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  • 1. On the eve of the French Revolution, France was the wealthiest, most influential, and most populous nation in Europe! It’s population was 25 million people!
  • 2. Our goal will be to interpret this quote by the end of this unit!
  • 3. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
  • 4. Monarchy on the eve of the Revolution Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
  • 5. Let Them Eat Cake!
    • Marie Antoinette NEVER said that!
    • “ Madame Deficit”
    • “ The Austrian Whore”
  • 6. Causes of Revolution
    • Inspired by Enlightenment ideas
      • Motto: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
    • Inspired by the success of American Revolution
    • Financial difficulties
      • Debt & heavy taxation
    • Weak leadership
    • Three Estates
      • Voting inequity
    • Lattre de cachet
  • 7. Lettres de Cachet: letter of the sign [or signet]”
    • The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.
    • A carte-blanche warrant.
    • Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000 during the reign of Louis XV!
    • Eliminated in 1790.
  • 8. 1789 :ancien regime= Old Regime pg. 620
    • 3 Large social classes (estates)
    • 1 st Estate: Clergy
    • 2 nd Estate: Nobility
      • Paid no taxes
    • 3 rd Estate: Commoners
      • 98% of population
      • Heavily taxed
      • Discontented & Angry
  • 9. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates 1 1 1 Louis XVI insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
  • 10. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! 300 300 648
  • 11. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes(See-ya yes!)—listening to the past-pg. 626) 1 st What is the Third Estate? ( Qu'est-ce que le tiers état?) Everything! 2 nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! 3 rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abbé Sieyès 1748-1836
  • 12. 3 Stages of French Revolution
    • 1 st Stage: 1789-1792: Absolute Monarchy  Constitutiona l Monarchy
    • Meeting of Estates General(parliament)
    • May 5, 1789
    1 st time called into session since 1614
  • 13.
    • Oath of th e Tennis Court
    • June 20, 1789
    Jacques Louis David
  • 14.
    • Meeting of the National Assembly
    • June 30, 1789
    The Palais Bourbon ... seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government.
  • 15.
    • Storming of Bastille
    • July 14, 1789
      • Rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly
    • French “motto”
    • 1 st act of violence
    • July 14 = French day
    • of Independence
    18 died 73 wounded 7 guards killed It held 7 prisoners ( 5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen)
  • 16. Great Fear-pg. 629
    • The fear of noble reprisals against peasant uprisings that seized the French countryside and let to further revolt.
  • 17. August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!!!Abolishment of feudal privileges!! Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
  • 18. The Tricolor (1789)
    • The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.
    • 1 st used in 1789
    • Officially adopted February 15, 1794
    Citizen!
  • 19. The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge
  • 20. Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock Marianne-symbol of the Fr. Republic adopted by the Nat. Convention Liberté-”mother of France”-pg.629 Liberty cap
  • 21.
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man
    • August 26/27, 1789
    • Liberty, Property, Resistance to oppression!
    • Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
    • Women played a vital role in the Revolution.
    • But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.
    • “ Declaration of the Rights of Women” by de Gouges
    Olympe de Gouges
  • 22.
    • Women’s March(pg. 630)
    • October 5, 1789
    • A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.
    “ We want the baker, the baker’s wife, and the baker’s boy!”
  • 23.
    • Louis XVI & the royal family attempts to escape(pg. 635)
    • June 26, 1791
    • Headed toward the Luxembourg border.
    • The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border.
    • This sealed the fate of he, and his family.
    Flight to Varennes
  • 24.
    • Constitutional/Limited monarchy is established
    • 1791
    • La Maresillaise
    • French National Anthem
    Composed by Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle on April 24, 1792 This was adopted July 14, 1795. Banned by Napoleon because of its revolutionary ideals. Reinstated in 1879.
  • 25. 3 Stages of French Revolution
    • 2 nd Stage: 1792-1795: Republic  Anarchy
    • “ Second Revolution”
    • Emigries VS. Sans-culottes
    • The position of the monarchy is abolished
    • September 21, 1792
    • All documents henceforth will be dated, “Year One of the French Republic”
    • September 22, 1792
  • 26. National Convention
    • Sept. 22, 1792
    • 1 st act was the formal abolition of the monarchy on this date
    • Decree of Fraternity:
    • Offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments.
    • “ When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!”(Klemens von Metternich)
  • 27.
    • Louis XVI executed
    • January 21, 1793; he was 38 years old.
    'I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I Pardon those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France. '
  • 28. Guillotine
    • Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin
    • Total weight was about 1278 pounds
    • Blade weighed over 88 pounds
    • Height of side posts was just over 14 feet
    • Distance the blade dropped was 88 inches
    • Blade fell at 21 feet a second taking 1/70 of a second to fall
    • Took 2/100 of a second for the head to be cut off
    • Power at impact was 888 pound per square inch
  • 29.
    • Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin
    • 1738 - 1821
    • French physician, president of the Chamber of the Provinces in 1775, founder of the French Academy of Medicine, and deputy to the French assembly in 1789..
  • 30.
    • Killed over 15,000 people by the end of the Revolution
    • Basket by guillotine for fallen heads
    • Method of execution was seen as being more humane than earlier forms
    • Symbol of cruelty
    Guillotine
  • 31. LAST OF THE EXECUTIONS
    • Last public execution was in 1939
      • Eugene Weidmann
      • convicted for six murders, was guillotined on June 17th 1939,outside the prison Saint Pierre at rue Georges Clémenceau in Versailles. Conspiracy, ---kidnapping, fraud, robbery, murder, resisting arrest
    1939
  • 32. “ Madame Guillotines Last Kiss”
    • Hamida Djandoubi—a Tunisian Immigrant was the last to die at the hands of the Maiden in 1977!!!!!
    • He was convicted of the torture & murder of 21 year old ElisabethBousquet, his former girlfriend, in Marseille.
    • Though the death penalty was grinding to a halt in 1970’s France, Djandoubi was not the last person condemned ; the guillotine was only abolished with the election of the Francois Mitterand government in 1981!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  • 33. Marie Antoinette on her way to her execution!
  • 34. Execution of Marie Antoinette
    • Was tried, convicted of treason and executed by guillotine on 16 October 1793, nine months after her husband. Her last words were, "Pardon me Sir, I did not mean to do it ," to Sanson the executioner, whose foot she accidentally stepped on before she was executed by guillotine.
    • She was 37 years old.
  • 35. Committee of Public Safety
    • Revolutionary Tribunal
    • 300, 000 arrested
  • 36. Committee of Public Safety 1793
    • Created in April 1793 by the National Convention
    • “ second revolution!”
    • Supervised trials & executions
    • The committee was responsible for thousands of executions, with many high-profile executions at the guillotine, in what was known as the "Reign of Terror."
    • Dechrisitanization!
  • 37. The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre(pg. 637) Let terror be the order of the day!
    • The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months.
    • The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000!
  • 38. Reign of Terror June 1793 – 27 July 1794
    • Period of violence
    • Mass executions of "enemies of the revolution.”
    • Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre
    • Guillotine became the killing
    • Machine.
    • Called, “The Incorruptible” because of
    • his austere moral devotion to
    • revolutionary political change.
  • 39. The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794
    • July 26  Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies.
      • many felt threatened by his implications.
    • July 27  the Convention arrests Robespierre.
    • July 28  Robespierre is tried & guillotined!
  • 40. Executi on of Robespierre
    • 28-Jul-179 4
    • Pg. 643-Illustration
    • Most revol utions devour their own”
  • 41. 3 rd Stage - Thermidorian Reaction: Directory  Dictatorship
    • Directory is set up
    • 1795
    • Napoleon leads a coup d’etat vs. Directory
  • 42. 18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799)
    • Coup d’ é tat by Napoleon.
    • Approved by a plebiscite in December.
    • Abbe Sieyès: Confidence from below; authority from above.
    Brumaire was the second month in the French Republican Calendar. Brumaire often refers to the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire in the year VIII (November 9, 1799), by which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the government of the Directory to replace it with the Consulate.
  • 43.
    • Napoleon sets up the Consulate with himself as First Consul
    • 1799—The Revolution is coming to an end.
    • Napoleon becomes Emperor of France
    • 1804
  • 44. Cycle of the French Revolution So…what was the significance of the French Revolution? Started with one-man rule and ended with one man rule???
  • 45.
    • Napoleon becomes Emperor of France
    • 1804:
    Took place in cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, France on December 2 nd , 1804. Crowned himself emperor in presence of Pope Pius VII to send a message that the Church will be excluded from all political affairs .
  • 46.
    • An unmanned balloon, ablaze with three thousands lights in an imperial crown pattern was launched from the front of Notre Dame during the celebration.
    Crown of Napoleon Napoleon called his new crown the Crown of Charlemagne, the name of the ancient royal coronation crown of France that had been destroyed in the French Revolution
  • 47. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a Revolution
    • He borrowed his terms from pathology.
    • Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:
      • The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.”
      • It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or “delirium.”
      • The crisis ends when the “fever” breaks.
      • A period of convalescence follows, interrupted by a relapse or two before the recovery is complete.
  • 48. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs
    • People from all social classes are discontented.
    • People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt.
    • People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for.
    • People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes.
    • The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile.
  • 49. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs
    • The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.
    • The government does not respond to the needs of its society.
    • The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.
    • The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself.
    • The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly.

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