religious reformers, such as Wycliffe and Huss. </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment of secular rulers over the power of popes and the clergy. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to power of Charles V. </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of the printing press. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Causes of the Reformation? <ul><li>Marsilius of Padua  Defensor Pacis [ Defender of the Peace ] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked papal authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Christian community is the sum of ALL its parts! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of personal devotions  suspicion of clergy </li></ul><ul><li>Greed of secular leaders  1/3 of Europe  church land </li></ul><ul><li>Papal need for money  indulgences </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Transubstantiation: Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist: when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by the priest at Mass, they are transformed into the actual Blood and Body of Christ. </li></ul><ul><li>Consubstantiation : Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist: after consecration, the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change, become the Real Presence, but are not transformed. </li></ul>
    5. 5. MARTIN LUTHER <ul><li>1517 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 31 st, 1517 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wittenburg, Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luther nails 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenburg church. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declared his opposition of indulgences and other aspects of the Church. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Johann Tetzel (1465-1519) <ul><li>Merely a friar </li></ul><ul><li>Authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Papal statement which guaranteed the remission of sins(pardoning of punishment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proceeds of which went to build St. Peter’s Church in Rome and to provide funds for local dioceses. </li></ul><ul><li>“ as soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from Purgatory springs” </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why did Luther oppose the selling of indulgences so much ? <ul><li>1. it was corruption on the part of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Tetzel had no legal authority in the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Tetzel was charging too much money </li></ul><ul><li>It implied a limitation on the power of God to determine salvation & give penance </li></ul>
    8. 8. FUGGER Family <ul><li>German mercantile and banking dynasty that dominated European business during the 15th and 16th centuries, developed capitalistic economic concepts, and influenced continental politics. </li></ul><ul><li>This family was from Augsburg. </li></ul><ul><li>This banking family replaced the family known as the Medici who influenced all of Europe during the Renaissance. The Fuggers took over many of the Medici assets as well as their political power and influence. </li></ul>Jakob Christoph
    9. 9. MARTIN LUTHER (con’t) <ul><li>“ salvation by faith: ” Luther believed that God’s grace alone, without any element of individual good works, saved people. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Protestants: ” at the Diet of Speyer (1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, the term Protestant meant all non-Catholic Christian sects . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Princes were granted the freedom to select religion of subjects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protested the ways of the Catholic Church </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. MARTIN LUTHER (con’t) <ul><li>BELIEFS : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held the belief that religious authority resides in Scripture alone, not Scripture along with Church teachings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church consists of whole community of believers, not the clergy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Church vocations were equally holy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized the invisible Church of all believers, not the invisible hierarchy culminating only in the Pope. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued only two sacraments, not seven: baptism, and the Eucharist(communion). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed Lutheranism </li></ul>
    11. 11. TENETS OF LUTHERANISM : <ul><li>Salvation by faith. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible is the ultimate authority. </li></ul><ul><li>The grace of God brings absolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Baptism and communion are the only valid sacraments. </li></ul><ul><li>The clergy is not superior to the laity. </li></ul><ul><li>The church should be subordinate to the state. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Diet of Worms <ul><li>Luther called to the Diet of Worms (1521) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire with the power to outlaw- to condemn; to burn at the stake. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I neither can nor will I recant anything, since it is neither right, nor safe to act against conscience.” -Luther </li></ul><ul><li>Empire outlawed Luther. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Edict of Worms <ul><li>25 May 1521 by Emperor Charles V, declaring, &quot;For this reason we forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favor the said Martin Luther. On the contrary, we want him to be apprehended and punished as a notorious heretic, as he deserves, to be brought personally before us, or to be securely guarded until those who have captured him inform us, whereupon we will order the appropriate manner of proceeding against the said Luther. Those who will help in his capture will be rewarded generously for their good work.” </li></ul>
