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Mobile app that leverages Short Message Service (SMS) to deliver customized dosage reminders to patients in rural India to provide accurate medical records to medical practitioners.

Mobile app that leverages Short Message Service (SMS) to deliver customized dosage reminders to patients in rural India to provide accurate medical records to medical practitioners.

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Mobile Industry in India Mobile Industry in India Document Transcript

  • Fall 08 Spring 10Mobile Telecommunications IndustryKelly JamesMacro Economics Research Paper
  • Table of Contents1.Introduction.....................................................................................................................3 Problem Identification.............................................................................................................................3 mHealth (mobile health) Dosage Reminder Application.........................................................................4II.Industry Overview...........................................................................................................5 Government, Policy & Regulation...........................................................................................................6 Industry Concentration ............................................................................................................................6 Industry Buyers........................................................................................................................................7 Technologies & Structure........................................................................................................................9 Market Growth / Trends.........................................................................................................................11III.Competitive Analysis...................................................................................................13 Mobile Telecommunication Operators..................................................................................................13 ..................................................................................................................................................14 Mobile Device Manufactures.................................................................................................................14 New Entrants .........................................................................................................................................14 Barriers to Entry.....................................................................................................................................15 There are big challenges in the industry that, if unresolved, could disrupt the India growth curve and affect the ability for new mobile players to enter the market. According to Siddarth Ugrunkar, "Network not available" is a dreaded but common phrase many mobile subscribers hear when they try to place a call. He contributes the explosive growth to the overused and strained networks that have led to the diminishing quality of service. However, with the impending release of the 3G network, he believes improvements to the quality of existing services, like the drop off rates and poor call quality, will improve and expand the service capability for new mobile players as well. ................................15 Pricing ...................................................................................................................................................15IV.Conclusion...................................................................................................................16V.Works Cited...................................................................................................................18“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 2
  • 1. IntroductionIndia is a large country, consisting of 29 states, six union territories, and with apopulation of more than 1.2 billion people. (“CIA - The World Factbook -- India,” n.d.)There is no national health insurance policy for the country and it has been observed thatthere is a great deal of disparity in quality and access to health care between urban andrural regions. (GE Healthcare Research, 2009)India has traditionally suffered from the economic and social hardships of malnutritionand communicable disease. However, India’s rapid economic growth is playing asignificant role in their public health transition. (Kahn, Yang, & Kahn, 2010) India hasevolved into one of the fastest growing economies in the world, with an average GDPgrowth of 8.6% for the last 3 years. (Davies, 2006) The rapid economic growth,globalization, urbanization and western influence are factors leading to a drastic shift inthe diet and living behaviors of individuals, families and communities. Consequently,these changes are playing a significant role in the major public health transition that Indiais facing. It is estimated that by 2020, cardiovascular disease will be the largest cause ofdisability and death in India. (GE Healthcare Research, 2009) World Health Organizationestimates that India lost 9 billion dollars in national income from premature deaths due toheart disease, stroke and diabetes in 2005, and is projected to lose 237 billion dollars by2015. (Orpilla, 2006) A report by the Earth Institute at Columbia University warned,“Without sustained effort on individual and national levels, the imminent heart-diseaseepidemic will be devastating for the regions physical and economic health.” (Lal, 2008)Problem Identification“Adherence, compliance, and failure are value-judgment words often used by medicalpractitioners to signify the ability of a patient to follow medical directions for treatmentand follow-up.” (“Issues in Medication Management - Global Health University - UniteFor Sight,” n.d.) Drug compliance is a significant issue in patient therapy worldwide.Noncompliance is typically cited as occurring in 50% to 75% of patients, and the rate is“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 3
