Innovation and creativity as a challenge for competitiveness: the case of Barcelona
What role has played governance and strategic planning in the success of Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR)?
What are the possibilities for the consolidation of a creative and knowledge-based society?
Historical development path of the BMR
The Configuration of a Cultural capital (19th century)
The gap of francoism (1939-1979)
The creation of the Barcelona model (1979-1995)
Polst-olympic governance developments (1995-2006)
Towards a creative knowledge region?
The creation of the ‘Barcelona Model’ (1979-1992)
Small interventions of urgent urban renewal
Creation of wide consensus with civil society and creation of efficient governance institutions to manage the city combining participative and representative governance.
Start of deindustrialization process
All these elements were the basis for a project at a higher scale: the Olympic games of 1992
Post-olympic governance developments (1995-2006)
Increased role of private actors and market in the governance arrangements (partly because of the debt of the city after the games and the economic recession).
Consolidation of the service economy and tourism inflows:
Post-olympic governance developments
Culture as a central element for economic growth changes the external image of the city
Emphasis on the Knowledge economy, but in a context of deindustrialization and low productivity patterns
Promotion of a great event based on culture: Forum de les cultures 2004
Progressive degradation of civil society engagement in the governance mechanisms
Lack of coordination between instittutions within the metropolitan region and at regional and national scales
Perception of quality of life between creative knowledge workers in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region Source: ACRE survey
Event Main Urban developments Universal Expo 1888 Regeneration of the Harbour Demolition of the military citadel and creation of the most relevant park of the city Universal Expo 1929 Urbanisation of the mountain of Montjuich and creation of infrastructures for international events Eucharist congress 1952 Urbanisation of the north of the city and creation of new neighbourhoods based on social housing for migrants from the countryside Olympic games 1992 Regeneration of the second part of the coastline, creation of a new neighbourhood, and intervention in other parts of the region Creation of ring-road and new communication infrastructures Forum de les cultures 2004 Final coastline regeneration Creation of a new neighbourhood in a former deprived area
Towards a creative knowledge city
We were a heavily industrialised city, we have suffered a major tertiarisation of the economy and now we bet for new sectors. We want to turn Barcelona in a large centre of cultural production
Jordi Hereu, Mayor of Barcelona, February 2008
Evolution of governance perspectives Period 1979-1992 1995-2006 2006- ? Main objectives -New Centralities -Olympic games -Improvement of tourism -Knowledge society -Cultural industries -Social cohesion Governance arrangements -Wide consensus with civil society and private actors
Gap with civil society
Strength of private actors in policy strategy
Reconstruction of bridges with civil society to improve social cohesion and cultural industries Social consequences Democratisation of urban development Improvement of neighbourhoods
Conflict in neighbourhood renewal
Rise of housing prices
-Recuperation of creative milieus? -Improvement of quality of life
Towards a creative knowledge city
Shift in the discourse from ‘knowledge’ to ‘creativity’ and from economic growth to citizenship and social cohesion.
Consolidation of previous projects on knowledge economy
22@ district is starting actions to attract companies in creative and knowledge clusters: media, energy, ICT, biomedicine and design
New projects as Biopol (biomedicine) or Creapolis (innovative business) are being started in other municipalities
Creation of a new strategic plan of culture for the city with the participation of all the private and non-profit actors in the cultural sector. Culture understood as a resource for innovation and transformation of the economy
Creation of new institutions for creative industries:
Factories of creativity
Centre for design
Since the democracy, Barcelona has adopted a governance model based on long-term strategic plannig which is adaptable to new concepts and theories on urban growth.
As we have seen, the model is in continuous change and it depends of the force of the different private, public and societal actors involved in each historic moment.
In its recent history, Barcelona and at lesser extent its metropolitan region has bet for culture as a motor for growth, what fosters possibilites for the development of a creative economy.
Nevertheless, an approach based on the metropolitan region as a whole is needed.