    14. 14. Peasant Revolts <ul><li>Reason?? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Martin Luther feel about the 15 th Century revolts in Germany?? </li></ul><ul><li>Luther wanted to PREVENT rebellion; laws must be obeyed! Nothing justifies armed rebellion!! </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Spread of Lutheranism
    16. 16. Religious Wars in Germany <ul><li>Between Catholic & Lutherans </li></ul><ul><li>Ended with the Peace of Augsburg was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg, now in present-day Bavaria, Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The Peace established the principle Cuius regio, eius religio= &quot;Whose realm, his religion”- meaning the religion of the ruler dictated the religion of the ruled. The ONLY choice of religions was Catholic or Lutheranism..this was not total religious freedom! </li></ul><ul><li>ended armed conflict between the Catholic and Protestant forces in the Holy Roman Empire </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>The Early Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage and Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>1. Attack on Clerical Celibacy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Position of Women </li></ul><ul><li>3. Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>4. Condemnations of Prostitution </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>The Reformation and German Politics </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>1. Strategic Marriages </li></ul><ul><li>2. Charles V (1550–1558) </li></ul>House of Habsburg
    19. 19. GROWTH OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
    20. 20. Ulrich Zwingli(1484-1531) <ul><li>Swiss Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Student of humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Established what amounted to a theocracy in Zurich </li></ul><ul><li>Believed, like Luther, Bible should be sole authority </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to Luther, saw Eucharist as only symbolic & Luther's view of the real presence was too Catholic ! ** This became the 1 st dispute among Protestants dealing with doctrines! </li></ul>
    21. 21. Calvinism <ul><li>1. John Calvin(1509-1564) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Calvin’s Theology </li></ul><ul><li>3. Impact </li></ul>
    22. 22. John Calvin <ul><li>1536: Institutes of Christian Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination; no free will! </li></ul><ul><li>“ good works ” isn’t sufficient for salvation, but is a sign that one has been chosen for salvation! </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism was a form of Protestantism; most significant of new Protest. sects </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland ; *became the new center of the Reformation in Europe! </li></ul><ul><li>Huguenots </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism was the most militant & uncompromising of all Protestants! </li></ul>
    23. 23. Calvin’s World in the 16 c
    24. 24. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre <ul><li>August 24, 1572—What country? </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic mobs attack Protestants, brutally murdering them </li></ul><ul><li>traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX </li></ul><ul><li>the massacre took place six days after the wedding of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). This marriage was an occasion for which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots(Fr. Calvinists) had gathered in largely Catholic Paris </li></ul>
    25. 25. Edict of Nantes <ul><li>The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre will lead to the Edict Of Nantes(1598) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Paris is worth a mass!” </li></ul><ul><li>issued on April 13, 1598, by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic </li></ul>
    26. 26. Calvin’s World in the 16 c
    27. 27. Anabaptists=“to baptize again” <ul><li>Believed in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adult baptism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children weren’t mature enough to decide whether or not to be baptized. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>religious tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separation of church and state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared property and admitted women as minister </li></ul><ul><li>Pacifist’s </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners of the Mennonites & Amish, today </li></ul>
    28. 28. The Anabaptists Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites)
