Covert action


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Covert action

  1. 1. Covert Action 1
  2. 2.  At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:  Define covert action;  Identify and describe the range of covert action;  Relate and discuss key issues in covert action;  Identify the two key legal curtailments to US covert action and summarize their effects; and  Identify and explain several examples of the use of covert action throughout history. Covert Action 2
  3. 3. “An activity of the U.S. government to influencepolitical, economic, or military conditions abroad, where it is intended that the role of the U.S. Government will not be apparent or acknowledged publicly.” NSC 10/2 Covert Action 3
  4. 4. Covert Action 4
  5. 5.  Propaganda Political Activity Economic Activity Coups Paramilitary Operations Covert Action 5
  6. 6.  Secret Participation in Combat Renditions Covert Action 6
  7. 7. Covert Action 7
  8. 8.  Orchestrated revolt of Protestant Netherlands against their Spanish occupiers in 1566 to buy her more time to develop her navy Stopped use of Dutch ports as a launching point for attack on England Used pirates to steal Spanish gold from New World to build her navy Covert Action 8
  9. 9.  First post-war elections in Italy US concerned over possible communist party victory CIA advised non-communist parties on propaganda, provided funding, etc. Covert Action 9
  10. 10.  Mohammed Mossadeq Prime Minister of Iran, 1951-1953 Target of joint CIA/MI6 Operation AJAX led by Kermit Roosevelt Covert Action 10
  11. 11.  Jacobo Arbenz President of Guatemala, 1951-1954  Target of CIA operation PBSUCCESS (1953-4)  Operation used propaganda and small paramilitary forceCovert Action 11
  12. 12.  Attempted large-scale copy of Guatemala operation to remove Fidel Castro from power Various errors in analysis and planning Covert Action 12
  13. 13.  Over 100 Cuban exiles killed; over 1100 taken prisonerCovert Action 13
  14. 14.  Irish-American community against the government of the United Kingdom Clan na Gael Provided uncounted thousands of dollars to support fight against UK Partially led to the creation of the independent Irish Free State in 1922 Covert Action 14
  15. 15. Covert Action 15
  16. 16.  Government denials of a role in the events stemming from a covert action would appear plausible.  Non-attribution to the United States for covert operations was the original and principal purpose of the so-called doctrine of “plausible denial.”  Evidence before the Committee clearly demonstrates that this Allen Welsh Dulles, concept, designed to protect the Director of CIA United States and its operatives from from 1953 to 1961, the consequences of disclosures, has first used the term been expanded to mask decisions of publicly the President and his senior staff members. Covert Action 16
  17. 17.  Story that is planted in a media outlet overseas by the CIA is reported back in the US and violates rule that CIA should not operate inside U.S. Covert Action 17
  18. 18.  Traditionally under control of CIA No international sanction for covert action, thus the target may consider the use of military personnel in such an activity to be an act of war Involvement of DoD may undercut the effort to achieve plausible deniability Covert Action 18
  19. 19.  DoD has greater experience to conduct military operations and has a greater infrastructure to carry them out Removing paramilitary operations from CIA might save the IC from some internal strains caused by having responsibility for both analysis and operations Covert Action 19
  20. 20.  In 1600s and 1700s Europe, statesmen occasionally used assassination as a foreign policy tool Wet affairs – referred to assassinations Church Committee found in 1976 that the US was involved in several assassination plots in the 1960s and 1970s –the most famous being that against Fidel Castro Covert Action 20
  21. 21.  In 1976 the US formally banned the use of assassination, either directly by the US or through a third party After Sept. 11, 2001 attacks, bin Laden and other terrorists seen as legitimate combatant targets, as US is at war against them Covert Action 21
  22. 22. Covert Action 22
  23. 23.  Prohibited the expenditure of any funds by any U.S. government agency for covert actions operations unless the President “found” that the operations were in the national security interest of the U.S. and reported to Congress, in writing (1974) Covert Action 23
  24. 24.  Two immediate effects: (1) Eliminated the ability of the President to disclaim any knowledge of covert operations as finding goes to: ▪ Appropriations (HoR) (S) ▪ Armed Services (HoR) (S) ▪ Foreign Affairs (HoR) (S) ▪ House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence ▪ Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Covert Action 24
  25. 25.  Two immediate effects: (2) Gave Congress constitutional as well as informal means to halt covert action operations in progress and prevent new programs from commencing Covert Action 25
  26. 26.  President is final approving authority on covert actions No Findings may be signed retroactively No part of program can violate Constitution or federal laws President must list all agencies that have a role to play in the program, as well as any foreign countries No program can be used to influence U.S. political processes, media, policies, or public opinion Covert Action 26
  27. 27. Covert Action 27
  28. 28.  Policy makers examine at least two levels of risk before approving a covert action  Risk of exposure  Risk of failure Covert Action 28
  29. 29. Click picture for video on Iran –Contra Hearings Covert Action 29
  30. 30. Covert Action 30
  31. 31.  Created in 1983 by Reagan to promote democracy worldwide Four subsidiary organizations  International Republican Institute  National Democratic Institute  Free Trade Union Institute  Center for International Private Enterprise Covert Action 31
  32. 32.  Involved in political and paramilitary action in Iraq Iraq Liberation Act of 1998: Congress authorized $97 million to overthrow Hussein under control of State Department Parallel CIA covert action as well Covert Action 32
  33. 33.  Outsourcing of what used to be covert actions to private entities  Dyncorp monitoring and surveilling drug shipments and growing areas in South America  MPRI provision of military/paramilitary training in Croatia and Angola in the 1990s Covert Action 33
  34. 34.  Roy Godson, Dirty Tricks or Trump Cards: U.S. Covert Action and Counterintelligence Spy Museum Interviews:  August 1, 2009 features Richard Cummings, who discusses Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty propaganda operations during the Cold War and Soviet operations against the stations Covert Action 34