Indoor tanning research project


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  • My name is Kelly Morris and I’m here to present you with the cold hard facts about UV and YOU. If you have ever tanned, thought about tanning, or know someone that tans, this should hit home for you. There has been increasing speculation in the media concerning possible health risks and dangers associated with UV exposure, with special emphasis on the indoor tanning industry. . This is an issue that does not discriminate who it exposes itself to, and should be of concern to everyone who shows their face to the sun.
  • We live in a society that thrives off controversy, everyone has their own opinion about everything and many people choose to voice those opinions. The indoor tanning industry has been a particularly heated topic lately and with so many anti-tanning campaigns constantly circulating through widespread press and extensive media coverage, it can be hard anyone to decipher between what is truth and what is opinion. Today I hope to provide you with the truth, so you have the knowledge to form your own opinion.
  • Player number one in this battle is the indoor tanning industry. With every jab that the media has taken at them, they have fought back. Their main arguments are focused around supposed health and psychological benefits that tanning provides patrons. One major argument for the health benefits of tanning is the importance of Vitamin D, which they have dubbed “the healing vitamin”. Studies on this “healing vitamin” have shown that it can help lower blood pressure because they it boosts calcitriol production by the kidneys, which clamps down enzymes that cause blood vessels to constrict, a major cause of high blood pressure. Lowered incidences of other types of cancer have been linked to having high levels of vitamin D, and the lack of vitamin D allows parathyroid hormone to build up and pull calcium out of bones, leading to osteoporosis. Another disease connected to the vitamin is Type I diabetes, an autoimmune disease. In research, D can suppress certain immune cells, so the vitamin may help by preventing destruction of the cells that produce insulin. Tanning advocates say that the sun tanning process feels good on a psychological level as well. A number of sensual affects have been noted, perceived attractiveness is higher, and emotional health is boosted. Also, interestingly enough - the skin is essential to self-esteem, the skin is a medium for emotional expression, sun tanned skin could suggest wealth; success and tanned skin could lead to social advantages. From this we can make the link with tanning and how we see ourselves and others see us. Fashion’s newest statement. It is also said that a tan is the body's natural protection against sunburn. Your skin is designed to tan as a natural body function, and the body is designed to repair sun damage as a natural process. For this reason, millions of indoor tanners successfully develop "base tans" before embarking on sunny vacations - tans that, combined with the proper use of sunscreen outdoors, help them prevent sunburn.
  • The tanning industry hasn’t sat back and watched the criticism. Instead, they’ve fought back with theories and studies of their own. One way they have combated the anti-tanning campaigns is the way they define the campaigns. The so-called “Sun Scare” put forth by cosmetic corporations and sunscreen manufacturers, beauty magazines, and skin care lobbying groups is said to have their own interests in the downfall of tanning, and that is why they conduct such campaign. The also suggest that the word “epidemic” has been used too loosely, and that cancer rates haven’t skyrocketed as much as anti-tanning campaigns have said. A study done by Wolff System (a company that manufactures tanning equipment), surveyed people who tan and came up with these figures, just going to show that the people who do it do it for more than aesthetic reasons.
  • Player number two is the anti-tanning movement. They hold that the link between skin cancer and indoor tanning is too strong to be ignored, and strive to actually shut down the industry. In 1994, a Swedish study found that women 18-30 years old who visited tanning parlors 10 times or more a year had seven times greater incidence of melanoma than women who did not use tanning salons They also say that the tanning industry relies on two misleading arguments: first, that since melanoma is mainly caused by sunburn, "controlled" tanning helps prevent melanoma by building up the protective pigment melanin; second, that UV exposure makes the skin produce vitamin D, which helps prevent breast, prostate and colon cancer, as well as other diseases. For a tanner, skin damage is said to be inevidable, as well as unavoidable. Repeated exposure to UV rays causes premature aging of the skin. Many teens do not have an appreciation of the risk of skin cancers, scars from surgeries to try and remove them, mottled pigmentation, and sagging, wrinkled skin. The predominant UV-A component of indoor tanning lights is a major culprit in photo aging Another scary fact: tanning may be addictive! ? A study in the current Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology suggests "frequent tanning is driven by an opioid-dependent mechanism." In other words, it's a physical addiction, with the street name “tanorexia”
  • Some scary statistics: a 2002 study from Dartmouth Medical School found that tanning device users had 2.5 times the risk of squamous cell carcinoma and 1.5 times the risk of basal cell carcinoma Each year about 1 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer and it accounts for about 40 percent of cancers –roughly 40 to 50 percent of those who live to age 65 will have skin cancer at least once. The incidence of melanoma, the most lethal form of skin cancer, has doubled in the U.S. since 1975 among women ages 15 to 29. This year 2,050 of them are expected to be diagnosed with the malignancy. The American Cancer Society predicts that there will be 2,200 deaths from non-melanoma skin cancer in 2002.
