Citing sources


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Citing sources

  1. 1. CITING SOURCESAvoiding Plagiarism
  2. 2. Avoiding Plagiarism• Plagiarism is using someone elses words orideas and presenting them as your own.• A charge of plagiarism can have severeconsequences, including expulsion from auniversity or loss of a job, not to mention awriters loss of credibility and professionalstanding.• To avoid plagiarism, you must properly cite yoursources.
  3. 3. In-Text Citations• MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation.• After anything you are citing, whether it is a quote, summary, orparaphrase you must write the author’s name and pagenumber indicating where you found the information.• ExamplesRomantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).• Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (Wordsworth 263).• If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, underthe name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:• Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.
  4. 4. Incorporating Research• There are three easy ways to incorporate what you havefound into your own writing.• Quotes• Paraphrasing• Summarizing1. Provide support for claims2. Give examples of several points of view on a subject3. Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, orpassage by quoting the original4. Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in orderto cue readers that the words are not your own
  5. 5. Quotes• Quotations must be identical to the original, using anarrow segment of the source. They must match thesource document word for word and must be attributed tothe original author.• Example: Gibaldi indicates, “Quotations are effective inresearch papers when used selectively” (Gibaldi 109).
  6. 6. Paraphrase• your own rendition of essential information and ideasexpressed by someone else, presented in a new form.• one legitimate way (when accompanied by accuratedocumentation) to borrow from a source.• a more detailed restatement than a summary, whichfocuses concisely on a single main idea.• Example: Within the research paper, quotations will havemore impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi 109).
  7. 7. 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing1. Reread the original passage until you understand its fullmeaning.2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a notecard.3. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase toindicate the subject of your paraphrase.4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that yourversion accurately expresses all the essential information ina new form.5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term orphraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card sothat you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate thematerial into your paper.
  8. 8. What is a plagiarized Paraphrase• The original passage:• Students frequently overuse direct quotation in takingnotes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final[research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your finalmanuscript should appear as directly quoted matter.Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exacttranscribing of source materials while taking notes.• Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.• PlagiarizedStudents often use too many direct quotations when they takenotes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper.In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consistof directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amountof source material copied while taking notes.
  9. 9. Summary• Summarizing involves putting the main idea into yourown words, including only the main point.• It is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to theoriginal source.• Summaries are significantly shorter than the original andtake a broad overview of the source material.• Example: According to Freud, actual but unacceptabledesires are censored internally and subjected to codingthrough layers of condensation and displacement beforeemerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself(Freud 7).
  10. 10. How to usequotations, paraphrases, andsummaries• Read the entire text, noting the key points and mainideas.• Summarize in your own words what the single main ideaof the essay is.• Paraphrase important supporting points that come up inthe essay.• Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that youbelieve should be quoted directly.
  11. 11. Do now.• Practice paraphrasing at this website:•