  • even higher in patients with chronic illnesses due to the long term and complex treatmentplans. (Albert Wertheimer, PhD, MBA, n.d.) The New England Healthcare Institutefound that not taking medications as prescribed leads to poorer health, more frequenthospitalization, a higher risk of death and as much as $290 billion annually in increasedmedical costs. (Dolan, 2009) Several studies have documented evidence-based methodsfor increasing adherence. One study found that interventions involving simplified dosingregimens, reminder devices, education, and individualized care planning could improveadherence. (“Issues in Medication Management - Global Health University - Unite ForSight,” n.d.)Although there has been extensive research conducted to understand noncompliance indeveloping countries, little research has been done to identify noncompliance triggers indeveloping countries. The objective of this paper is to explore the use of mobile phonesas a delivery medium to improve cardiovascular treatment compliance in India. Theresearch presents an overview of the mobile industry from the perspective of Porter’s fiveforces framework, which examines the market opportunities, the competitive landscapeand the future trends of the mobile telecommunications industry in India.mHealth (mobile health) Dosage Reminder ApplicationFrom the above considerations, I came up with the idea to facilitate a mobile healthapplication that leverages Short Message Service (SMS) to deliver customized dosagereminders to patients in rural India to provide accurate medical records to medicalpractitioners. In addition to dosage reminders, the application will ask patients to recordside effects or concerns with the cardiovascular drug(s) via SMS and then send medicalpractitioners appropriate risk assessment alerts. The application will be built for thesecond-generation (2G) mobile network, which is the most popular network in India andwill work across various mobile devices.The application will be free for patients and the cost of the daily SMS messages will bemonetized through advertising revenue. The application is intended to bundle withcardiovascular disease medication as an education tool to provide health tips andannouncements relevant to the drug or disease. Additionally, the data collected can be“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 4
  • syndicated and sold as an additional revenue stream.Figure 1 mHealth Mobile Application Process Flow II. Industry OverviewLess than one decade ago in India, mobile phones were considered luxury goods. Today,India’s mobile telecommunications industry is the fastest growing market in the worldand the considerable underclass are almost as well connected as the rich. Over the lastdecade, the liberation of the mobile industry, coupled with the availability of low-costdevices, reduction in tariffs, better network coverage and affordable services helped theindustry undergo a major process of transformation. Siddarth Ugrunkar, founder ofbSmart mobile, said that one can now see almost every Indian in Mumbai on his or her“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 5
  • mobile phone, whether they are executives, businessmen, shop owners, students,housewives, drivers or even rickshaw pullers. As a society, India has readily embracedthe mobile culture, which has provided the country with prosperous economic rewards.According to The World Bank estimates, every extra 10 mobile phones per 100 people ina typical developing country can boost GDP growth by 0.8 percentage points. (Devraj,2009) India is expected to hit 893 million mobile users, which is 64.69% of thepopulation, by 2012. (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India , 2009)Government, Policy & RegulationThe liberation of mobile telecommunications in India began in 1980 with Prime MinisterRajiv Gandhi. He formed the Department of Telecommunications (DOT) as part of theDepartment of Posts and Telegraphs and this was his declaration to “lead India into the21st century. (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India , 2009) Later that year, he createdMahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) to serve Delhi and Bombay, and VideshSanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) to operate international telecommunications services,both DOT owned corporations. In 1985, he liberated the industry competition bydemonopolizing mobile phone equipment, which allowed private companies tomanufacture phones. However, the mobile market did not really take off until 1997,when the government set up its first independent telecommunications regulator, TelecomRegulatory Authority of India (TRAI); the TRAI Amendment Act was subsequentlypassed in 2000, which allowed foreign investors to enter the telecommunications market.Today, India possesses one of the most progressive mobile telecommunications market inthe world. (“COAI :: Cellular Operators Association of India,” n.d.)Since its inception in 1997, TRAI has remained focused on regulatory growth initiativesand policies to help move the mobile industry from a monopolistic market to a more openand competitive market. TRAI has listed tariff regulation, protection of consumers’interests, and the monitoring of quality of service as their top focus. (TelecomRegulatory Authority of India , 2009)Industry ConcentrationIndia’s mobile telecommunications industry is regarded as one of the most competitive in“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 6