  • Indoor tanning is big business, with tanning trade publications reporting this it as $2 billion-a-year industry in the United States. According to industry estimates, 28 million Americans are tanning indoors annually at about 25,000 tanning salons around the country.  In fact, a recent study of more than 10,000 teens across the US found that tanning bed use was increasing, especially among adolescent girls. The term “tanorexia”, used to diagnose one’s physical addiction to frequent tanning, can be attributed to this trend. The data from these graphs was gathered by a government study and The World Health Organization, who recommends that no person aged <18 years use a tanning bed because of the associated increased risk for skin cancer. In addition, CDC recommends that school programs to prevent skin cancer advise students to avoid using sunlamps and tanning beds. Nonetheless, in 2005, 8.7% of teens aged 14--17 years used indoor tanning devices. Girls aged 14--17 years were seven times more likely to use these devices than boys in the same age group. The use of indoor tanning devices increased with age from 14 to 17 years.
  • Up to 60,000 deaths worldwide are caused each year by excessive UV exposure and those under age 18 are urged to steer clear of indoor tanning (The World Health Organization) UV radiation, a classified carcinogen, is commonly and specifically marketed to adolescents through high school newspaper advertising by salons Repeated exposure to UV rays, such as those absorbed during indoor tanning, can cause skin cancer and premature aging of the skin The predominant UV-A component of indoor tanning lights is a major culprit in photo aging because it penetrates the skin layers more deeply and causes oxidative and DNA damage Swedish study: women 18-30 years old who visited tanning parlors 10 times or more a year had seven times greater incidence of melanoma than women who did not use tanning salons. 
  • How do all these statistics apply to you? Look at the graph and decipher your skin type. You can see from this data that people with skin types I and II are at the greatest risk for developing skin cancer or having significant damage to their skin. If you have one of these skin types and decide to tan anyway, you should talk with the professional at the salon about how to do so gradually. There are many other reasons why an individual should absolutely not choose to tan, because they are downright dangerous. If you fall into one of the categories on the right, you should take heed and take care of your skin.
  • There are many ways to get the golden glow we all desire, without compromising your health or your skin. If you feel that it’s just not a risk you’re willing to take, consider one of the following options! Sunless/Self-Tanning Lotions: There are dozens on the market and they often come in a cream or spray-on form. They're heralded as the safest way to get a glow, but they can be labor intensive and tricky to apply: your skin has to be fully exfoliated before application and they often take an hour to dry and up to three hours before a tan appears. They must also be reapplied frequently to maintain your tan. Bronzing Powders and Lotions: these fill the shelves of every store around! Almost every heath/beauty manufacturer has one of these on the market and they’re a great and inexpensive way to look more tan without actually tanning. Tanning Pills: Pills containing the drug canthaxanthrin have been banned in the United States because of serious side effects, such as blindness. Pills promote the deposition of carotenoid in the skin. There are lots of pills on the market but also many in development, this will be an interesting product to watch for improvements in the near future. Tan Accelerators: They contain an enzyme that is supposed to stimulate the production of the body's tan enzyme, melanin, during exposure to sunlight. They keep your skin well moisturized to aid in maintaining your tan. Salon Body Spray Systems: A professional full-body spray system blankets people in a specially blended solution. It's safe, it takes about a minute and the tan can last up to a week.
  • If you make the personal decision to tan, there are some guidelines that you should abide by: Make sure the tanning salon has a disinfecting policy . Let’s face it, it gets hot in there, and people do sweat. Since you won’t be the only one in the bed that day if the salon doesn't disinfect your skin could easily become irritated. Make sure that the salon has you fill out a Skin Type Analysis Form. This is a simple form that takes less than a minute to fill out and is used to determine how your skin reacts to tanning. The tanning professional at the salon will then help you formulate a tanning schedule that fits your unique needs. If you're taking medications , be sure to tell the salon staff . They may affect your skin’s sensitivity to the tanning beds. Get a pair of FDA regulated goggles . Don't worry about getting raccoon eyes. The goggles protect the eyeball and since the eyelids don't tan, you won't be able to notice you had them on. Depending upon the salon, you'll either need to buy these beforehand or you'll be able to borrow a pair at the front desk, so call ahead to find out the salon's policy.
  • Here is what I want YOU to take away from this presentation: Everything I have talked about today was gathered from many sources, research was conducted over the course of a semester, professional interviews were conducted, and I feel that I have put together an un-biased collection of information to help you make your decision. Please consider all the facts in everything you do, but especially in an area like this, where your health may be at risk.
