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Climate Change Governance in Zanzibar: The Need for Environmental Autonomy

Climate Change Governance in Zanzibar: The Need for Environmental Autonomy



Kelly Horton's presentation from the SUZA Symposium on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Small Island States, held in Zanzibar, December 2011

Kelly Horton's presentation from the SUZA Symposium on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Small Island States, held in Zanzibar, December 2011



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  • Zanzibar estimated to be at risk of complete submersion in approximately 100 years
  • Other impactsSalinity of groundwaterPotential for submersion in approximately 100 years
  • These are all observers of other regionalcomissions, Indian ocean commissions
  • SIDS are particularly vulnerable to natural as well as environmental disasters and have a limited capacity to respond to and recover from such disasters. Whilst SIDS are among those that contribute least to global climate change and sea-level rise, they are among those that would suffer most from the adverse effects of such phenomena and could in some cases become uninhabitable. Therefore, they are among those particularly vulnerable States that need assistance under the UNFCCC, including adaptation measures and mitigation efforts. SIDS share with all nations a critical interest in the protection of coastal zones and oceans against the effects of land-based sources of pollution. Limited freshwater resources, increasing amounts of waste and hazardous substances, and limited facilities for waste disposal combine to make pollution prevention, waste management and the transboundary movement of hazardous materials critical issues for SIDS. SIDS are limited in size, have vulnerable economies and are dependent both upon narrow resource bases and on international trade, without the means of influencing the terms of that trade.
  • Science, assessment, monitoring and early warningTourismWaterTerrestrial ecosystemsPopulation & human settlementsDisaster risk reductionEducation and trainingFood security, agriculture, forestry and fisheriesHealthOceans and coastal areas

Climate Change Governance in Zanzibar: The Need for Environmental Autonomy Climate Change Governance in Zanzibar: The Need for Environmental Autonomy Presentation Transcript

