Ideally students will come up with stereotypical things that intertwine w/ conflict.
Link students comments to stereotypes. Also link American stereotypes to concept of conflict.
Historical setting… will need to elaborate and explain.
Explain challenges that were left by this. Also, link to colonial interests in region.
Modern issue with the haves v. have nots; has created conflict; strategic resource for the global economy
Link between the environment and a rapidly growing population; creates challenges with water distribution on the river basins
A continuous legacy with complex issues
A good reminder that issues in this region are complex. The cartoon shows the Arab perspective in the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah. Remind students that when studying complex issues that it is important to understand the other side or point of view on an issue.
Also important to remind students that region of cultural convergence and religious convergence that was there long before modern boundaries, which may have complicated things.
Creating the modern middle east gt
Student Objectives Students will be able to:identify and explain roots of conflicts in the MiddleEastgive examples of the various ways groups ofpeople view the Middle Eastexplain the geographic factors that shape theforeign policies and international relationships inthe Middle Eastanalyze the processes that lead to the formation ofboundaries in the Middle East through the creationof maps to answer geographic questions and toinfer geographic relationships
Warm-up Write down the first three things thatcome to mind about the Middle East.
Sources of ConflictWhat are some universalsources of conflict?What are some specificreasons for conflict? Colonial Rule Religious Differences Natural Resources:
A History of Empires Mesopotamia – one of the earliestcivilizations Babylonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians,Hittites, Sumerians, Egyptians Persian Empire Greek and Roman Empires Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire Controlled Middle East from1299 to1922 Capital in Constantinople (Istanbul) Ottoman emporer was both political andreligious leader of all Muslims(regardless of ethnicity)Both Sultan and Caliph Attempts to modernize & “westernize”Middle East
World War I (1914-1918) Allied Powers: Great Britain, France,Italy, & Russia Central Powers: Austria-Hungary &Germany Ottoman Empire: in decline & desired toregain power for modernizationAligned with Central PowersOn losing side of war Great Britain & France decide to divideup the remnants of the Ottoman Empire
Creating Countries Activity:Instructions Your group’s job in this activity is to create newcountries in the “Middle East.” Each group (5) will create countries based on one ofthe following topics:freshwater resourcesland use & resourcesethnic distributionlanguage groupsreligion.
Instructions (cont.) Each group will have 10-15 minutes todiscuss & create their new countries. After the time ends for creating newcountries, groups will present their newcountries to the rest of the class.Identify reasons for division of countriesAll members need to be prepared to answerquestions and defend your new boundaries
So… let’s debrief What did you find most difficult about this,and why? How were you equitable & fair when youcreated the new countries? What changes would your group make? How would you go about creating newcountries if you had to consider multiplefactors? How difficult do you think that it was for GreatBritain & France to carve up the Middle East?Why?
Back to Our Story… WWI brought the downfall of theOttoman Empire Great Britain & France carved up theMiddle East into spheres of influence1916: Sykes-Picot AgreementHussein-McMahon Correspondence1917: Balfour Declaration (Palestine)The Kurdish Question
Post-WWI Middle East Turkey was all thatremained of theOttoman Empire Great Britain & Francegoverned mandatesuntil ready forindependence Created new countriesout of broken promises toleading Arabs Created distrust & setstage for future conflicts