I. What is Program Planning? • A system process. • It is the key to our role as effective educators. • It is about planning and delivering programs to address needs. • Setting priorities is one of the central purposes of program planning.
II. What are the first steps in programplanning?1. Determine the need for the program.2. You need to know your target audience. Considerations: a. Find out their background and levelof experience. b. Determine preferred learning styles.
c. Assess motivation to learn.d. Determine how easy is it for them toattend an education program.*Failure to know your audience and their needsmay result in lack of interest in your program.
III. Who should be involved in planning aneducation program?Program planning may require one or twopeople or a large group. Considerations: a. Program topic b. Length c. Complexity
IV. What do I need to do to plan aneducation program for my unit?Once you have determined the need for aprogram and your target audience, your nextsteps are to select a speaker; determine thedate, time, and location of the program; andthen advertise the program. Allow yourself 1-2weeks. Appendix A contains a checklist forvarious activities.
V. How do I select the speaker? Considerations: a. Expertise about the subject matter. b. Travel and fees for the speaker(ifany). c. Ability to present the topic accordingto the teaching method that you have identified. d. Teaching skill of the speaker.
e. Ability of the speaker to present theinformation at a level appropriate for yourtarget audience.f. You may want to get references fromothers about the skill of the speaker, view atape, or observe a presentation before youmake your decision.
*Once you select the speaker, it is importantthat you tell him/her how the need wasassessed, your target audience, objectives,and preferred teaching methods.*Specific information for the speaker may beput in a confirmation letter and/or a speakercontract and/or a speaker information form(Appendices B, C, D, and E). Confirmationletters and contracts should be done for a full-day conference but may be optional for a smallunit-based program.
VI. How do I determine the best date andtime?Considerations:a. Depends on the availability of thespeaker.-National speakers often schedule theirengagements 6 months to 1 year in advance.This is important to know when planning a full-day conference.-Local or internal speakers may need only 1-2
b. Consider your audience when choosingthe date.-Some clinical areas may be busier andstaffing may be higher on certain days of theweek than others.-Mondays and Fridays are sometimes avoidedbecause of their proximity to the weekend.-Certain times of the day also may be better orworse, depending on the unit.
-Avoid times when there will be numerousadmissions, discharges, procedures, ormedications to be administered.-Consider other events may be going on.*Your best course of action is to ask the targetaudience which day and time are best forthem.
VII. How do I decide on the location? Considerations: a. The number of the participants that you expect to attend the program. b. Teaching method. c. Accessibility.
*A unit-based program for a handful of people maybe done in the break room, small conference room,or empty patient room.*These locations should be accessible if staff havedifficulty getting away from a clinical unit to attend aneducational program.*For a large group, you may want to select aconference room or an auditorium or largeconference room is best for the lecture.*A patient room or skills lab should be used if you aredemonstrating equipment or practicing nursing skills.
VIII. How do I advertise a program?a. A program offered internally may beadvertised via word of mouth. e-mail, or eye-catching flyers posted in the work area.b. External programs may be advertised withprofessional designed brochures or mailers.c. Whatever the method, advertising shouldprovide information about the “who”, “what”,“when”, “why”, and “where” of the program. Itshould be interesting enough to catch a person’sinterest and explain “what’s in it for me” so thatpeople will want to attend (Appendices G & H).
IX. Are there any general tips on preparing aflyer?a. Provide certain essential information such asthe program title, date, start & end time, andlocation.b. Participants want to know the name of thespeaker, program content and/or objectives.c. Additional information such as fees,refreshments, and need to preregister depends onyour internal needs and processes.d. When designing flyers, use large type tomake the title, date, and time stand out.
e. AVOID using too many different type styles,all capital letters, or too much bold or underlining.These techniques can make the flyer more difficultto read.f. Arrange the information in short sentencesor use bullets.g. A catchy title, interesting pictures, use ofdifferent colored paper can make the informationmore noticeable.h. If you want an approximate count, askparticipants to preregister.
X. How far in advance do I need toadvertise a program?a. A unit-based program should beadvertised up to 2 weeks in advance. Thisschedule allows people who work part time,per diem, or on weekends to see the programnotice and make plans to attend.b. A full-day seminar may be advertised upto 4 months in advance. This time frame allowsparticipants to plan their schedules, arrangetravel, and obtain conference funding.
XI. How do I plan a program for nursingcontact hours?*If nursing contact hours are to be awarded, aminimum of 2 RNs should participate in theplanning. One person should be designated as thenurse planner with responsibility for the overallprogram delivery and coordination.*People who are experts in the subject matter,representatives from the target audience, expertsin education design, and speakers also should beincluded in the planning.*Documentation that shows the use of theeducational process is needed.
