ABOUT US Who we are and what we do...Marketing agency specialising in social marketing and green, ethical and sustainablemarketing: Hands-on campaign strategy and delivery.Based in Lincoln but work across the UK and EuropeA number of clients - mainly public sectorOver the last 18 months we have been working on behaviour change for addressing obesity,teenage pregnancy, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol harm reduction and dentistry to name afew...We also specialise in service redesign and social research to improve public services so theymeet the wants and needs of local people
TODAY’S AGENDA A lot to get through today...The basics: Key concepts and principlesPart 1: Getting to know the customerPart 2: Segmentation and Targeting, Exchange and competitionPart 3: Behavioural goals and behavioural theoryPart 4: Marketing/Intervention Mix and evaluationClose & any other questions
PRINCIPLES What is Social Marketing? Understanding the customer (customerorientation and insight) The change you want to see (behaviour goals) Understanding human behaviour(behavioural theory) Always there is an exchange Not ignoring the competition 8 Segmentation and targeting Benchmark criteria Marketing/Intervention mix
PROCESS What is Social Marketing? Refine ScopeEvaluate Develop Implement
PROCESS What is Social Marketing? Co-Refine Co-Scope Co- Co-Evaluate Develop Co- Implement
THE DEFINITION “The systematic application of marketing alongside other conceptsand techniques to achieve specific behavioural goals for a social good” Jeff French & CB Stevens (NSMC)
THE DEFINITION“Social marketing represents a unique system for understanding who people are, what they desire and then organising thecreation, delivery and communication of products, services andmessages to meet their desires while at the same time meeting the needs of society” AED
HISTORY Where and How... Originally there were “public service ads” 1942 - US created War Advertising Council 1950 - Public service campaigns emerged Discipline of “marketing” harnessed to influence public attitudeand behaviour “Born” as a discipline in the 1970’s Kotler and Zaltman: “sell ideas” Social marketing - influence social behaviour
WHY SOCIAL MARKETING? “Social Marketing is a powerful tool to improve our lives as well as sell consumer products. It fuses the power of marketing, advertising, PR, advocacy and community organising in a seamless approach to achieve positive social change ” Bill Smith, AED
Message based, traditional communications only have a very limited impact on people’s actual behaviour.
WHAT CAN IT DO?Change behaviours positivelyCreate awareness, engage, build trustSave money in the long termImprove peoples’ livesInformNot ‘what does it cost’ but ‘what is it worth’
Huge Debt VfM/ ROI Focus on behaviour changeOLD GOVT/ NEW GOVT ? “The new government white paper ‘Healthy Lives, Healthy People’ outlines a radical shift in the way we tackle public health challenges. It outlines a new approach – a move away from Whitehall ‘diktat’ and ‘nannying’ to empowerment within local communities and help for individuals and families to address their own, particular needs”
U- TURN The Department of Health (DoH) is putting £14m behind itsChange4Life campaign.The DoH has set out a three-year strategy, focusing all marketing on Change4Life, Smokefree, young people and older people. It has slashed its annual communications budget from £93m to £44m.
EXPERT KNOWS BEST? Moving to a ‘public driven model’
EXPERT KNOWS BEST Expert defined objectives and targets Strategies, programmes and plans Implementation adapting to consumer wants and needs Evaluate programmes and plans
PUBLIC DRIVEN MODEL Consumer wants and needs Policy objectives and targets Marketing Strategy Evaluation Learning and refinement
DIFFERENT TIMES Age of Deference to Age of ReferenceIn an age of reference, the greatest intangible asset of all is TRUST
SO WHAT IS MARKETING? A means of influencing behaviour...
The right product, in the right place, at the right time, at the right price The achievement of corporate goals through meeting and exceeding customer needs better than the competition.SO WHAT IS MARKETING? Satisfying customer needs and desires. Customer focused philosophy Marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.Marketing is the management process that identifies,anticipates and satisfies customer requirements
BRAND STORMING What about these? Can we sell these brands/behaviours in the same way?
