3.1What are the urban problems in Hong Kong?**Table 1:Urban problems1. Housing2. Pollution3. Traffic congestionCauses1. Many people in a small area2. Shortage of flat land H.K. is hilly3. Economic growth4. Lack of urban planning in the past Land use conflict Old urban area5. Construction work, cars and home cause pollutionWhat are the major urban problems in HongKong?1. Housing problems
Crowded conditions Small housing units Buildings are very close together Not enough open spaces for recreation Close to industrial areas Close to busy roads *example: Sham Shui Po the living environment is poor2. Traffic congestions *Hong Kong has the highest car density* Car density=no. of cars /length of roads There is usually traffic congestion at bottlenecks in the main roads during rush-hours. It is also found in industrial areas where loading and unloading of goods take place. Traffic congestion at the entrance of the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Example: Lion Rock Tunnel Picture in book p.70
3. Pollution What kinds of pollution are there in Hong Kong? Air pollution (smoke), Water pollution (dirty water), Noise pollution (loud noise), Land pollution (garbage) and Light pollution (bright light). ***(They are called pollutants)***What are the causes of these urban problems?1. Many people in a small area What is the population density about Hong Kong? Hong Kong is densely populated or sparsely populated? (Of course, it is densely populated) Population density=no. of people /total area Population in Hong Kong is unevenly distributed. Many people are crowded into old urban areas such as Mong Kok and Kwun Tong.
2. Shortage of land for urban development Hong Kong is small and hilly. There is limited flat land for urban development. In some areas, such as Wan Chai, the buildings are very close to each other. We call these ‘concrete jungles’3. Lack of urban planning in the past Some factories were built near residential areas. Pollution is serious. Narrow roads and lack of transport facilities are common in these areas. Urban planning was bad in these areas.4. Economic growth Hong Kong people have become richer. The number of cars has increased. Hong Kong is an important centre. The demand for transport has also increased.
Figure1: Hong Kong people become richer Number of cars has increased Figure2: Growth of trade Increase the demand for transport Figure3: The construction of new roads cannot catch up with the increase in the number of cars Traffic congestion and pollution5. Cars, construction works and homes cause pollution Cars, buses and lorries give off waste gases. Construction works and traffic produce loud noise. We also produce a lot of waste, such as
garbage and sewage, at home every day. It causes water pollution. Figure1: Factories Cars Homes Loud noise Waste gases Dirty water Solid waste (noise (air pollution) (water (land pollution) pollution) pollution) **Look the figure in book p.76*(Summary)3.3What has been done to solve the urbanproblems in Hong Kong**Table 2:Solutions to the problems1. Lower population growth a) Birth control b) Limit number of immigrants2. Develop more land a) Develop new towns b) Reclamation
3. Build more houses4. Redevelop the old urban areas5. Build more roads and improve public transport6. Conserve the environment7. Better urban planningWhat has been done to solve the urbanproblems? **The first reason** (about Lower population growth)1. Lower population growth Suggest two reasons for the change. *1.Government (Family Planning Association of Hong Kong) encourage birth control. *2. People like to have small family. Describe the change in birth rates. *The birth rate in Hong Kong is decreasing. Look at the figure1 (in book) about the birth rates in Hong Kong since 1955. **The second reason** (about Lower population growth) *Government also limits the flow of immigrants.
*The government tries to lower population growth by birth control and controlling the number of immigrants from the mainland of China.2. Develop more land **The first reason** (about Develop more land) *The government has developed nine new towns. This helps to lower the population density of the old urban areas. The living environment improves. It becomes less crowded. Government has created more flat land by reclamation. **The second reason** (about Lower population growth) Reclamation increases land for urban development. Most of the land in West Kowloon is obtained from reclamation. Look the figure3(in book p.87)3. `Build more houses **The first reason** (about Build more houses) The government has built many public
housing estates to help low-income people improve their living conditions. The government also rebuilds some old public housing estates. The new estates provide more living spaces and better **The second reason** (about Build more houses) facilities. The government has built housing estates for sale at prices below market value. **The third reason** (about Build more houses)4. Redevelop the old urban areas Example: Wan Chai, Yau Ma Tei and Sheung Wan (have been redeveloped).5. Build more roads and improve public transport Improve public transport and road network to ease the traffic congestion problem. Building nine tunnels, new roads and highways which link up all the new towns, the airport and the old urban areas.
Government also encourages the use of mass transit systems, such as the MTR, the Light Rail, the East Rail and the Airport Railway. These systems provide convenient transport for a large number of people. West Rail (opening in 2003) and the Ma On Shan Rail (opening in December 2004), there are better links between the New Territories and the urban areas.Figure 1:Public TransportLight Rail: Tuen MunWest Rail: ---East Rail: Kowloon Lo WuMTR: Long form Mass Transit RailwayAirport Express: --- Q: Which new towns will the West Rail link up? A: Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long and
Tin Shui Wai. Look the map (in book p.89)>>[link to p.62] **The nine new towns need to spell!6. Conserve the environment The government set up the Environmental Protection Department to promote environment protection.Figure 2:Carry out improvement work Noise barrier at roadsidesPass laws to control pollution Pass laws to control emission of waste gases and sewage Penalty for smoky vehicles is increased to$1,000 Annoying noise is not allowed between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. and on holidays.
Educate the public ‘Waste recycling campaigns’ encourage people to reduce and separate waste7. Better urban planning It is a way to help solve urban problems. It can avoid land use conflict. Example: there is little land use conflict in Sha Tin new town because it is well-planned.Are these good measures?Some natural environment is under threatAs shown in Table 2 and Figure 9 (p.92), themeasures used to solve urban problems may causeother bad effects. **Look the figure 9 in book p.92**Table 2 Place Urban Bad effects development Ma Wan Reclamation A lot of fish was killed
Mai Po Industrial Endangered the development in gei wai shrimp Yuen Long in Mai Po The living place of the Long Valley Building a birds might be damaged tunnel for KCR Lantau Developing Greatly affect into a tourism, the natural leisure and environment international and the wildlife transport centre living in the area. Victoria Reclamation Affected the Harbour natural beauty of our harbor.The cost of a good environment is high It needs money to improve the environment. Water users are required to pay extra money to cover the cost of new sewage systems.
Factory owners need to build new facilities to meet pollution control standards. This increases the cost of production.**Look the Figure in the book p.95 (Summary)*3.5 How can we make our city a better place tolive?Table 3:Is it easy to solve urban problems?Solving urban problems is not easy. We shoulddevelop our urban area in a sustainable way.How can we help to make our city an ideal placeto live? Better living environment Government We Provide facilities and carry out urban Pay tax to the government and planning and redevelopment conserve the environment. programs.Is it easy to solve the urban problems?1. Q: What urban problem can building flyovers help solve?A: To solve transport problem (traffic congestion)2. Q: What problems will flyovers bring about?
A: Noise pollution and air pollution.How can we help to make our city an ideal placeto live? Solving urban problems is not only the responsibility of the government. Each of us should help to improve the urban environment. The government should provide community facilities carry out good urban planning and redevelop old urban areas In recent years, more and more people have argued that sustainable development of the urban areas is important. Sustainable development balances social, economic and environmental needs, both for present and future generations. Example: we can reduce waste and separating waste for recycling.Figure 3:We should:
1. Save energy2. Pay tax, land rent and fees3. Save water4. Use public transport5. Keep the environment clean