  • the world, which is a significant change from its monopoly ten years ago. For example,India’s mobile telecommunications Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is 2000, which iscomparable to the US and UK markets at 2529 and 2309 respectively. (Anand, n.d.) ByHHI index standards, 2000 is considered “highly competitive”, and this is reflected in theconventional price cut practices implicit in a crowded market. (Anand, n.d.) To undercutthe rollouts from new mobile providers and gain additional market share, large mobileoperators are cutting their prices by up to 50%, which has triggered massive tariff wars inthe mobile market. (Ribeiro, 2010a) But, a recent study by Lirneasia, a communicationtechnology non-profit, found that price cuts are not likely to make a significant dent inthe mobile providers existing subscriber base. In the survey, 37% of the respondents saidthey would not even consider switching to a cheaper package, while only 15% of themsaid they would shift. The rest of the respondents remain undecided. (“Competitionamong telcos ensures customer retention-Telecom-News By Industry-News-TheEconomic Times,” 2009) These survey findings indicate that mobile subscribers expectfree market forces to keep prices comparable among competing service providers.Although the price cuts are not likely to move existing subscribers from their serviceprovider, the rock bottom prices are however extending the market to include a new andunconnected subscriber base.Industry Buyers"Theres an insatiable hunger for mobile phones permeating all layers of society," saysPankaj Mohindroo, president of the Indian Cellular Assn. (Lakshman, 2006) The Indianrural market is massive. Rural households make up 72% of India’s total households, or720 million people, of which only 15.2% account for the total mobile subscriber base.(Lakshman, 2006) According to industry estimates, 70% of all new subscribers willcome from rural areas. (“Why Companies See Bright Prospects in Rural India - IndiaKnowledge@Wharton,” 2009) Over the last decade, the rural purchasing power anddisposable income have increased due to a number of contributing factors, which includethe increase in procurement prices (the government sets the minimum support price formany farm products), the increase in agriculture employment boosted by a series of goodharvests, the government plans like National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(NREGS) that guarantees 100 days of employment to one member of every rural“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 7
  • household and reduced rural underemployment and raised wages. (“Why Companies SeeBright Prospects in Rural India - India Knowledge@Wharton,” 2009)These figures indicate that rural India is on the verge of becoming a large untappedmarket, from which mobile operators and manufacturers can greatly benefit. Indeed,Mobile device manufacturers are now tailoring their products to this market. Nokia, forexample, launched a basic mobile phone with an alarm clock and a torch to appeal to thelarge parts of rural India that dont have electricity. (“Managing Technology,” 2007)According to Pankaj Gupta, practice head, consumer & retail, Tata Strategic ManagementGroup, total income in rural India, roughly 43% of the total national income, is expectedto increase from around $220 billion in 2004-2005 to $425 billion by 2010-2011, aCAGR of 12%. (“Why Companies See Bright Prospects in Rural India - IndiaKnowledge@Wharton,” 2009) Figure 5 represents both the mobile and fixed penetrationrates in rural India from 2002-2008.Figure 2 Telecommunication Density in Rural IndiaMoreover, India’s under 25-age population is the largest segment in India and representsthe largest under 25-age group in the world. This growing demographic suggests futuresales for first-time mobile subscribers. (Lakshman, 2006)“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 8
  • Technologies & StructureThe mobile technologies currently in use are Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). There are primarily 9 GSM and 5CDMA operators providing mobile services in 19 telecommunication circles and 4metropolitan cities, covering 2000 towns across the country. (Telecom RegulatoryAuthority of India , 2009) The licensing regime for the mobile services are dividedbetween the 23 telecommunication circles, namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkatta,Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil, Nadu, Kerala, Punjab,Haryana, Uttar, Pradesh (West), Uttar Pradesh (East), Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, WestBengal and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, NorthEast and Jammu & Kashmir. (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 2009) Figure 2below represents the Indian states with the largest subscriber base. State Subscriber’s (in millions) Mobile Density Maharashtra 58,789,949 51.96 Uttar Pradesh 57,033,513 26.32 Tamil Nadu 45,449,460 63.66 Andhra Pradesh 37,126,048 42.58 West Bengal 32,540,049 34.28 Karnataka 28,867,734 46.76 Rajasthan 27,742,395 39.09 Gujarat 27,475,585 45.49 Bihar 27,434,896 25.04 Madhya Pradesh 24,923,739 33.09 All India 471,726,205 37.71Figure 3 Top Mobile Subscriber States as of September 2009 (Telecom Regulatory Authority ofIndia , 2009)GSM is the more popular mobile technology with Nokia as the dominant mobile playeraccounting for 63% of their installed base. CDMA’s biggest mobile player is LGaccounting for 48% of their installed base. For the combined GSM/CDMA installed base“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 9