TRUE MARKETING What about these?True marketing approach – about making what we can sell notselling what we can make – moving away from communicating amessage WE have crafted to using audience to craft a product andmessage that will be received‘The meaning of communication is the response we get – start fromwhat the audience will respond toThe right product to the right people at the right price in the rightplace at the right time with the help of the right peopleOur ‘sales force’ are as important as our ‘customers’
LETS NOT FORGET... UK annual expenditure = £800m (Social Marketing = £5m)
Social Advertising “I don’t need a message that I already know,I need a programme that will help me solve my problem. Social Marketing
IN A NUTSHELL...About understanding peopleCreation, delivery and communication of products, services and messages to meet theirdesires (not just promotion!)Meeting the needs of societyApplication of commercial marketingAchieve specific behavioural goals, for a social good.Sells a behaviour change to a targeted audienceCannot promise an immediate paybackIntegrates people in the process of changeMoving away from what we want to sell
ANY QUESTIONS SO FAR? Next: Getting to know your customer
PART ONE: THE CUSTOMER Getting to know the customer
IF YOU DO NOTHING ELSE... Get to know your audience...
THE CUSTOMER Getting to know your customer Customer Orientation: Developing a robust understanding of the audience, based on good market and consumer research, combining data from different sources. “If I had six hours to chop down a tree, I’d spend the first two hours sharpening the axe.” Abraham LincolnScoping
A DIFFERENT KIND OF CUSTOMER 50% of teenagers consume another media while watching TV(Pincott, Russell 2006) 70% of three year olds recognise the McDonalds symbol but only half of them know their own surname (NCC 2005) Pester Power…67% car purchases are influenced by children (US) – (Sue Palmer) Double the number of 2-5 year olds can play with a smartphone app (19%) than can tie their own shoes (9%) Daily TelegraphScoping
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER Getting to know your customerOne every six miles “Customer intelligence is now a key factor in differentiating winners from the losers.” (Business Week)
“You never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them” (To Kill a Mocking Bird)
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER “Healthy eating is more a state of “We listened to consumers who said intention than it is of action” they wanted to eat fresh fruit (Burger King) – but apparently they lied.” (Wendy’s Spokesperson) “We’re satisfying the serious “A typical buyer isn’t driving in meat lovers by leaving off the there with a BMW and an expenseproduce and letting them decide account. They’ve got a couple of exactly how much they can bucks in their pocket and their big handle” objective is to get full” (Denny Marie Post Research – plenty of it! (Denny Marie Post Chief Concept Officer Burger Chief Concept Officer King) Burger King) Industry monitoring Social climate monitoring Consumer research Family shopping behaviour
INSIGHT GENERATION A deep truth “A deep ‘truth’ about the customer based on their behaviour, experiences, beliefs, needs or desires, that is relevant to the task or issue and ‘rings bells’ with target people”
INSIGHT GENERATION A deep truth My child is always safest in my arms. God decides when to take my baby.
INSIGHT GENERATION A deep truth Salesrocketed 700%
CHANGE IN APPROACH The communications approach -versus- The social marketing approach Crafting our Communicating Audience message our message Intervention/ Understanding GeneratingAudience marketing our audience insight mix
DATA TO INSIGHT DATA UNDERSTANDING INSIGHT WHAT? WHY? SO WHAT?Information, facts and A deeper truth that strikes a chord An understanding of what’s goingobservations related to with people on understanding the people involved SOURCE:GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK
RESULTS!Moment of doubt’ campaign targeting young men 17-29Perception you’d get caught: 58% pre-campaign, 75% 6 months inDeaths from drink driving: 560 in 2006, 430 in 2008Has saved 1,000 lives and prevented 90,000 injuriesEvery £1 spent on Think! has saved society £9.36 RESULTS! SOURCE: DEPT FOR TRANSPORT 2010
SEGMENTATION A deep truth“Segmentation is the process of subdividing a market into distinct groups that behave in the same way or have similar needs”. YUPPIES DINKE DUMP PIPPIE SCUM SILKY Dividing people into groups of SINBAD similar characteristics or SITCOM behaviours WOOPIE LOMBARD