  • Indoor tanning research project

    1. 1. The YOU in U V If YOU have tanned. YOU have thought about tanning. YOU know someone who tans. This is for YOU . English 3764 On-line Technical Writing Kelly Morris
    2. 2. The Indoor Tanning Controversy You Say Tomato , I Say Tomahto: <ul><li>“ Tanning is a great source of Vitamin D” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sunlight is vital for good health” </li></ul><ul><li>A tan is the body's natural protection against sunburn </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Repeated exposure to UV rays can cause skin cancer and premature aging of the skin” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tanning, whether indoor or out, may be somewhat addictive” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ultraviolet light can damage all layers of your skin” </li></ul>VS
    3. 3. Battle of the Bulbs: Player 1 What are the Advocates of Indoor Tanning Saying? <ul><li>Health Benefits of Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered Hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced risk of prostate, breast, ovarian cancers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower risk of Osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower risk of Type I Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skin is a medium for emotional expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin is essential to self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tan skin can suggest wealth and success </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ tanning feels good” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of physical attractiveness increases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A tan is the body's natural protection against sunburn </li></ul>
    4. 4. Battle of the Bulbs: Player 1 What do the Statistics say? <ul><li>Commercialism’s “Sun Scare” </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetic Corporations and sunscreen manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Care Lobbying groups </li></ul><ul><li>Not so much an “epidemic”? </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated Cancer Death Rates By Site and Year </li></ul>Source: American Cancer Society <ul><li>Study: Motivating Reasons for People to Tan </li></ul><ul><li>2004, Wolff System Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Among those who presently tan: </li></ul><ul><li>Look healthier- 97% </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy- 95% </li></ul><ul><li>Rested and Relaxed- 92% </li></ul><ul><li>Break from Stress- 91% </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth- 84% </li></ul>7,910 55,170 162,460 41,430 2006 7,300 46,600 160,400 44,190 1997 Melanoma Colon Lung Breast Year
    5. 5. Battle of the Bulbs: Player 2 What are the Critics of Indoor Tanning Saying? <ul><li>Increased Risk of Skin Cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanoma Incidences Higher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tanning Industry Makes Misleading Claims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Controlled” tanning prevents Melanoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D prevents other cancer types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skin Damage is Inevitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mottled Pigmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discoloration and loss of shape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tanning may be addictive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ tanorexia” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased numbers of teenage girls </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Battle of the Bulbs: Player 2 Skin Cancer Statistics <ul><li>Increased incidence of basal and squamous cell carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>I million Americans/year </li></ul><ul><li>40% of all cancers </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul><ul><li>Non-melanoma deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing diagnoses of melanoma </li></ul>
    7. 7. Battle of the Bulbs: Player 2 We flock to tanning beds by the thousands <ul><li>$2 Billion Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Increase among adolescent girls </li></ul><ul><li>¼ teenage girls </li></ul><ul><li>“ tanorexia” </li></ul>Percentage of Teens Aged 14--17 Years Who Used Indoor Tanning Devices During the Preceding 12 Months, by Sex and Age --- United States, 2005*
    8. 8. Battle of the Bulbs: Player 2 Is this Indoor Tanning craze to blame for the rise in Skin Cancer? <ul><li>60,000 deaths worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing to adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Premature aging and Skin Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>UVA and photo-aging </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma Risk Increases </li></ul>
    9. 9. So is it a draw? What kind of risk are you willing to take? People with skin types I and II are at greatest risk. Which skin type are you ? <ul><li>You are advised NOT to utilize indoor tanning equipment if: </li></ul><ul><li>you are under 16 </li></ul><ul><li>you have fair or sensitive skin that burns easily or tans slowly, poorly or not at all </li></ul><ul><li>you have a history of severe sunburn, especially in childhood </li></ul><ul><li>you have a many freckles and/or red hair or very light blonde hair </li></ul><ul><li>you have a large number of moles or lesions </li></ul><ul><li>you are taking medications or using creams which may sensitize the skin to sunlight, like Retinol, Retin-A & Renova </li></ul><ul><li>you have a medical condition that is worsened by sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>your family has skin cancer in their medical history. </li></ul>Never burns; deeply pigmented, not sensitive (Black Skin) VI Rarely burns; tans profusely to dark (Brown Skin) V Burns minimally; always tans well to moderately brown (Olive Skin) IV Burns moderately; tans gradually to light brown (Average Caucasian) III Burns easily; tans minimally II Always burns; never tans; sensitive (&quot;Celtic&quot;) I According to Skin Type Type
    10. 10. Compromise Get that Golden Glow a Healthier Way <ul><li>Self-Tanners </li></ul><ul><li>Bronzing Powders and Lotions </li></ul><ul><li>Tanning Pills </li></ul><ul><li>Tan Accelerators </li></ul><ul><li>Salon Body Spray Systems </li></ul>
    11. 11. If You Decide to Tan.. Take Precaution, and Stay Informed <ul><li>The professional indoor tanning industry promotes The Golden Rule of Smart Tanning : Don't ever sunburn . </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the tanning salon has a disinfecting policy . </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the salon has you fill out a Skin Type Analysis Form. </li></ul><ul><li>If you're taking medications , be sure to tell the salon staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Get a pair of FDA regulated goggles. </li></ul>
    12. 12. The YOU in U V <ul><li>Tanning beds are far from being skin-friendly </li></ul><ul><li>When a person uses a tanning bed, more layers of the skin are damaged than when a person gets a tan from being in the sun </li></ul><ul><li>BUT if you're willing to take the risk with your skin, tanning beds do offer some benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>You'll be able to control what kind of ultraviolet light your skin receives, your chances of sunburn are small, and your progress will be monitored. </li></ul><ul><li>IT’S UP TO YOU. </li></ul>