XII. What is involved in planning an all-dayseminar?a. A planning committee should beorganized so that the tasks can be divided.b. Planning begins 6 months to 1 year inadvance. This time frame is needed particularlyif you are booking national speakers and abanquet facility.c. Preparation, layout, and printing of abrochure also may take several weeks.
d. Once organized, the planning committeeneeds to discuss the following: needsassessment, target audience, objectives, bestteaching methods, time frames for each topic,speakers, location, budget and fees,refreshments, advertising, and need for contacthours. Sometimes, it is helpful to use achecklist to make sure that all the details arecovered, responsibility is assigned and adeadline date is set (see Appendix A).
XIII. How do I select a conference facility?a. Set up a meeting with the banquet managerat the hotel or conference center so that you cantour the facility and discuss fees and services.b. Ask about room rental fees, cost of rentingaudiovisual equipment, catering, and any othercharges.c. consider the following issues: How large orsmall a group can the site hold? Are breakoutrooms available? How friendly andaccommodating are the staff? Is nereby parkingavailable? Is there a fee to park? Is the location
XIV. How do I determine budget and fees?Expenses to be considered:a. Room rentalb. Foodc. Audiovisual equipment rentald. Speaker honoraria
*These expenses may be covered by charginga fee to participants or seeking funding from agrant or company/corporate sponsorship(Appendix J). If funds are limited, costs can becut by eliminating refreshments, seeking alocation where there are no room rental costs,or considering cosponsorship with a companythat can provide some financial support.
XV. How do I decide what refreshments tooffer? Considerations: a. Time and length of the program. b. Funding.
XVI. What are the different ways to set up aroom for a training program?a. Classroomb. Theatrec. Dining roomd. Meeting room
e. U-shaped stylef. Chevron style (see Appendix F)*To be most effective, the teaching method andnumber of participants should govern the roomset-up.
XVII.Is preregister necessary?Importance:a. It gives you an approximate count so thatyou will have enough handouts andrefreshments.
b. If you will have more people thanexpected, you can prepare more handouts,add more chairs, adjust the room set-up orchange the room location, or possibly close theregistration to more participants.c. If registration numbers are low, you mayconsider canceling or readvertising theprogram.
XVIII. Why may program registration below?Several Factors:a. Participants may not be aware of theprogram. Evaluate to whom you sent youradvertising and how you sent it.b. Program time, length, or location canmake attendance difficult.c. Participant’s interest also may be anissue. Evaluate how you determined the needfor the program. Be sure that you are offering aprogram that truly is needed.
XIX. What should I be aware of ifcommercial support is provided for theprogram?a. Make sure that the primary purpose iseducational, not promotional.b. The program center should be objectiveand balanced, and monetary inducementsbeyond necessary expenses, gifts of more thannominal value, or personal amenities should beavoided.
c. If a commercial exhibit is to be part of theactivity, it should not interfere with thepresentation of the continuing educationactivity.d. Affiliations, sponsorships, financialsupport, and other potentially biasing factorsshould be disclosed to the audience (seeAppendices E and J).
XX. What are behavioral objectives?Behavioral objectives are statementsdescribing the behavior that the participant isexpected to exhibit at the end of the learningexperience. Well-written objectives are learner-oriented rather than content-oriented.Specifically, they describe the learner, includea statement of conditions, and identify theknowledge, skills or feelings to be acquired.
For example:Learner The orienteeBehavior will demonstrate the correct procedure for endotracheal suctioningConditions by the end of the class.
XXI. How do I write objectives?Writing behavioral objectives is more than anexercise in word-smithing. Ideally, the shouldcommunicate the intent and direction of theprogram. Behavioral objectives describe thelearning experience and provide a frameworkfor teaching-learning activities. They refer tothe actions expected of the learner. For thisreason, it is essential that the needs andabilities of the learner be considered in writingbehavioral objectives.
Behavioral objectives are arranged into 3groups: cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor(skills), and affective (feelings or values).a. Cognitive objectives contain action verbsthat describe knowledge. Verbs such as recall,list, describe, and identify are used: “By theend of the session, the participant will ne ableto recall the drugs that can be administered viaan endotracheal tube during a code.”
b. Psychomotor objectives contain verbsthat describe motor skills. Verbs such asimitate, demonstrate, and follow proceduremay be used: “By the end of the class, theparticipant will be able to demonstrate thecorrect procedure for endotracheal suctioning.”
c. Affective objectives contain verbs thatdescribe feelings or values. Verbs such asshare, respond, defend, and act consistentlymay be used: (1) “During the session,participants will share their most effectivestrategies for coping with stress.” (2) “By theend of the sensitivity training classes, theorientee will respond to the patient’s needs forprivacy in an appropriate manner.”
XXII.Why are objectives necessary?a. It describe the actions expected of thelearner, they may be seen by some as acontract for what the participant will achieve byattending the program.b. It serve as promotional purpose and tellpotential participants what the program is allabout.
c. It help determine the teaching method.*Cognitive objectives may be met via a lecture,psychomotor objectives during a skills lab, andaffective objectives during small groupinteractions.