SEGMENTATION Why is it important? MESSAGE Message Don’t sniff glue or aerosols, they can kill youHow terrifying, I won’t be doing that! It’s a kids So what? drug, I wouldn’t be seen dead doing that
SEGMENTATION Why is it important? MESSAGE Message Don’t sniff glue or aerosols, they can kill you Hmm, I didn’t know youHow terrifying, could sniff glue – I’ll give I won’t be that a try! doing that! It’s a kids drug, I So what? wouldn’t be seen dead doing that
SEGMENTATION Why is it important? Strategy Strategy Strategy StrategyBreak down the audience into clusters with targeted interventions for each group
Demographic male born 1948 British 2nd marriage affluentwell known family
Demographic male born 1948 British 2nd marriage affluentwell known family
Demographic male born 1948 British 2nd marriage affluentwell known family
SEGMENTATION One size doesn’t fit all “Segmentation is the process of subdividing a market into distinct groups that behave in the same way or have similar needs”. Socio- Who people areOld and only way (Geodemographic) demographic !"#$%&()*$("$+"%)(,"+)#-$./" DemographicsGeography, age, gender, income, household composition, social class What people doNew and best way (Psychographic) Behaviours Use and behaviour Media consumptionBased on personality traits, beliefs, values, behaviours, preferences, habits… what moves and motivates How people think and feel Attitude Needs, beneﬁts, motivations Values, beliefs Inﬂuences (reference groups)
EXERCISE Illicit tobacco use KEY SEGMENT CHARACTERISTIC Harden regular Deﬁant regular user - no care about legalityConscious but indifferent Sees illicit tobacco as harmless, a victimless crime, you simply save money Culturally ingrained Buying illicit cigarettes is the done thing Concerned Infrequent Perceived cheap cigarettes as harmful but may partake in casual purchasing Last resorts Buy cheap cigarettes as a last resort when their normal supply has run out
EXERCISE Illicit tobacco useBASED ON ALL THE INFORMATION YOU HAVE, WHAT STRATEGY WOULD YOU ADOPT? (20 MINUTES)
EXCHANGE Social marketing is an exchange. If you want people to change their behaviour, you have to offer them something…What does the person have to give to get the benefits proposed?Forces us to listen to what people want as well as what we want from themPhilip Kotler defines marketing as satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process Costs Beneﬁts Inconvenience Improved health Travel time KEY QUESTION: Discounted fares Facilities What’s in it for me? More regular services Staying in bed/going out Incentives Distance Rewards Child dependence
EXCHANGEHow do you persuade young people to pee in a pot?
EXCHANGEHow do you persuade young people to pee in a pot?
Within this exchange transaction customers will only exchange what they value (money, time, effort) if they feel that their needs are being fully satisfied. VALUE EXCHANGE
COMPETITION Less about a specific company and much more about what is being offered to people…FunPleasureEnjoymentTasteAffordabilitySpeedConvenience ! " #$%Conform & (% Average number of commercial messages seen a day: 1300 Number recalled = 3
BEHAVIOURAL GOALS A focus on behaviour Social Marketing has a clear focus on behaviour based on behavioural analysis with SPECIFIC BEHAVIOURAL GOALS. Problem Statement What is the social problem I want to address? Who or what is to blame for this problem?
BEHAVIOURAL GOALS Be SMART! Specific Not open to different interpretationsMeasurable Tangible, conciseAchievable With the resources available Reliable Durable and consistent data can be gathered Can be measured within the timeframe of theTime bound intervention
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY What do we know about human behaviour?
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY Behaviour is affected by more than “what I know” or “what I Other inﬂuencing factors What I know How I actually act Information Knowledge Attitudes Other inﬂuencing factors Actions Values Behaviour BeliefsWhat I believe or feel Other inﬂuencing factors
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY Behaviour is affected by more than “what I know” or “what I Government policy and Community assets and resources implementation Social circumstances and contextMarket forces, the economic and business climatePhysical and material circumstances Environmental and cultural context Behaviour
EXAMPLEWhen push comes to nudge... How can we get people to reduce carbon emissions and congestion? Fun Easy Popular!
