Course: Wood Utilization Professor: Byung G. Lee By: Nuredin Mohammed 08/01/13
Originally from America then spread to Asia and Africa, Brazil, Thailand, Indonesia, Nigeria and India chronologically main producer in the world, Propagated vegetatively by cutting stem, (9-12mth) Broadly adopted to a variety of soil and climate, drought tolerant, ability to grow on depleted land and marginal soil, A staple food for about 500 million people around the world,
It is very rich in starch:, can provide 30% of their dry weight as starch Cassava has many calories and is high in vitamins and minerals The plant is toxic if eaten raw due to its cyanide content and needs to be rendered edible through cooking. Productivity 25 -80 tone/ha, From world wide production, 53% used for food (Income), 24% used for animal feed, 22% used as a seed, others for Industry
Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, is produced by fermenting and distilling biomass. Most significantly, ethanol can be used as a bio-fuel or fuel additive from renewable energy sources. Ethanol is the base of most alcoholic beverages and is used in many pharmaceutical and beauty products. Bio-fuels from renewable sources have recently gained significance as an alternative to finite fossil fuels and a potential solution to ending our dependence on declining natural resources.
Most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a bio-fuel additive for gasoline. It is a domestically produced alternative fuel which made from corn, cellulosic feedstocks such as crop residues and wood, Can be made from any crop or plant that contains natural sugar (beet and cane), crops such as corn, wheat and barely contains starch that can be easily converted in to sugar, Most trees and grasses are made of cellulose, which an be converted in to sugar,
Reduced deforestation Not cause air pollution, Has a higher octane rating than petrol as a fuel, Is an excellent raw material for synthetic chemicals, Provides jobs, and economic development in rural areas, Reduce countries dependence on petroleum and it is a source of revenue for producing countries, Reduce adverse foreign trade balance
In the fermentation process, sugar and starch molecules are broken down by yeast to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. Water evaporates in the distillation process, therefore increasing the purity of ethanol. Mostly ethanol is produced using a four step process: 1. Feedstock’s (crop or plant), are ground up for easier processing, 2. Sugar is dissolved from the ground material, or the starch or cellulose is converted in to sugar, 3. Microbes feed on the sugar, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as byproduct, and 4. The ethanol purified to achieve the correct concentration.
A great crop for ethanol production because it produces high yields (30-80 tone/hectare) and boasts tremendous starch content, therefore producing high amounts of ethanol per ton. Compared to wheat, corn or sugar cane, cassava ethanol yields amount up to about 200 liters per ton. about 280 liters (222 kg) of 96 percent pure ethanol from one tone of cassava roots with 30 percent starch content. Cassava which is only 20% starch will produce only 180 liters of alcohol per tone, effluent
Grind cassava into cassava chips and mix them with water Convert cassava starch molecules into sugar Ferment and distill our cassava By hybridizing production and processing equipment we can streamline operation, Produce high-grade ethanol at low cost and Reduce our emissions by taking advantage of waste heat to process materials.
Cassava Ethanol Production Africa : 121 million tones Nigeria more than 45million tone $6billion saved by using cassava bio-fule in 2012, Asia: 83, 755 tones Thailand about 23million tone Major exporter of starch 2 million liters of ethanol to meet its 10 percent fuel substitution. China 5million tones of ethanol in 2009, 7million tones of dried cassava utilized Latin America: 36,609million tones Brazil about 27million tones Oceania: 258,000 tones
Ethanol blending began in 2008, Blending policy increased from 5% to 10% in 2010, Producing 33.9 million liters of ethanol from two sugar factories, Up to 2010, 24 million USD saved In the next five to seven years (GTP period) the production capacity will grow up to 182 million liters and blending will also increase up to 25%.
Introduced in 1960s, Grow in the altitude between 480-1800m.a.s.l. Temperature 15-30 degree Celsius Annual rainfall 692-1470, Dominant in South Part of Ethiopia Currently disseminate to other regions,
Mainly for food ( food security food), Animal feed, Making local alcohol ( Areqe and Tela)Apart form these, Ethiopia has a great potential to produce ethanol from cassava for the future!!!!!