Think Small
20 April 2010


Nanomaterials for Green Energy

Tim Mays ( t.j.mays@bath.ac.uk )
Department of Chemical Engine...
A core element of energy policy
must be to ensure the provision of
sustainable, secure and safe heat
     and power for ev...
Scope
Some examples of nanomaterials
for green energy:

• batteries
• energy efficient lighting
• hydrogen storage
Li Batteries: Portable Revolution




• Energy density    small & light
• Over 2 billion cells per year
• Fundamental scie...
Low Carbon Transport:
      HEVs & Li Batteries?




     “Materials Challenge”
New or improved materials are key
       t...
Energy Storage: lithium battery
                        Charge


                          Li+

                        Di...
New or Improved Materials:
     Key to major advances
    “Spinel”        “Layered”              “Olivine”
    LiMn2O4    ...
New LiFePO4 Cathode

Scale-up
                          Defect chem?
                          Li+ transport ?
           ...
LiFePO4: Li Diffusion Path?
        [010] channel (0.55eV) & curved path




[010]


         [100]                       ...
M Saiful Islam
Department of Chemistry
Nanoparticle Factory-on-a-Chip
Vision: ‘Large scale production of nanoparticles with controllable and reproducible
charact...
Nanoparticles are currently used in many applications (fuel cells, sun-blocking creams, solar
panels, fuel additives…) but...
Davide Mattia
Department of Chemical Engineering
Hydrogen energy

         hydrogen + oxygen → water + energy

                            2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

         energy...
Basic principles of hydrogen energy systems

      Ein                     time / location
                               ...
Hydrogen storage
  technologies
Nanopores


                          Mays, Stud Surf Sci Catal
                          160 (2006) 57




Familiar nanop...
A core element of energy policy
must be to ensure the provision of
sustainable, secure and safe heat
     and power for ev...
T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event
T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event
T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event
T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event
T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event
T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event
T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event
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T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event

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BEN Event - 20/04/10 - Think Small, NSQI Building, University of Bristol.

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T Mays Presentation - Think Small Event

  1. 1. Think Small 20 April 2010 Nanomaterials for Green Energy Tim Mays ( t.j.mays@bath.ac.uk ) Department of Chemical Engineering
  2. 2. A core element of energy policy must be to ensure the provision of sustainable, secure and safe heat and power for everyone
  3. 3. Scope Some examples of nanomaterials for green energy: • batteries • energy efficient lighting • hydrogen storage
  4. 4. Li Batteries: Portable Revolution • Energy density small & light • Over 2 billion cells per year • Fundamental science (1980s) SONY cell (1991)
  5. 5. Low Carbon Transport: HEVs & Li Batteries? “Materials Challenge” New or improved materials are key to major advances: performance, cost
  6. 6. Energy Storage: lithium battery Charge Li+ Discharge Li+ - conducting LixCoO2 cathode electrolyte Graphite anode Hybrid TRANSPORT ~30%+ CO2 emissions 87% cleaner
  7. 7. New or Improved Materials: Key to major advances “Spinel” “Layered” “Olivine” LiMn2O4 Li(Mn,Ni)O2 LiFePO4 Structure-property relationships: atomic-scale insight into Li transport, defects, dopants & surfaces
  8. 8. New LiFePO4 Cathode Scale-up Defect chem? Li+ transport ? Doping: Zr,Nb? Blue: PO4 Yellow: FeO6
  9. 9. LiFePO4: Li Diffusion Path? [010] channel (0.55eV) & curved path [010] [100] Li FeO6 octahedra PO4 tetrahedra Chem. Mater (2005)
  10. 10. M Saiful Islam Department of Chemistry
  11. 11. Nanoparticle Factory-on-a-Chip Vision: ‘Large scale production of nanoparticles with controllable and reproducible characteristics will lead to a radical shift in all manufacturing sectors …’ (RAEng/Royal Soc., 2004) Methodology: Forcing water through a nanoporous membrane into an immiscible solvent produces nanodroplets, which are then converted into nanoparticles, with control over particle shape, size and properties: organic solvent water 10 nm nanoporous alumina membranes nanoparticles have billions of pores per cm2. organic L2 solvent Large scale manufacturing of water L1 nanoparticles with controllable and reproducible properties.
  12. 12. Nanoparticles are currently used in many applications (fuel cells, sun-blocking creams, solar panels, fuel additives…) but transformative developments are hindered by the lack of methods to produce large quantities of nanoparticles with controllable and reproducible properties. One example of what will be possible to achieve with better nanoparticle property control: © Benoit Dubertret, 2004 Diameter (nm) Lighting fixtures based on quantum dot nanoparticles are 20-30 % more efficient that fluorescent bulbs and do not contain harmful chemicals. Prototype quantum dot-based displays are already more efficient than conventional LCD displays. Today they are made in batches of a few milligrams at a time, against projected market demand of three tonnes per year by 2012! (The Economist, 04/03/2010; data from Coe-Sullivan, Nature Photonics, 3, 315-316, 2009 )
  13. 13. Davide Mattia Department of Chemical Engineering
  14. 14. Hydrogen energy hydrogen + oxygen → water + energy 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O energy = 120 - 142 MJ/kg heat (combustion) = 1.23 V electrical potential + 24 MJ/kg heat (fuel cell) + TE NO Only material product of above reaction is water Compare: hydrocarbon + oxygen → water + carbon dioxide + … A lot of energy per unit mass of hydrogen Compare: 40-55 MJ/kg for combustion of hydrocarbons TE NO
  15. 15. Basic principles of hydrogen energy systems Ein time / location Eout energy produce store / energy in hydrogen distribute out electricity liquid hydrogen combustion water heat high-pressure gas fuel cell biomass light chemical storage fossil fuels radiation porous solids 2H2+O2 → 2H2O many available many available H2 easier to store no CO2 at sources of sources of than many energy point of use energy H2 forms
  16. 16. Hydrogen storage technologies
  17. 17. Nanopores Mays, Stud Surf Sci Catal 160 (2006) 57 Familiar nanoporous materials
  18. 18. A core element of energy policy must be to ensure the provision of sustainable, secure and safe heat and power for everyone Nanomaterials will have an important role in future low carbon energy technologies

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