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Engineering Social Reality with Inheritence Relations
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Engineering Social Reality with Inheritence Relations

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In systems based on organisational specifications a reoccur- ring problem remains to be solved in the disparity between the level of abstractness of the organisational concepts and the concepts used …

In systems based on organisational specifications a reoccur- ring problem remains to be solved in the disparity between the level of abstractness of the organisational concepts and the concepts used in the implementation. Organisational specifications (deliberately) abstract from general practice, which creates a need to relate the abstract con- cepts used in the specification to concrete ones used in the practice. The prevailing solution for this problem is the use of counts-as statements. However, current implementations of counts-as view the relations ex- pressed in this notion as static ontological classifications, which presents problems in dynamic environments where the meaning of abstract con- cepts can change over time. This limitation has already been solved in complex formal theoretical investigations, but the results of that study are far too complex to make a practical implementation. This paper in- vestigates the limitations of current implementations of counts-as, and proposes a more flexible implementation based on the use of inheritance relations.

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    • 1. 15/07/08 | 1 18/11/09 NorMAS’08 ESAW’09 Engineering Social Reality with Inheritance Relations Huib Aldewereld, Sergio Alvarez-Napagao, Frank Dignum, Javier Vázquez-Salceda Universiteit Utrecht Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya huib@cs.uu.nl, salvarez@lsi.upc.edu, dignum@cs.uu.nl. jvazquez@lsi.upc.edu ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 2. 18/11/09 | 2 ESAW’09 Overview • Motivation • The ALIVE Project – Use case: Crisis Management • Counts-as – Aspects of counts-as – Constitutive counts-as in Crisis Management – Sub-contexts and overlapping • Implementing counts-as • Conclusions ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 3. 18/11/09 | 3 ESAW’09 Motivation • Complex systems organisational specification – Abstraction from actual practice • Gap between ontologies – Organisation ontology · means of transport, to pay – Implementation ontology · trucks, paypal payment ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 4. 18/11/09 | 4 ESAW’09 Bridging the gap • Traditional approach: refinement techniques – Linking abstract models with concrete concepts – Design time, too static – Limited reasoning • counts-as statements – Constitution of social reality – Defining institutional frames army truck counts-as a means of public transport? ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 5. 18/11/09 | 4 ESAW’09 Bridging the gap • Traditional approach: refinement techniques – Linking abstract models with concrete concepts – Design time, too static – Limited reasoning • counts-as statements – Constitution of social reality – Defining institutional frames army truck counts-as a means of public transport? Depends on the context! ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 6. 18/11/09 | 5 ESAW’09 Using counts-as • High level specifications should stay stable • Actual implementations should be flexible and adaptive • Objective: to implement all aspects of counts-as ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 7. 18/11/09 | 6 ESAW’09 Use case: Crisis Management • Example domain: Dutch Crisis Management • GRIP Levels – GRIP 0: routine accident – GRIP 1: small incidents (typically limited to a city) – GRIP 2: large scale incidents (typically crossing city borders) – GRIP 3: disasters/incidents concerning multiple regions/provinces – GRIP 4: a disaster with an impact or consequences on a national scale ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 8. 18/11/09 | 7 ESAW’09 Crisis Management Domain Norms • The crisis management task: – Prevent excessive casualties – Prevent excessive damage to the infrastructure • Adequate coordination is required for the correct execution of the crisis management task • Sufficient information should be shared between parties involved in the execution of the crisis management task • Institutional norms do not change, the interpretation of the institutional facts changes ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 9. 18/11/09 | 8 ESAW’09 Aspects of counts-as • counts-as provides an explicit representation for relating abstract and concrete concepts • Classificatory counts-as – It is always the case that large scale fires count as happenings with severe consequences • Proper classificatory counts-as – In a certain context, large scale fires count as disasters • Constitutive counts-as – It is a rule of a certain context that happenings with severe consequences count as disasters ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 10. 18/11/09 | 9 ESAW’09 Constitutive counts-as in Crisis Management • From the agent perspective – Reasoning about contexts – Dynamically changing the social reality • From the organisation perspective – Specification remains fixed – Application and interpretation of specification changes all agents are under the authority of the operational commander ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 11. 18/11/09 | 9 ESAW’09 Constitutive counts-as in Crisis Management • From the agent perspective – Reasoning about contexts – Dynamically changing the social reality • From the organisation perspective – Specification remains fixed – Application and interpretation of specification changes all agents are under the authority of the operational commander whereas the operational commander could be the Mayor, the Chief of the Fire Brigade, or others, depending on the context ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 12. 18/11/09 | 10 ESAW’09 Reasoning about contexts • Context can change because – An agent entitled declares a different context in effect – The situation does not conform to the constitutional definition of the current context we can now use army trucks for evacuation ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 13. 18/11/09 | 10 ESAW’09 Reasoning about contexts • Context can change because – An agent entitled declares a different context in effect – The situation does not conform to the constitutional definition of the current context we can now use army trucks for evacuation thus possibly forcing a switch to a different context ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 14. 18/11/09 | 11 ESAW’09 Sub-contexts and overlapping • Constitutive counts-as rules define social contexts • Comparison between different contexts can be inefficient • Solution: each context has its unique counts-as rules – Context subsumption – Context overlap ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 15. 18/11/09 | 12 ESAW’09 Sub-context handling !"%# !"# !$# !$%# ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 16. 18/11/09 | 13 ESAW’09 Context overlapping !"