Baroque + #44 50
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Baroque + #44 50

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  • V. Changing Attitudes and Beliefs C. William Shakespeare and His Influence 1. Works — Comedies, tragedies, and histories. 2. Shakespeare and Race — In Othello , the title character is a black “moor” of Venice (could refer to a Muslim of North African origin or to a sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting confusion over racial and religious classifications).
  • V. Changing Attitudes and Beliefs A. New Ideas About Race 1. Dehumanizing Africans — In spite of the myth of Prester John, Europeans came to see Africans as pagan heathens, Muslim infidels, or beasts. 2. Racial Inequality —Institution of slavery led to belief in racial inequality (Africans became seen as wholly inferior to Europeans, even to Jews, peasants, and the Irish). 3. Justifications — Aristotle (some people are naturally destined for slavery), the Bible (the curse of Ham), science (“race”). B. Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) and Cultural Curiosity 1. Skepticism and Cultural Relativism — Decades of religious strife, war, and the discovery of new peoples led some persons to question whether total certainty is possible and to deny that some cultures are superior to others. 2. Essay — New literary genre developed by the Frenchman Montaigne — in these essays, he inaugurated an era of doubt.

Baroque + #44 50 Baroque + #44 50 Presentation Transcript

  • The Emergence of New Styles in the Age of Discovery and European Expansion
  • Michel de Montaigne
    • Born on February 28 th , 1533; died September 13 th , 1592.
    • French Ren. Writer
    • skepticism
    • Creator of the writing genre of essays , deriving from the French word, essayer, which means “to test or try.”
    • Essais, or Essays : a short subjective treatment of a topic
    • He believed that the object of life was to “know thyself.”
    • “ I have not seen a greater monster or miracle than myself ”
    • No culture is inferior to another!!
    • “ Of Cannibals”—page 473
    • “ Wonder is the foundation of all philosophy, research is the means of learning, and ignorance is the end.”(pg. 73)
  • Elizabethan and Jacobean Literature
    • Elizabethan refers to literature produced during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, while Jacobean refers to literature produced during the first years of her successor, James I.
    • Emergence of drama and comedy.
    • Considered the “golden age” of literature.
    • King James Version of the Bible was transcribed.
  • Great Authors of These Eras
    • Elizabethan
    • William Shakespeare
      • Othello
      • Julius Caesar
      • Hamlet
    • Christopher Marlowe
      • Tamburlaine
      • The Jew of Malta
    • Sir Phillip Sidney
      • Astrophel
      • Stella
    • Edmund Spenser
      • The Faerie Queen
    • Jacobean
    • Ben Jonson
      • Volpone
      • The Alchemist
      • Bartholomew Affair
    • Beaumont and Fletcher
      • The King of the Burning Pestle
    • Changing Attitudes and Beliefs
    • C. William Shakespeare and His Influence
    • 1. Works
    • 2. Shakespeare and Race
    • Works — Comedies, tragedies, and histories.
    • 2. Shakespeare and Race — In Othello , the title character is a black “moor” of Venice (could refer to a Muslim of North African origin or to a sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting confusion over racial and religious classifications).
    • Play, The Tempest: displays a similar interest in race and race relations. Caliban is a native of the island and Prospero instructs (language and religion) Caliban until he enslaves him, based on rape of Miranda. “monstrous dark-skinned island native who was best-suited for slavery”.
  • baroque
    • Derived from the Portuguese barocco , which means “misshapen pearl.”
    • Originally considered an expression of scorn for what they considered to be overblown, unbalanced style.
    • Refers to music and literature composed and/or written from the period of around 1600-1760.
  • Peter Paul Rubens
    • Flemish baroque painter born June 28 th , 1577; died on May 30 th , 1640.
    • Classically educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat.
    • Knighted by both Philip VI of Spain and Charles I of England.
    • Painted masterpieces such as Two Satyrs , and the Horrors of War . See next slide!
    • As defined by many other baroque artists, Rubens painted many graphic images, such as rape and drunkeness.
  • Two Satyrs (1618-1619)
  • The Horrors of War (1638)
  • Johann Sebastian Bach(1685-1750)
    • Organist and Lutheran Choirmaster.
    • Composed both secular concertos and cantatas.
    • Was not fully appreciated during his lifetime.
    • Most famous for his organ arrangements.
    • Works include:
      • The Brandenburg Concerto
      • Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (Organ)
    • Changing Attitudes and Beliefs
    • A. New Ideas About Race
    • 1. Dehumanizing Africans
    • 2. Racial Inequality
    • 3. Justifications
    • B. Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) and Cultural Curiosity
    • 1. Skepticism and Cultural Relativism
    • 2. Essay