  • in India, Nokia and LG are at the top with 54% and 14% installed base marketsrespectively. (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India , 2009) According to the TelecomRegulatory Authority of India, at the end of September 2009, 371 million subscribersused GSM, in contrast to 101 million subscribers using CDMA. (Telecom RegulatoryAuthority of India , 2009) Figure 3 below represents the top mobile manufactures inIndia and their respective mobile technology install base. Brands Installed Base GSM CDMA Total (GM & CDMA) LG 4.4% 47.6% 14.4 Motorola 7.8% 5.4% 7.2% Nokia 62.6% 24.3% 53.7% Samsung 9% 11.2% 9.5% Sony-Ericson 8.9% 6.8%Figure 4 April 2009 ending quarterly Average - India Urban Mobile Phone Users (N=5,775)Indian mobile telecommunication operators BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Hutch, Idea, Aircel,Spice and MTL are on the GSM networks whereas Reliance Communications and TataIndicom are on the CDMA networks. (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India , 2009)The following chart represents the GSM market share for the mobile telecommunicationoperators in India, which was reported from The Cellular Operators Association of India. GSM Providers Subscribers (in millions) Market Share Tata Teleservices 60.0 30.86% Bharti Airtel 121.7 30.86% Vodafone Essar 94.1 23.87 IDEA 59.8 15.19% BSNL 59.4 15.08% Aircel 33 8.38% Reliance Telecom 15.7 4% MTNL 4.6 1.17% Loop Mobile 2.7 .69%“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 10
  • Uninor 2.5 .64% STel 0.5 0.13% Total Users – 395 millionFigure 5 Mobile Telecommunication GSM Market ShareThird generation (3G) wideband mobile communication is the latest mobiletelecommunications technology to launch in India, which enables super fast multimediastreaming and data transferring access to mobile phones. On April 9, India’s governmentfinally started the 3G auction and on April 11 the broadband wireless access (BWA)auction. (Singh, 2010) Mobile leaders Vodafone Essar, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Telecomand six other’s are competing for three slots of bandwidth to offer 3G services in each of17 service areas and four each in the remaining five areas. (Luna, 2010) The auctionwinners will be allowed to offer 3G services on a commercial basis from September 1st2010. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry estimates that therewill be 90 million 3G mobile subscribers by 2013 and that annual sales of compatiblemobile phones will reach 81.3 million units by 2013. (Telecom Regulatory Authority ofIndia , 2009)Market Growth / TrendsToday, India is the world’s second largest mobile telecommunication network, behindChina, with 563.73 million mobile phone users, an overall mobile density of 46.8%, andsubscribership is currently growing nearly 15 million per month. (Leahy, 2010). As ofSeptember of 2009, the rural tele-density in India is 18.97% as compared to rural mobiledensity of 101.38% and the country’s overall tele-density is 44.87%. (“COAI :: CellularOperators Association of India,” n.d.) Over the last decade, the mobile sector has shownremarkable growth boosted mostly by the extraordinary demand from a new and growingsubscriber base. The compound rate of growth (CARG) for India’s mobiletelecommunications between 1999 and 2008 was 83%, with this uptrend in growthexpected to continue at a CAGR of 10% between 2010 and 2013 to reach 850 million.(“COAI :: Cellular Operators Association of India,” n.d.) By 2015 the industry isprojected to have ‘one billion plus mobile users, regarded as one of the fastest growingmobile telecommunication sectors in the world. (“India to have billion plus mobile users“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 11
  • by 2015: executive-Finance-Economy-News-The Economic Times,” 2009) Thisremarkable growth trajectory indicates the industry is in its growth stage.SMS usage continues to grow every year, as more innovative ways of utilizing itspotential are coming to the forefront. Based on TRAI data, the average Indian sends 29SMS per month. (Sinha, 2009) A research study conducted to look at SMS usage in urbanIndia found that SMS is effective for getting the message out to potential customers orretaining existing ones. Roughly 8% of urban Indians have seen an ad in a SMS theyhave received, while 65% of those who have seen have also read the advertisementmessage. SMS also proved to have higher conversion rates than other conventionalmediums like TV or radio. (Sinha, 2009)Figure 6 SMS users in 2009Today mobile phones have moved beyond their primary role of placing a call and havegraduated to become an essential communication device for consumers in India. Indiawitnessed the launch of high-end phones in 2009 and mobile consumers bought nearly700,000 high-end Smartphone’s in the April-June quarter of 2009. (“Why CompaniesSee Bright Prospects in Rural India - India Knowledge@Wharton,” 2009) Expertsbelieve 3G will be essential to the development of the value-added services market byreducing barriers to entry for the mass market. (“India to have billion plus mobile usersby 2015: executive-Finance-Economy-News-The Economic Times,” 2009) According to“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 12