    29. 29. John Knox <ul><li>founder of the Presbyterianism; Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>presbyters=laymen, elders, or presbyters </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Renaissance women in religious orders took more active roles </li></ul><ul><li>Before Renaissance, lived in secluded convents </li></ul><ul><li>By late Middle Ages, acceptable for nuns to help poor, orphaned, sick </li></ul><ul><li>Italian nun Angela Merici began Company of Saint Ursula, dedicated to teaching girls; Jane of Chantal and Francis of Sales began Visitation of Holy Mary, trained women to be teachers </li></ul>Women and the Church <ul><li>England’s Mary Ward began European network of girls’ schools </li></ul><ul><li>First denounced because ideas about women considered dangerously new </li></ul><ul><li>Later missionary influence formally recognized by church </li></ul>Mary Ward <ul><li>Teresa of Avila most famous female spiritual leader </li></ul><ul><li>As nun decided convent practices too lax, followed own strict rules </li></ul><ul><li>Reformed Carmelite order </li></ul><ul><li>Deep spirituality, visions, fervor inspired many to remain Catholic </li></ul>Teresa of Avila
    31. 31. Great Women <ul><li>Mary Ward lived in a time of civil unrest, when changing religious allegiances divided families and society in England. She was a remarkable, visionary woman. After almost 400 years she continues to inspire through the legacy she has left us - a global network of provinces and schools on every continent, thousands of students past and present and countless volunteers, colleagues and friends. In 2009 Loreto Sisters around the world will be celebrating 400 years of her founding vision. (a response to God’s call for active engagement of women in apostolic work for church and world. ) </li></ul><ul><li>1535, she joined the Carmelite Order </li></ul><ul><li>writer of the Counter Reformation , and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite </li></ul><ul><li>Forty years after her death, she was canonized, in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV. </li></ul>
    32. 32. English Reformation..Anglicanism <ul><li>War of the Roses: 1455-1556 </li></ul><ul><li>houses of Lancaster and York (the &quot;red&quot; and the &quot;white&quot; rose, respectively) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Tudor…Lancaster line…Tudor Dynasty comes to power. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Henry VII <ul><li>Henry Tudor married Elizabeth of York (daughter of Edward IV). </li></ul><ul><li>Henry had defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, ending the Wars of the Roses . </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VII went on to forge international relationships through the marriages of his children. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Henry VIII <ul><li>Second son of Henry VII </li></ul><ul><li>After his elder brother Arthur died, Henry became heir to the throne. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain and England wanted to keep their alliance, even w/ Arthur’s death </li></ul><ul><li>So Henry married Catherine of Aragon, Arthur’s widow - no papal dispensation was given, and the marriage was even done by proxy; Henry was only permitted to consent at canonical age (which he never did) </li></ul><ul><li>Later he tried to annul this marriage so he could marry Anne Boleyn. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry claimed that God punished him by denying him a legitimate male heir – in Leviticus , God does threaten childlessness if a man marries his brother’s widow…so Henry came to see this marriage as cursed… </li></ul>
    35. 35. I need a son. I have been married for 20 years and my wife, Catherine of Aragon is too old to have any more children. Who will inherit my throne when I die? I spy an attractive lady – in-waiting called Anne Boleyn. If only I could marry her instead. Will the Pope give me a divorce? The Church is very rich. I need money for my luxurious court. If only I could get my hands on it. The new Protestant ideas are spreading in Germany. Princes there are reforming their churches and throwing out the Catholic Church. Some people in England like the new Protestant ideas. They believe that the Bible should be in English not Latin. The Church takes money out my country in taxes to help build St Peter’s in Rome. What do I get in return?
    36. 36. Henry VIII-ruled 1509-47 <ul><li>King from 21 April 1509-1547 </li></ul><ul><li>Will break the Anglican Church from the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England(Act of Supremacy) </li></ul><ul><li>6 wives </li></ul><ul><li>vs Sir Thomas More?? </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas More : </li></ul><ul><li>Born: 7 February 1478 </li></ul><ul><li>Birthplace: London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Died: 6 July 1535 (beheading) </li></ul><ul><li>Best Known As: The author of Utopia </li></ul>
    37. 37. Acts of Succession & Supremacy <ul><li>The Act of Succession in the same year made Anne Boleyn’s children legitimate heirs to the throne and the Act of Supremacy(1534) declared Henry “the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England. When Thomas More and John fisher, Bishop of Rochester, refused to recognize the Act of Succession and the Act of Supremacy, Henry had them executed, making clear his determination to have his way regardless of the cost. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Sir Thomas More <ul><li>counselor to Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>refused to acknowledge the king's supremacy over the church, and was finally imprisoned and beheaded(executed for treason) </li></ul><ul><li>John Fisher :English Roman Catholic Bishop, Cardinal, who along with More was executed for not recognizing Henry VIII as supreme head of the Church of England(Anglican Church) </li></ul>