%$# !"# !$# !"&# !$&# ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 17. 18/11/09 | 14 ESAW’09 Implementing counts-as • Implementation currently being developed in Drools – Open-source Java-based rule engine – Declarative reasoning, forward chaining inference – Enhanced implementation of the RETE algorithm – Templates are available to work with OWL-DL ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 18. 18/11/09 | 15 ESAW’09 From ontology to Drools • Asserting predicates • Asserting contexts • Asserting proper classificatory counts-as ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 19. 18/11/09 | 15 ESAW’09 From ontology to Drools • Asserting predicates Mayor(x) • Asserting contexts • Asserting proper classificatory counts-as ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 20. 18/11/09 | 15 ESAW’09 From ontology to Drools • Asserting predicates Mayor(x) • Asserting contexts Context(GRIP2), Context(GRIP3) • Asserting proper classificatory counts-as ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 21. 18/11/09 | 15 ESAW’09 From ontology to Drools • Asserting predicates Mayor(x) • Asserting contexts Context(GRIP2), Context(GRIP3) • Asserting proper classificatory counts-as ChiefFire(α) counts-asGRIP2 OperationalCommander(α) Mayor(α) counts-asGRIP3 OperationalCommander(α) ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 22. 18/11/09 | 16 ESAW’09 Context identification ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 23. 18/11/09 | 16 ESAW’09 Context identification for each set of counts-as statements with the same concepts, we add them to one internal context ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 24. 18/11/09 | 16 ESAW’09 Context identification for each set of counts-as statements with the same concepts, we add them to one internal context each internal context is identified by the contexts of its counts-as, and linked with the contexts defined by the user ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 25. 18/11/09 | 17 ESAW’09 Example of context identification ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 26. 18/11/09 | 17 ESAW’09 Example of context identification There are 3 internal contexts with constitutive counts-as: GRIP2 : { ChiefFire(α) counts-as OperationalCommander(α) } GRIP2GRIP3 : { Ambulance(α) counts-as MeansOfEvacuation(α) } GRIP3 : { Mayor(α) counts-as OperationalCommander(α), ArmyTruck(α) counts-as MeansOfEvacuation(α) } ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 27. 18/11/09 | 18 ESAW’09 Context activation ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 28. 18/11/09 | 18 ESAW’09 Context activation if a context is declared as active, all the internal contexts linked to it are activated ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 29. 18/11/09 | 18 ESAW’09 Context activation if a context is declared as active, all the internal contexts linked to it are activated if an internal context C is active and A(α) counts-asC B(α), then A(α) counts-as B(α) ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 30. 18/11/09 | 18 ESAW’09 Context activation if a context is declared as active, all the internal contexts linked to it are activated if an internal context C is active and A(α) counts-asC B(α), then A(α) counts-as B(α) if A(α) counts-as B(α) and A(x), then B(x) ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 31. 18/11/09 | 19 ESAW’09 From counts-as to contexts ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 32. 18/11/09 | 19 ESAW’09 From counts-as to contexts iff for all A(α) counts-asC B(α) from an internal context C A(α) counts-as B(α), then the internal context C is activated ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 33. 18/11/09 | 19 ESAW’09 From counts-as to contexts iff for all A(α) counts-asC B(α) from an internal context C A(α) counts-as B(α), then the internal context C is activated iff all internal contexts linked to a context C defined by the user are active, then activate the context C ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 34. 18/11/09 | 20 ESAW’09 Features of the implementation • Context subsumption and overlapping • Internally, each context has unique counts-as • Closure – Context defines counts-as – counts-as define a context • Contexts are available for reasoning ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 35. 18/11/09 | 20 ESAW’09 Features of the implementation • Context subsumption and overlapping • Internally, each context has unique counts-as • Closure – Context defines counts-as – counts-as define a context • Contexts are available for reasoning ambulances are insufficient for evacuation ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 36. 18/11/09 | 20 ESAW’09 Features of the implementation • Context subsumption and overlapping • Internally, each context has unique counts-as • Closure – Context defines counts-as – counts-as define a context • Contexts are available for reasoning ambulances are need for army insufficient for trucks evacuation ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 37. 18/11/09 | 20 ESAW’09 Features of the implementation • Context subsumption and overlapping • Internally, each context has unique counts-as • Closure – Context defines counts-as – counts-as define a context • Contexts are available for reasoning ambulances are army trucks count need for army insufficient for as means of trucks evacuation evacuation in GRIP3 ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 38. 18/11/09 | 20 ESAW’09 Features of the implementation • Context subsumption and overlapping • Internally, each context has unique counts-as • Closure – Context defines counts-as – counts-as define a context • Contexts are available for reasoning ambulances are army trucks count need for army insufficient for as means of trucks evacuation evacuation in GRIP3 in GRIP3, the commander is the mayor ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 39. 18/11/09 | 20 ESAW’09 Features of the implementation • Context subsumption and overlapping • Internally, each context has unique counts-as • Closure – Context defines counts-as – counts-as define a context • Contexts are available for reasoning ambulances are army trucks count need for army insufficient for as means of trucks evacuation evacuation in GRIP3 the command in GRIP3, the has to be commander is transferred the mayor ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 40. 18/11/09 | 21 ESAW’09 Conclusions • Counts-as plays a crucial role in complex and dynamic applications – Context-dependent linking between abstract specification and concrete practice • Several aspects of counts-as – Constitutive aspect is tackled • Implementation in Drools – Expressive – Agents can reason about contexts and counts-as ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 41. 18/11/09 | 22 ESAW’09 Further work • Improve the implementation of the context concept • Currently building support to first-order logic formulas of counts-as statements • Integration with rule-based norm operation • Use in ALIVE monitor component ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT
    • 42. 18/11/09 | 23 ESAW’09 Thank you! ALIVE EU FUNDED PROJECT