Problem solving

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Overview of how our brain helps us to solve a problem

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Problem solving

  1. 1. PROBLEM-SOLVING
  2. 2. How do you solve a problem? <ul><li>Use an ALGORITHM - You think it through step by step and consider all possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Use HEURISTICS – a quick solution sometimes called a “rule of thumb” </li></ul><ul><li>Use INSIGHT- the “a-ha” moment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Obstacles to problem-solving <ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Representativeness heuristics </li></ul><ul><li>Availability heuristics </li></ul><ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation bias </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fixation <ul><li>Functional fixedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the use of a pencil? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many ways can a pencil be used? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you solve a problem one way successfully you can solve all problems the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both -> stereotyping in thought </li></ul>
  5. 5. Representativeness Heuristics <ul><li>The likelihood of things in terms of how well they represent a prototype. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a bird: </li></ul>Which is a better prototype for a bird?
  6. 6. Availability Heuristics <ul><li>How mentally available is our information </li></ul><ul><li>Which letter occurs more often in the first or third position in words? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: the letter </li></ul><ul><li>What clues did you use to reach the answer? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Overconfidence <ul><li>We tend to overestimate the accuracy of our information and judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Can he make the shot every time? </li></ul><ul><li>Overconfidence can cause us to not do our best because we think we don’t need to practice. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Framing <ul><li>The way we ask or “frame “ a question can affect the outcome of our answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Polls and surveys use this to mold responses to support their point of view. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political polls are good examples </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Confirmation Bias <ul><li>“ the belief perseverance “ phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>We cling to our beliefs even when contrary evidence is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>We still like to think that.. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Activity <ul><li>Work with one or two people </li></ul><ul><li>From the box you need to get: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A plastic bag with nails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A base with a nail in it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You assignment is to balance </li></ul><ul><li>ALL the nails </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD LUCK…. and it can be done!  </li></ul>

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