  • +Climate Change Governance in Zanzibar:The Need for Environmental Autonomy Kelly Horton
  • + Overview  Introduction  Current Status of Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in Zanzibar  Case Study: Kiribati  Small Island Developing States and Regional Discrepancies  Why become a recognised SIDS?  Next Steps for Zanzibar
  • + Current Status The Zanzibar Archipelago  is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change;  is a semi-autonomous entity of Tanzania, and is not a recognised SIDS member; and,  requires specialist skills and support to effectively adapt to the future challenges of climate change.
  • + Predicted Trends in Sea Level Rise  Sea level rise is locked in by past emissions, excluding the impacts of current and future emissions.  Pew Centre For Climate Change, Science Brief 2, 2009  KEY SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS SINCE THE IPCC FOURTH ASSESSMENT REPORT
  • + The case of Kiribati  A small pacific island, and member of SIDS, already experiencing severe impacts of sea level rise.  It is predicted that the Kiribati Archipelago will be the first small island nation to be submerged, with potential for this to occur within the next decade.  This image shows a broken sea wall, built to slow down the encroaching tide in the village of Eita, Tarawa Island. www.climate.gov.ki
  • + The reality for Zanzibar  Evidence of severe coastal erosion at Bwejuu, Zanzibar  December 2010
  • + What enhances Zanzibar‟s vulnerability to Climate Change?  Least Developed Country (LDC)  Small tropical island ecosystem … “As we are all aware, mini- ecosystems are amongst the most fragile. Such fragility today places small island states in the frontline of nature’s reaction to humanity’s overuse and abuse of the environment.” Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, President of the Republic of Maldives
  • + What enhances Zanzibar‟s vulnerability to Climate Change?  Deforestation of Mangroves for agricultural expansion  Salt farming  Disregard of coastal building permits (100m)
  • + What enhances Zanzibar‟s vulnerability to Climate Change?  Inability to self-represent on the Zanzibar specific challenges of climate change in the International Climate Change arena. Why is this an issue?  As a semi-autonomous entity, whilst Zanzibar in general, self funds attendance at international environmental meetings, it is unable to push a small-island agenda, falling under the wing of the Tanzanian Mainland, who do not represent SIDS interests.
  • + Regional Comparisons Seychelles Mauritius  Approximately 455 km2  Approximately 2040 km2  Population: 86,525 (2010)  Population: 1,281,214 (2010)  GDP per Capita (US): $9354.4 (09)  GDP per Capita (US): $6728.5 (09)  SIDS Status  SIDS Status Comoros Zanzibar  Approximately 2170 km2  Approximately 2631 km2  Population: 734,750 (2010)  Population: 1,100,000 (10)  GDP per Capita (US): $784.7 (09)  GDP per capita (US): $415 (07)  SIDS Status  No recognition as SIDS
  • + Small Island Developing States UN Members Antigua and Barbuda  Haiti*  St. Kitts and Nevis Bahamas  Jamaica  St Lucia Bahrain  Kiribati*  St. Vincent and the Grenadines Belize  Maldives*  Seychelles Cape Verde*  Marshall Islands  Solomon Islands* Comoros  Federated States of Micronesia  Suriname Cuba  Mauritius  Timor-Leste* Dominica  Nauru  Tonga Dominican Republic  Palau  Trinidad and Tobago Fiji  Papua New Guinea  Tuvalu* Grenada  Samoa*  Vanuatu Guinea-Bissau*  Sao Tome and Principe* Guyana  Singapore* Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
  • + Small Island Developing States Non-UN Members / Associate Members of Regional Commissions  American Samoa  Guam  Anguilla  Montserrat  Aruba  Netherlands Antilles  British Virgin Islands  New Caledonia  Commonwealth of Northern  Niue Mariana  Puerto Rico  Cook Islands  U.S. Virgin Islands  French Polynesia  Zanzibar?
  • + What is Environmental Autonomy? Zanzibar‟s environmental challenges are significantly different to those faced by the Tanzanian mainland. In 2010, Zanzibar began to develop a „National Adaptation Plan of Action‟ (NAPA), separate from the Tanzanian Mainland, to emphasise Zanzibar‟s need for small-island specific adaptation and mitigation strategies to Climate Change. By gaining status as a Non-UN Member of the Small Island Developing States, Zanzibar will have the potential to gain much needed technical, financial and social support to mitigate for, and adapt to climatic change, as well as an ability to self-represent. Zanzibar would remain politically a part of Tanzania in every sense, yet would receive the right to independent governance and management of environmental issues.
  • + Barbados Program of Action  Developed in 1994 at the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. Key Points  “Small Island Developing States have sovereign rights over their own natural resources.  Their biodiversity is among the most threatened in the world and their ecosystems provide ecological corridors linking major areas of biodiversity around the world. They bear responsibility for a significant portion of the worlds oceans and seas and their resources.  The efforts of Small Island Developing States to conserve, protect and restore their ecosystems deserve international cooperation and partnership.”
  • + Mauritius Strategy  Developed as a plan for 2005 – 2015 as a partnership between all UN Members, inclusive of SIDS and Donor States.  “Small Island Developing States are located among the most vulnerable regions in the world in relation to the intensity and frequency of natural and environmental disasters and their increasing impact, and face disproportionately high economic, social and environmental consequences”
  • + Adaptation Fund  The Adaptation Fund was established in 2007 to finance feasible adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are party to the Kyoto Protocol with particular vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change.  Grants awarded to:  Small Island Developing States,  South and Central America,  Africa,  Asia-Pacific,  Least Developed Countries.
  • + Adaptation Fund Grants  Science, assessment, monitoring  Population & human settlements and early warning  Disaster risk reduction  Tourism  Education and training  Water  Food security, agriculture, forestry and fisheries  Health  Oceans and coastal areas  Terrestrial ecosystems
  • + Summary  The relevant Zanzibari government departments in relation to Climate Change adaptation and mitigation have agreed to work co-operatively to achieve positive outcomes and push for the implementation of recognised strategies.  Zanzibar should be allowed to pursue environmental autonomy to ensure that the islands have access to relevant technical and financial assistance, for example, membership of SIDS.
  • + Next Steps  Achieve status of „environmental autonomy‟ for Zanzibar;  Lobby for listing as Non-UN Member of SIDS, or observer status as a member of Indian Ocean Commission, SIDS Network and/or AOSIS; and  Implement strategies for adaptation and mitigation of climate change, that can be used to guide future policy directions in the context of sustainable development.
  • + Thank You Questions and Discussion