http://www.blm.gov/ca/forms/wildlife/images/paclamprey_usgs.jpghttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/_tq35GASxSOY/SScTBNhmjRI/AAAAAAAAADg/KCX_hLI3Sso/s320/LampreyPacificMouth http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3264/2790811862_+CL04_1c.jpg ba8f698bf0_z.jpg Kelly Matheson ENH 160 May 10, 2011
Elmer Crow Jr., a Nez Perce Elder and technical supervisor for the Nez Perce Department Of! Have been perceived by Euro-Americans as Fisheries Resources Management.pests rather than as important supportiveorganisms.(Caudill et al. 2008)! Anadromous! Often used as ﬁshing bait (Close andFitzpatrick 2002)! Conservation interest in Paciﬁc lampreys hasgrown in recent years, with increasingattention from Tribes, agencies, and others.! In 2003, four lamprey species werepetitioned for listing under theEndangered Species Act, including the PaciﬁcLamprey (Western Lampreys ConservationTeam) http://oregonwild.blogspot.com/2010/07/treaty-rights-pacific-lamprey- lampetra.html
! They have high cultural signiﬁcance to! They play “an important role in the food web, mayhave acted as a buffer for salmon from Native American tribes from California topredators, and may have been an important source Alaska and may have served as a primary foodfor marine nutrients to oligotrophic source for aquatic, mammal, and avian predators that also prey on ESA-listed salmonidswatersheds” (Close et al. 2011). and other recreational and commercially important ﬁsh species (Federal Wildlife & Fish! Also, “Paciﬁc lamprey die within 3 to 36 days after Service, April 2010).spawning, and these adult carcasses are most likelya big contributor of nutrients in oligotrophicstreams” (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002).! They are anodromous and carry nutrientsfrom the ocean upstream to freshwater; theirpopulation decline has probably affected trophicrelations with both freshwater and the Paciﬁc Oceanecosystems (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002). !Signiﬁcant for salmon and watershed protection.! It is theorized that when macropthalmia andammocoetes are abundant, they provided a buffer to http://oregonwild.blogspot.com/2010/07/treaty-rights-pacific-lamprey-lampetra.htmljuvenile salmon predation by birds (WesternLamprey Conservation Team). Umatilla tribe members exercising their treaty rights to ﬁsh for Paciﬁc lamprey.
!A primitive group of ﬁshes that are eel-like in form !Lack jaws and paired ﬁns !Round sucker-like mouth (oral disc) !No scales !Multiple gill openings !Adult with three large teeth (cusps) and posterior teeth on the oral disc !Their lack of paired ﬁns and elongated body shape causes them to swim by using an undulatory movement (snakelike) !They have no swim bladders tohttp://wapedia.mobi/en/Lamprey maintain neutral buoyancy and must, therefore, swim constantly or hold fast to objects to maintain their position in the water column (Western Lamprey Conservation Team)
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, April 2010
Ammocoete Macropthalmia Parasitic Adult http://fishbio.com/other-fish-species/first-fish http://ww(snakelike) w.durmphoto.com http://flickriver.com/photos/stefolcen/tags/islands/!Eggs are fertilized and deposited inthe nest, embryos hatch in !Young adult lampreys migrate toapproximately 18-49 days. !Metamorphosis takes place the Paciﬁc Ocean from fall until over several months as spring (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002)!The young ammocoetes drift developmental changesdownstream to areas of low occur, including the !As adults, Paciﬁc lampreys arevelocity and silt or sand appearance of eyes and teeth, parasitic and feed on a variety ofsubstrate. as they leave the substrate to marine and anadromous ﬁsh. enter the water column and!They remain burrowed in the begin their migration to !After spending 1 to 3 years in thestream bottom, for 3 to 7 years, marine environment, Paciﬁc salt water (Westernﬁlter-feeding on algae, diatoms lampreys return to freshwaterand detritus, making them Lamprey Conservation Team). between February and June.important for nutrient processing,cycling, and storage. !They are thought to overwinter and remain in freshwater habitat!Once the ammocoetes reach about6 in (15 cm), they begin for approximately one or twometamorphosis into years before spawning. (Westernmacropthalmia (juvenile phase) Lamprey Conservation Team)(Western Lammprey ConservationTeam).
