How we learn: discussion on levels of knowing


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How we learn: discussion on levels of knowing

  1. 1. How We Learn: A Discussion on the levels of Knowing Kelly McMichael, Ed.D.
  2. 2. Developing a Personal Philosophy of Learning <ul><li>What do I believe about how people learn? </li></ul><ul><li>What am I learning about the way students learn in particular? </li></ul><ul><li>What am I discovering about the way I learn? </li></ul><ul><li>What is my research showing me about the learning experience? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes have I made in my instruction relative to my learning experience? </li></ul><ul><li>What more do I want/need to change in my learning perspective and practice? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Three Types of Knowledge Kurfiss (1988) <ul><li>Declarative Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>What facts and concepts do students really need to learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>How should students learn to better reason, inquire and present knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>What new strategies, knowledge, and implications must students learn about in their approaches to life and work? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Three Types of Reflection Mezirow (1991) <ul><ul><ul><li>Content Reflection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thinking about the actual experience </li></ul><ul><li>Process Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking about strategies to deal with experience </li></ul><ul><li>Premise Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Examining long-held assumptions, beliefs, and values </li></ul>
  5. 5. Four Levels of Knowing William Perry and Blythe McVickerClinchy (1990) (in Bain, pp.42-44) <ul><li>“ Received Knowers.” Truth is external, deposited and memorized. Reflects Freire’s “banking model.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Procedural Knowers.” Sharp students who play the game; using standards in writing. “Give ‘em what they want.” No influence beyond the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Separate Knowers.” Independent, critical, creative. High level of objectivity and skepticism. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Connected Knowers.” Independent, critical, creative. Sees merits of others’ ideas. Passionate and biased observers who embrace a project and its ethos. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Discussion <ul><li>Have you had similar experiences as those of Halloun and Hestenes? (pp.22-23) How did you discover it? Why do you believe it was there? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you encourage writing and thinking conceptually? ( p. 24) </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of reflection have you done, as an educator, to address how students ought to think and learn in your field? (p.25) </li></ul><ul><li>What new insight was gained in seeing knowledge as ‘constructed’? (pp. 26-27) </li></ul><ul><li>What pre-conceived “mental models” do students in your program usually hold and why? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways has Bain challenged your thinking on ‘crafting’ assignments that might change the way you help students “construct” ideas in your discipline? (pp.28-30) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Resources <ul><li>Angelo, T. and Cross, P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques (2 nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Huba, M.E. and Freed, J.E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning . Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Nilson, L. (2003). Teaching at its best . Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Login, then to: AITA Faculty Development Resource Center </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Login: 99213 </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Login: AXT41 Password: tampa </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>login with your public library card </li></ul>