    39. 39. Henry VIII & Sir Thomas More <ul><li>April, 1534, More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>and was committed to the Tower of London on April 17.   </li></ul><ul><li>found guilty of treason and was beheaded alongside Bishop Fisher on July 6, 1535 More's final words on the scaffold were: &quot;The King's good servant, but God's First.&quot; More was beatified in 1886 and canonized by the Catholic Church as a saint by Pope Pius XI in 1935 . </li></ul>
    40. 40. The Wives of Henry VIII
    41. 41. Catherine of Aragon - daughter of Ferdinand & Isabella(Spain) <ul><li>Born in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Had been married to Henry’s brother Arthur who died </li></ul><ul><li>In 1507, she also held the position of Ambassador for the Spanish Court in England when her father found himself without one, becoming the first female ambassador in European history </li></ul><ul><li>Married Henry in 1509 </li></ul><ul><li>She had six children but only one survived – a daughter, Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Henry divorced Catherine as he had fallen in love with her lady in waiting </li></ul>
    42. 42. Dispensation from Pope Julius II <ul><li>Henry even came to believe that his union with Catherine, who had many miscarriages and stillbirths, had been cursed by god, because Catherine had first been the wife of his brother, Arthur. Henry’s father, Henry VII, had betrothed Catherine to Henry after Arthur’s untimely death in order to keep the English alliance with Spain intact. They were officially married in 1509. a few days before Henry VIII received his crown. Because marriage to the wife of one’s brother was prohibited by both canon and biblical law (see Leviticus 18:16, 20:21), the marriage had required a special dispensation from Pope Julius II. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Anne Boleyn <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>Had two children but only one survived, a daughter, Elizabeth </li></ul><ul><li>Anne was arrested for being unfaithful to Henry </li></ul><ul><li>She was beheaded </li></ul>
    44. 44. Jane Seymour <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>Jane was betrothed to Henry within 24 hrs of Anne’s death </li></ul><ul><li>She had one child, a son, Edward </li></ul><ul><li>Jane died two weeks after giving birth </li></ul>
    45. 45. Anne of Cleves <ul><li>Born in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Henry had a painting of her but when he met her he thought she was ugly </li></ul><ul><li>They married but did not live together </li></ul><ul><li>They had no children </li></ul><ul><li>Henry divorced her </li></ul>
    46. 46. Catherine Howard <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>She was the lady in waiting for Anne </li></ul><ul><li>She was very attractive </li></ul><ul><li>There were no children </li></ul><ul><li>Henry heard rumours she was being unfaithful </li></ul><ul><li>She was beheaded </li></ul>
    47. 47. Catherine Parr <ul><li>Born in England </li></ul><ul><li>She had been married twice before </li></ul><ul><li>They had no children </li></ul><ul><li>Henry married her to look after him in his old age </li></ul><ul><li>She outlived him as Henry died in 1547 </li></ul>
    48. 48. The Wives of Henry VIII Anne Boleyn Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Anne of Cleves Jane Seymour Catherine of Aragon
    49. 49. Jingle <ul><li>“ To King Henry the 8 th six wives was wedded; one died, one survived, two divorced, and two beheaded!” </li></ul>
    50. 50. The Children of Henry VIII <ul><li>Mary I (DOB 18/2/1516 Mother: Catherine of Aragon marriage was annulled) </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth I (DOB 7/9/1533 Mother: Anne Boleyn. Later executed for adultery, incest and witchcraft and Elizabeth declared illegitimate) </li></ul><ul><li>Edward VI (DOB 12/10/1537 Mother: Jane Symore who died in child birth) </li></ul>
    51. 51. Edward VI (1547-1553) <ul><li>son and successor, was only nine years old. Under the regencies of the duke of Somerset and the duke of Northumberland, England fully enacted the Protestant Reformation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During Somerset’s regency, Henry’s Six Articles and laws against heresy were repealed and clerical marriage and communion with cup were sanctioned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1547, the chantries, places where endowed masses had traditionally been said for the dead, were dissolved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1549, the Act Of Uniformity imposed Thomas Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer on all English churches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images and altars were removed from the churches in 1550. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Second Act Of Uniformity, passed in 1552, imposed a revised edition of the Book of Common Prayer on all English churches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Forty-Two-Article Confession of Faith, also written by Thomas Cranmer, was adopted, setting forth a moderate Protestant doctrine.: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It taught justification by faith and the Supremacy of Holy Scripture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It denied transubstantiation (although not real presence). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It recognized only two sacraments </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Edward opted for religion and plotted to get rid of Mary (and Elizabeth, as he thought she would not go along w/ him) </li></ul><ul><li>Edward thought succession would go to the male descendants of Mary Tudor (Henry VIII’s sister) </li></ul><ul><li>There were no male heirs at that time, but it was assumed someone would have a son eventually…but then Edward’s health went into rapid decline, and time was running out </li></ul><ul><li>On his deathbed, Edward changed his will to indicate that Lady Jane Grey (and not her male heirs) should succeed him </li></ul><ul><li>When Edward died, Jane became the queen, but Mary also proclaimed herself the queen – when Jane’s army faltered, the council abandoned her </li></ul><ul><li>When Mary recaptured the throne she had Seymour and Jane executed (Jane was queen for 9 days)... </li></ul>
    53. 53. Jane Grey <ul><li>In need of a lady of the household, he brought in Lady Jane Grey (Henry VIII’s grand-niece), saying he would marry her off to Edward VI </li></ul><ul><li>Seymour wanted Lady Jane Grey as the next queen, as opposed to Edward’s sister Mary, who was Catholic. (Seymour’s son had married Jane Grey.) </li></ul><ul><li>in 1549, Edward passed the Act of Uniformity, introducing the Protestant Prayer Book – Mary looked to Catholic Spain and her cousin Charles V for assistance – basically, she disobeyed her brother and father… </li></ul><ul><li>So all the fundamental 16 th century values came into conflict – religion, patriotism, the law, dynastic succession … </li></ul>
    54. 54. Mary I (Bloody Mary)-1553-58 <ul><li>Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon. </li></ul><ul><li>During her childhood, Mary was persecuted by Henry when he wanted to annul his marriage to her mother. </li></ul><ul><li>As Queen she attempted to restore Catholicism, and she married the young Philip from Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>She also had more than 300 Protestants killed. </li></ul><ul><li>None of these actions was popular with the now firmly entrenched Protestant England </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>But Mary and Philip had trouble conceiving a child…Philip decided to leave and pursue other kingdoms instead…and he came to favour Elizabeth over Mary as he thought it was better for the Habsburgs (w/o Eliz., the other successor was Mary, Queen of Scots, who would have allied with France) </li></ul><ul><li>Philip had managed to take Eng. into a war w/ Fr., and the Eng. lost the fortress of Calais… </li></ul><ul><li>Mary’s regime had failed, and was unpopular anyway with the 100s of burnings… </li></ul><ul><li>When Mary died peacefully, Elizabeth acceded to the throne peacefully – she was proclaimed in only 6 hrs. as having the “lawful right and title to the crown” </li></ul>
    56. 56. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) <ul><li>It was not until the reign of Anne Boleyn’s daughter, Elizabeth I, that a lasting religious settlement was worked out in England. Elizabeth merged a centralized Episcopal system, which she firmly controlled, with broadly defined Protestant doctrine and traditional Catholic ritual. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Elizabeth I The red-haired daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she became England’s greatest leader. She kept control of England by refusing to marry anyone and playing one noble against another – many hoping to marry the Queen. She kept religious wars down, advanced exploration, became a patron of the arts, and brought England to the position of world power with the defeat of the Spanish Armada
    58. 58. Supreme Governor <ul><ul><li>In 1559, an Act of Supremacy passed parliament, repealing all the anti-Protestant legislation of Mary Tudor and asserting Elizabeth’s right as “supreme governor” over both spiritual and temporal affairs. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Thirty-Nine Articles <ul><ul><li>In 1563, the issuance of the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, made a moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England. </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Mary (Stuart), Queen of Scots <ul><li>Mary was the daughter of James V and destined to be the Queen of France. </li></ul><ul><li>When Francois II died, she came back to be Queen of Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>English Catholics believed that she was the only legitimate heir after Mary I’s death – they rallied around her. </li></ul><ul><li>Given the threat, Mary was brought to Eng. as a “guest” (prisoner) </li></ul><ul><li>This again raised the succession issue…the Protestant Elizabeth had a Catholic successor…and Mary became “more” Catholic… </li></ul><ul><li>w/ Mary as a symbol, rebellion began in the countryside </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>The Pope entered into things, saying Elizabeth was a heretic…so Elizabeth became a more hard-line Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>At this pt, English Catholics turned to Spain for help (and Spain was anti-Elizabeth as she supported piracy in the New World and had aided the Dutch Revolt) </li></ul><ul><li>When proof of Mary’s treachery came to light, Elizabeth I had her executed(1587)…Spain attacked(1588), but the Armada failed… MILESTONE DATE!! </li></ul>