  • research, the number of 3G mobile subscribers is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly130%, reaching 60 million consumers, between 2010 and 2013. (“India to have billionplus mobile users by 2015: executive-Finance-Economy-News-The Economic Times,”2009) III.Competitive AnalysisMobile Telecommunication OperatorsThe mobile telecommunications market is made up of two state-owned companiesMTNL and VSNL, private Indian companies and foreign invested companies. Thederegulation in telecommunications law and policies over the last ten years hassignificantly impacted the private sector market share, which has reached 77.44% against5% in 1999. (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India , 2009) India’s five leading mobileoperators are Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Vodafone Essar, BSNL and IdeaCellular. (“Communications in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,” n.d.) Service Provider Subscriber’s (in millions) Market Share % Bharti Airtel 124.61 22.11 Reliance Communications 99.41 17.72% Vodafone Essar 97.22 17.25% BSNL 66.75 11.95% Tata Teleservices 63.15 11.07% IDEA 62.14 10.99% Aircel 34.86 6.06% MTNL 4.99 .90% Uninor 3.55 .47% Sistema Shyam 3.17 .60% Loop Mobile 2.77 .50% STel .71 .09% HFCL Infotel .327 .06%“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 13
  • Figure 7 Mobile Services Market Share as of January 31, 2010Figure 8 Mobile Providers Market Share as of January 31, 2010Mobile Device ManufacturesWhen India’s government opened up the country’s telecommunications market to theprivate sector in 1994, many of the large global mobile device manufacturers entered themarket as they recognized its potential. (“Managing Technology,” 2007) Today, Nokiais the most established manufacturer in India with a dominant 63% share, followed byLG with 13% market share, Motorola with 8.5% market share and Samsung with 3.5%market share. (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India , 2009)New EntrantsThe Indian mobile device space is fierce; as price sensitive consumers are demandingmore entry-level models and the high-end 3G Smartphone’s enter the Indian market.Mobile phone sales in India recorded a 6.7% increase to 100.9 million in the year endedJune 30, as compared to 94.6 million the year before. (Ghaswalla, 2009) Due to thisrapid growth of sales and profit margins, new mobile device makers are entering themarket giving rise to more and more competitors. To put the market competition inperspective, 27 new mobile vendors entered the Indian market in the fourth quarter of2009. (Ghaswalla, 2009) Both Mindtree, the Bangalore-based IT company, and CoolpadCommunications, the Chinese wireless technology company, decided to enter the mobile“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 14
  • device business in 2008 and are already set to retail their mobile phones in the Indianmarket later this year.As the 3G network rolls out to the market later this year, the Indian government believesthis will open the door for more foreign players to make an entry into the mobiletelecommunications market. (“Competition among telcos ensures customer retention-Telecom-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times,” 2009) Currently, there is nocap on the number of 2G service providers in each circle. For the 3G network, thegovernment is planning to allow three to four private players in each circle dependingupon the spectrum availability.Barriers to EntryThere are big challenges in the industry that, if unresolved, could disrupt the India growthcurve and affect the ability for new mobile players to enter the market. According toSiddarth Ugrunkar, "Network not available" is a dreaded but common phrase manymobile subscribers hear when they try to place a call. He contributes the explosivegrowth to the overused and strained networks that have led to the diminishing quality ofservice. However, with the impending release of the 3G network, he believesimprovements to the quality of existing services, like the drop off rates and poor callquality, will improve and expand the service capability for new mobile players as well.Another big challenge that can drastically affect the market and deter new entrants is themassive amount of funds needed to improve the existing infrastructure and expandcoverage to the rural regions. As the urban Indian cities like Mumbai and New Delhireach their point of mobile saturation, the future growth of the mobile industry is in direjeopardy unless the infrastructure improvements ensue in the rural communities. "A lotdepends on how fast the players roll out their networks into the rural hinterland," saysKuldeep Goyal, a general manager with the government-owned telecom carrier BSNL.(Lakshman, 2006)PricingTo extend the breadth of India’s subscriber base, mobile operators are offering cheap“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 15
