Table of Contents ExitPiaget & VygotskyThe Emergence of Thought andLanguage - Cognitive Development inChildhood
Table of Contents ExitThe Onset of Thinking:Piaget’s AccountLearning Objectives– According to Piaget, how do assimilation, accommodation,and organization provide the foundation for cognitivedevelopment throughout the life span?– How do schemes become more advanced as infantsprogress through the six stages of sensorimotor thinking?– What are the distinguishing characteristics of thinking duringthe preoperational stage?– What are some of the shortcomings of Piaget’s account ofcognitive developments?
Table of Contents ExitThe Onset of Thinking:Piaget’s AccountBasic Principles of Cognitive DevelopmentChildren make sense of world through categories ofrelated events, objects, and knowledge, calledschemes.Children adapt to their environment as they developby adding and refining their schemes.Schemes change from physical, to functional,conceptual, and abstract as the child develops.
Table of Contents ExitThe Onset of Thinking:Piaget’s AccountAssimilation and AccommodationWhen new experiences fit into existingschemes it is called assimilation.When schemes have to be modified as aconsequence of new experiences, it is calledaccommodation.– Assimilation > required to benefit from experience.– Accommodation > for dealing with completely newdata or experience.
Table of Contents ExitThe Onset of Thinking:Piaget’s AccountEquilibration & Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentEquilibrium exists when there is a balance betweenassimilation and accommodation.Disequilibrium exists when more accommodation isoccurring than assimilation.Equilibration takes place when inadequate schemesare replaced with more advanced and matureschemes.Equilibration occurs three times during development,resulting in 4 stages of cognitive development.
Table of Contents ExitThe Onset of Thinking:Piaget’s AccountPeriods of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor Period (0-2 years)– InfancyPreoperational Period (2-7 years)– Preschool and early elementary schoolConcrete Operational Period (7-11 years)– Middle and late elementary schoolFormal Operational Period (11 years & up)– Adolescence and adulthood
Table of Contents ExitWhere are your students?Key indicators of– Concrete Operations– Seriation— can arrange objects in an order (size, shape, etc).– Classification— can name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, sizeor other characteristic, including idea that one set of objects can include another.– Decentering—child takes into account multiple aspects of problem to solve it.Example: child no longer perceives exceptionally wide but short cup to contain lessthan a normally-wide, taller cup.– Reversibility— child understands numbers or objects can be changed, then returnedto original state. So, child can rapidly determine that if 4+4 equals 8, 8−4 will equal 4,the original quantity.– Conservation—understands quantity, length or number of items is unrelated toarrangement or appearance of the object or items.– Elimination of Egocentrism—the ability to view things from anothers perspective(even if they think incorrectly). Example: show child a comic where Jane puts a dollunder a box, leaves the room, and then another moves the doll to a drawer, and Janereturns. Child in concrete operations will say Jane will still think its under the box,though child knows it’s in the drawer.
Table of Contents ExitWhere are your students?Key indicators of Formal Operations– Think abstractly– Reason logically– Draw conclusions from available informationMay only reach FO in particular tasks (esp. areas ofexpertise)
Table of Contents ExitThe Onset of Thinking:Piaget’s AccountPreoperational ThinkingEgocentrism– The child is unable to see the world from any viewpoint otherthan their own.Centration– Children concentrate on only one dimension or aspect of aproblem, ignoring other equally relevant aspects.Appearance is Reality– Inability to understand that appearances can be misleading(e.g. magic acts are real events).
Table of Contents ExitEvaluating Piaget’s TheoryImplications for TeachingTeachers should provide materials andconditions for students to discoverknowledge.Students learn better when they can applysomething they already know to the material.Large gains are made when studentsdiscover their own errors and inconsistencies.
Table of Contents ExitEvaluating Piaget’s TheoryConsistency in PerformanceChildren do not perform consistently in othertasks that should utilize the same ability.Piaget’s theory would suggest that theseabilities should affect all aspects ofperformance.
Table of Contents ExitMind & Culture:Vygotsky’s TheoryLearning Objectives– What is the zone of proximal development? Howdoes it help explain how children accomplish morewhen they collaborate with others?– What is a particularly effective way of teachingyoungsters new tasks?– When and why do children talk to themselves asthey solve problems?
Table of Contents ExitMind & Culture:Vygotsky’s TheoryLev Vygotsky (1896-1934)A Russian psychologist.Saw cognitive development as anapprenticeship in which children advance byinteraction with others more mature.Vygotsky died young (37) and did not fullydevelop his theory beyond childhood.
Table of Contents ExitMind & Culture:Vygotsky’s Theory2 Major Contributions:Zone of Proximal Development– Difference betw. what child can do with & without help frommore experienced guide.– Teachers > keep students in zone to achieve maximally.Scaffolding– Giving just enough help to achieve understanding.– Studies > students learn worse when:• told everything to do• or when left alone to discover on their own.
Table of Contents ExitZone of Proximal DevelopmentLearnerKnowsZone‘Challenge’ThreatThreat
Table of Contents ExitMind & Culture:Vygotsky’s TheoryMajor Contributions (cont.)Private Speech– Children talk to themselves as they go aboutdifficult tasks.– This speech is not intended for others, but for selfguidance and regulation.– Eventually this private speech becomesinternalized and becomes inner speech…whichwas Vygotsky’s term for thought.
Table of Contents ExitFirst Words & MoreEncouraging Language GrowthParents assist in learning language by:– Speaking to children frequently.– Naming objects of children’s attention.– Using speech that is more grammaticallysophisticated.– Reading to them.– Encouraging watching programs with an emphasison learning new words, such as Sesame Street.
Table of Contents ExitLanguageCommunicating With OthersEffective communication requires:– Taking turns as speaker and listener.– Making sure to speak in language the listenerunderstands.– Paying attention while listening and making surethe speaker knows if he/she is being understood.