!Range from the west coast of Mexico, U.S.A. (not including Alaska), and Canada and in Japanese rivers (Renaud 1997) !Parasitic-phase (ocean habitat) Paciﬁc lampreys have been found at distance from 10 to 100 km off the Paciﬁc coast, and at depths from 100 to 800 m (ClosePacific Lamprey Conservation Plan, Western Lamprey Conservation Team and Fitzpatrick 2002) !Paciﬁc lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) historically were widely distributed from Mexico north along the Paciﬁc Rim to Japan!(Western Lampreys Conservation Team) !Paciﬁc lampreys are the most widely distributed lamprey species on the west coast of the United States (Western Lampreys Conservation Team) http://www.audubonguides.com/species/Fish/Pacific-Lamprey.html
! Fine sediments for burrowing while in ammocoete phase; coarser sediments during migration to ocean. Large strata for adult lamprey returning upstream (Western Lamprey Conservation Team)European brook larval lamprey use similar substrate ! Larval lamprey populations negatively associated with water velocity and distance upstream (Torgersen and Close 2004) ! Ammocoetes prefer eddies; larger ammocoetes prefer faster water (Stone and Barndt 2005) ! Some detailed, small scale studies have shown that larval lampreys are associated with patchy ﬂuvial elements (backwaters, eddies, insides of bends, and the downstream end of sand bars), where ﬁne sediments collect (Torgersen Best Management Practices for Pacific Lamprey April 2010, photo by Bernt René Voss Grimm and Close 2004) ! Average water depth 0.9 m, with a range from 0.5 - 10.4m (Bayer et al. 2000) ! Average velocity was 0.37 m/s, with a from of 0.02 - 1.22 m/s (Bayer et al. 2000) ! Slow water velocities required to accumulate ﬁne burrowing substrates. Preference of silty and sandy habitat to organic debris (Stone and Barndt 2005) ! Negative relationship between ammocoete presence and riparian canopy: dense canopies shade the stream, which reduces autotrophic production and limits Best Management Practices for Pacific Lamprey, April 2010, photo by Steven Clark the base for ammocoetes to forage (Stone and Barndt 2005)
! Fecundity is high but variable, withfemales producing between 20,000 and200,000 eggs (Moyle 2002).! After the eggs are fertilized anddeposited in the nest, embryos hatch in18-49 days at 59° Fahrenheit (15°Celsius).! They spawn between March and July,depending upon location within theirrange, in gravel bottomed streams, atthe upstream end of rifﬂe habitat,typically above suitableammocoete (larvae) habitat(Western Lamprey Conservation Team) http://www.fws.gov/columbiariver/games/scramble/spawninglamprey.jpg! Both sexes construct the nests, oftenmoving stones with their mouths. Afterthe eggs are deposited and fertilized,the adults typically die within 3 to36 days (Kostow 2002).
! Coho salmon fry feed on emergent larval lampreys (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002) ! Ammocoetes most subject to predation during two periods: while emerging from nests and during scouring events that displace larvae out of their burrows (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002)http://tmp.kiwix.org:4201/A/Lamprey.html ! Lampreys feed on some midwater species such as Paciﬁc hake (Merlucciusproductus) and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) while in the ocean ! Non-indigenous predators in freshwater streams include largemouth bass, channel catﬁsh (Ictalurus punctatus), brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), black and white crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus and Pomoxis annularis), and yellow perch (Perca ﬂavescens) (Close et al. 2010) ! Marine mammals prey on lampreys because they are easier to catch than adult salmon, have a higher caloric value than salmonids (they are much richer in fat than salmonids), and their migrations in schools mean fertile feeding patches (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002) ! Paciﬁc lamprey were found to be the most abundant dietary item in seals and sea lions; low population numbers of lamprey may lead to a higher predation rate of salmonids (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002)