  • mobile services to attract consumers in rural areas and slums. The intense competitionhas led to significant drops in the voice rates as low as 0.01 Indian rupees (US$0.0002)per second and revenues. (Ribeiro, 2010b) Earlier, voice calls were typically charged bythe minute. Bharti, for example, reported flat revenue and net profit growth in 2009, eventhough their customer base grew by 40%. Idea Cellular, another large mobile operator,reported a drop in their “average realized rate per minute” by 9% between the third andfourth quarter of 2009 (Ribeiro, 2010a).As the revenue opportunities for mobile operators and manufactures rapidly increase inIndia, markets in Europe, Japan and the US are hitting their points of saturation and theUS mobile manufacturers like Nokia, Motorola and LG Electronics are looking to Indiaas a key revenue driver for the industry. (Lakshman, 2006) Mobile device manufacturersare tailoring their models and prices to reach a consumer that lives in impoverished areasand makes less than $2 per day, a consumer no one would have considered targeting fiveyears ago. (Lakshman, 2006) For example, Early this year, Voafone introduced a pair ofmobile phones for less than $20 that support voice calls, SMS and mobile payments.(Grove, 2010) Mobile phone manufacturers are also planning to launch 3G phones ascheap as 2,800 rupees (60 U.S. dollars) to tap into Indias rural markets. (Ghaswalla,2009) IV.ConclusionAs mobile technology increases in flexibility, it has the opportunity to play a key role inthe new health care delivery model. Seventy five percent of the health infrastructure inIndia, is concentrated in urban areas, where only thirty percent of the population lives.(Kahn et al., 2010) Consequently, India is faced with some of the most challenging tasksin providing health care to the suburban and rural population in the country. With cheapand easy access to mobile phones, the exchange of health information can occur withanyone, anywhere and enable better utilization of limited health care resources.To conclude, by leveraging mobile technology to improve the ability to trackcardiovascular disease and provide timelier, more actionable public health information,“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 16
  • the mobile health application can influence people to manage their health better andreduce the high costs associated with healthcare neglect.“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 17
  • V. Works CitedAlbert Wertheimer, PhD, MBA. (n.d.). Medication Compliance Research: Still So Far to Go. The Journal of Applied Research. Retrieved from http://www.jarcet.com/articles/Vol3Iss3/Wertheimer.htmAnand, A. (n.d.). INDUSTRY ANALYSIS AND VALUATION - Telecommunication - INDIA - a knol by Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. Retrieved April 15, 2010, from http://knol.google.com/k/industry-analysis-and-valuation-telecommunication- india#CIA - The World Factbook -- India. (n.d.). . Retrieved April 18, 2010, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.htmlCOAI :: Cellular Operators Association of India. (n.d.). Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI). Association News for Mobile Industry, . Retrieved April 21, 2010, from http://www.coai.com/historyIndia.phpCommunications in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). . Retrieved April 22, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_in_IndiaCompetition among telcos ensures customer retention-Telecom-News By Industry-News- The Economic Times. (2009, February 12). The Economic Times. News, . Retrieved April 12, 2010, from http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News_By_Industry/Telecom/Competi tion_among_telcos_ensures_customer_retention/articleshow/4119691.cmsDavies, P. (2006, April 11). Cardiovascular Disease - the Silent Killer in Rural Andhra Pradesh - AndhraNews.Net. AndhraNews.net. Retrieved April 7, 2010, from“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 18
  • http://www.andhranews.net/india/2006/april/11-Cardiovascular-Disease.aspDevraj, R. (2009, October 9). Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan. Asia Times. Retrieved from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/KJ09Df02.htmlDolan, P. (2009, August 15). Poor medication adherence costs $290 billion a year | mobihealthnews. Mobi Health News. Medical News, . Retrieved April 22, 2010, from http://mobihealthnews.com/3901/poor-medication-adherence-costs-290- billion-a-year/GE Healthcare Research. (2009, September 25). Cardiovascular disease No. 1 killer worldwide - The Times of India. The Times of India. Retrieved April 7, 2010, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life/health-fitness/health/Cardiovascular- disease-No-1-killer-worldwide/articleshow/5055362.cmsGhaswalla, A. (2009, October 13). 27 handset vendors enter telecom space in one qtr- Telecom-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times. The Economic Times. News, . Retrieved April 21, 2010, from http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/telecom/27-handset- vendors-enter-telecom-space-in-one-qtr/articleshow/5119557.cmsHow Did Nokia Succeed in the Indian Mobile Market, While Its Rivals Got Hung Up? - India Knowledge@Wharton. (2007). India Knowledge @ Wharton, Managing Technology. Retrieved from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/india/article.cfm?articleid=4220India to have billion plus mobile users by 2015: executive-Finance-Economy-News-The Economic Times. (2009, November 18). The Economic Times. News, . Retrieved“India lives in its villages”. --- Mahatma Gandhi 19
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