    62. 62. Elizabeth I-ruled 1558-1603 <ul><li>Most powerful women in 16 th C Europe!! </li></ul><ul><li>Known as Good Queen Bess, and Gloriana! </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled with a small group of advisers known as her “Privy Council.” </li></ul><ul><li>1587-had her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots executed </li></ul><ul><li>1588-defeated the Spanish Armada. 1588 is a milestone because from here England’s power will grow & Spain’s will wane! </li></ul><ul><li>1603-death & end to Tudor Dynasty </li></ul>
    63. 63. Elizabeth I…Gloriana <ul><li>“ She was successful among men in a man’s world, despite her gender not because of it. ” </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean??????? </li></ul>
    64. 64. JAMES I-Stuart Dynasty1603-25 <ul><li>James I of England was James VI of Scotland. His mother was Mary Queen of Scots, and at Elizabeth I’s death, James was named her heir. </li></ul><ul><li>A Catholic, he was known for the authorization of the King James Version of the Bible, as well as for being the “Wisest Fool in Christendom”. </li></ul>
    65. 65. <ul><li>The Spread of Protestant Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>E. The Reformation in Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bohemia </li></ul><ul><li>2. Poland-Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hungary </li></ul>
    66. 66. Effects of the Reformation The Counter-Reformation/The Catholic Reformation
    67. 67. Church Leaders Reformed the Church <ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>were one of the major spearheads of the Counter-Reformation. The work done by Ignatius Loyola was seen as an important counter to Martin Luther and John Calvin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by Ignatius of Loyola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesuit colleges: Georgetown, Xavier, Loyola, Walsh-Jesuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration on education </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. St. Ignatius of Loyola <ul><li>Born: 1491 Birthplace: Loyola, Castile, Spain Died: 31-Jul-1556 Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: Fever </li></ul><ul><li>founded the Society of Jesus and was its first Superior General </li></ul><ul><li>Ignatius was beatified by Pope Paul V on July 27, 1609 and canonized by Pope Gregory XV on March 13, 1622 </li></ul><ul><li>His legacy includes many Jesuit schools and educational institutions worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>In the United States alone there are 28 Jesuit colleges and universities and more than 50 secondary schools. </li></ul>
    69. 69. <ul><li>Women in the church </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Church court established by the Catholic church </li></ul><ul><li>Tried people who were accused of being Protestant, practicing witchcraft, or breaking church law. </li></ul>2) Church Leaders Reformed the Church (Cont’d)
    70. 70. Council of Trent(Italy): 1545-63 <ul><li>Doctrines agreed upon </li></ul><ul><li>Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final!! One who submitted their own interpretation was a heretic ! </li></ul><ul><li>Faith AND good works are needed for salvation…not by faith alone! </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible AND the Church were equally powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences are VALID expressions of faith(but…let’s not sell them!) </li></ul><ul><li>The CHURCH didn’t change it’s position…at all! </li></ul>
    71. 71. Religious Conflicts <ul><li>Religious conflicts spread across Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain & France fought for control of Italian peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance : Italian renaissance expanded throughout Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peasants’ Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took place in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants were upset with high taxes & lack of power. </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. <ul><li>The Congregation of the Holy Office </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Paul III; 1542; established the Index Of Forbidden Books </li></ul><ul><li>Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death in 1549 </li></ul>
    73. 73. Index Librorum Prohibitorum <ul><li>&quot; List of Prohibited Books” was a list of publications prohibited by the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>The final (20th) edition appeared in 1948, and it was formally abolished on 14 June 1966 by Pope Paul VI </li></ul><ul><li>The Index was regularly updated until the 1948 edition </li></ul><ul><li>In the course of centuries, editions of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum saw deletions as well as additions of content. An example is the removal in the 1758 edition of the general prohibition of works advocating heliocentrism as a fact rather than a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Faustina Kowalska(Polish nun/her diary), whose work was on the Index, has since been declared a saint…  …but, Hitler’s Mein Kampf was never put on the list!!?? </li></ul>
    74. 74. Concluding the Reformation <ul><li>Revolution or Continuity??????? </li></ul><ul><li>“ do the sixteenth-century religious movements represent continuity—a constant feature of the institutional faith—or do those movements demonstrate revolution and radical discontinuity?”(text, pg. 483) </li></ul><ul><li>What do YOU think?? </li></ul>

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