! Reduced access to spawning habitat from human Paciﬁc lamprey populations persist for only a fewconstruction, especially sand extraction, damming, years above impassable barriers before dying outor irrigation projects (Renaud 1997)" (Wildlife and Fish Service, April 2010) ! Also degrades spawning and rearing areas (Renaud 1997)! Commercial harvest of the midwater speciesPaciﬁc hake and walleye pollock is likely to have a greatimpact on Paciﬁc lamprey (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002)"! Damming affects larval Paciﬁc lamprey by thedewatering of rearing habitat (Close andFitzpatrick 2002)! Channelization increases water velocity,which reduces depositional areas, degrading larvallamprey habitat (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002)! Poor water quality and chemical treatments (Close andFitzpatrick 2002) Wildlife and Fish Service, April 2010 ! Larvae have a sedentary lifestyle, making them more vulnerable to toxicological effects (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002)
! Survival greatest at 18°C, followed by 14, 10,and 22°C (survival signiﬁcantly less at 22°C, andsurvival differences between other temperatureswere not signiﬁcant)! Abnormalities occurred most at 22°C, followedby 18, 10, and 14°C (signiﬁcant differencesbetween 22°C and 18°C, 22°C and 14°C, 22°Cand 10°C, but not between any othertemperature differences) (Meeuwiga et al. 2011) Meeuwiga et al. 2011
The following efforts have occurred or are underway : Restoration projects for salmon are ! Discussions between the Service and the Army Corp of predicted to be beneﬁcial for Paciﬁc Engineers (ACOE) to address lamprey passage and research needs. lamprey (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, ! The Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission April 2010) (CRITFIC) is developing a plan for Paciﬁc lamprey in the Columbia River Basin. ! The Service initiated the Paciﬁc Lamprey Conservation Initiative (USFWS 2007). ! The Columbia River Basin Lamprey Technical Workgroup published: Critical Uncertainties for lamprey in the Columbia River Basin (CRBLTWG 2005). ! Idaho has developed a Draft Management Plan for Conservation of Paciﬁc lamprey in Idaho (IDFG 2008). ! Oregon Native Fish Status Report addresses Paciﬁc lamprey in Oregon (ODFW 2005). (Western Lamprey Conservation Team)The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservationbegan a reintroduction program in the Umatilla Riverin 1998 (Western Lamprey Conservation Team). http://md.photoshelter.com/image?In 2007, the Nez Perce Tribe relocated adult Paciﬁc &_bqG=1&_bqH=eJwzTHHz8k5N9HJzCcoIMHVPKw0KdLHMLMwMds22MrUyMrUlamprey into tributaries of the Clearwater River drainage yNAACK894l2Bn25zElJTUIjUwJ97Rz8W2BMgODXYNivd0sQ0FKSzNs0yLr4gvqsrK Vot3dA6xLU5NLErOAAA3HR_R&GI_ID=and Asotin Creek (Western Lamprey Conservation Team).
An impassable salmon ladder Surprisingly, lamprey friendly. Thanks to their sucking ability. Lamprey friendly culvert Wildlife and Fish Service, April 2010
Many lamprey populations are in decline, and are especiallyhit hard where dams, culverts, and other manmade structuresexist.Reintroductions are being done and awareness of Paciﬁclampreys has increased, but the big issues are: - Migration obstruction - Degradation of larval habitat - Substrate disturbanceDam, culvert, etc. removal or redesign could make signiﬁcantimprovements in Paciﬁc lamprey population numbers. http://md.photoshelter.com/image? &_bqG=2&_bqH=eJxzDPJwyS41ycsIzXDzTDKKdLbwCLJM9zQ0 NHW1MjGyMjK1MjQAAivPeJdgZ9ucxNyCotRKNTAv3tHPxbYE yA4Ndg2K93SxDQWpLM2zTIuviC.qyspWi3d0DrEtTk0sSs4AAE XGH9s-&GI_ID=
! Lacking historical and current distribution andabundance data, especially in areas beyond thecoterminous U.S. ! Only a few observations of Paciﬁc lampreys have been documented in Baja California, and little information is available for areas beyond Alaska around the Paciﬁc Rim to Japan. (Western Lamprey Conservation Team)! The ocean stage of the Paciﬁc lamprey life history isnot well understood, and the time of ocean residency may http://www.lakeoswegoreview.com/news_graphics/120759956558972500.jpgvary (Close and Fitzpatrick 2002)! Effect on Paciﬁc lamprey population from intensecommercial ﬁshing of prey midwater (Close andFitzpatrick 2002)! Little known about thermal requirements(Meeuwig et al. 2011) ! Thermal requirements in early life stages of particular interest - believed to be the most narrow (Meeuwig et al. 2011)! Timing, behavior, quantiﬁcation of habitatpreference (Bayer et al. 2000)!Tributary behavior to provide baseline information; http://fishbio.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/lamprey.jpgthis can help future studies understand behavior such asmigration delays (Bayer et al. 2000)