WHAT MOTIVATESPEOPLE TO ACT? SOCIAL PROOF More people recycled their towels if the message in a hotel bathroom informed them of the behaviour of others
WHAT MOTIVATESPEOPLE TO ACT? FEAR OF LOSS Worrying about loss of attractiveness was found to be a major motivator for young people to stop smoking
WHAT MOTIVATESPEOPLE TO ACT? PROMPTS Worrying about loss of attractiveness was found to be a major motivator for young people to stop smoking
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY In a nutshell People do many things by observing others and copying People do many things without consciously thinking about them Money undermines people’s intrinsic motivation to do the right thing People’s self-expectations influence how they behave People are loss-averse and hang on to what they consider ‘theirs’ People are genuinely bad at reaching decisions – fear of failure and the consequence of action People need to feel involved and effective to make a change
BEHAVIOUR Motivation and Ability Fun Easy Popular!CommunityCo-creation Custom
BEHAVIOUR Motivation and AbilityOne year, one goalTour the city, regular weekly spotsRecord of BMI, questionnaire, starter packFree tools - pedometers, recipe cards, gym passesHealth experts - personalised advicecommunity based services - health trainers, community food workersTanker - 3 zones (food, exercise and live events)Access to nutritionalistsOutside fitness - free induction at 16 lifestyle centrescooking demonstrations, interactive exercise demos, performancesInteractive website, free phone number, film footage, vox pops
MARKETING MIX The 4 P’s What does the customer get?PRODUCT What’s being offered to them? How much will it cost them? Not just money but PRICE time, effort, emotional costs Where does the relevant behaviour happen? PLACE Where are there opportunities to reach the customer How will you promote your offer? How will yourPROMOTION communicate with your target audience and inspire
MARKETING MIX The 4 P’s What does the customer get?PRODUCT What’s being offered to them? The Red Card
MARKETING MIX The 4 P’s How much will it cost them? Not just money butPRICE time, effort, emotional costs Those plush toilets!
MARKETING MIX The 4 P’s Where does the relevant behaviour happen? PLACE Where are there opportunities to reach the customerDental Spa Ideal place? Where your customer is.
MARKETING MIX The 4 P’s How will you promote your offer? How will yourPROMOTION communicate with your target audience and inspire PLAY VIDEO
HAVE YOU CAUGHT UP Marketing in the new world: mobile and online Moved from mass media to niche media to micro media The environment has changed Communities do not necessarily mean ‘local areas’ millions ofonline communities 89% of major brands expected to market via a mobile this year 41% of retailers have a mobile app Biggest spend this year in advertising is via mobile advertising.M&S have over 1million unique users a day to their mobile platform Text messages: more are sent in one day than the total populationof the planet. moving to location based marketing and augmented reality
SAFE SEX We are going mobile and online!Condom locator App (location based technology) Social Media Advertising on porn sites?????
MARKETING MIX Social Mix Elements How it is envisioned that we can help and support the customer toProposition move from the current to desired behaviour Identifying common goals and working together in genuinePartnerships collaborative partners Looking at ways to maximum resources by engaging across allPurse strings sectors - not just financial but HR and sharing expertise Recognising the political drivers and potential constraints and Politics looking at ways to inform, influence and engage the relevant political players Using social marketing to help link and connect different policy Policy agendas - maximising the impact across the whole system Public, professionals, politicians - recognising the customer can be People any or all of these and gearing efforts accordingly.
OUR MARKETING MIX The Social Change 4 C’s Community Consumption, it appears, really is best served in a crowd. From viewer, reader and listenerto broadcaster &content provider Conversation No longer about acquisition but relationships... Customisation Tailored content. Amazon, I Player... Actively help design, develop and distribute the products and services they value. Co-creation Customer innovation
SOCIAL MARKETING MIX Sometimes known as the ‘intervention mix’ Inform, advise, build Environment, context, design, awareness, encourage, persuade, inspire Educate Design engineer, availability, distribution Provide service support and Legislate, regulate, enforce,police, require, set standards Control Support respond, give people what they need, want or value
SOCIAL MARKETING MIX Childhood ObesityMotivating materials, peer led cycle paths, walking shelters,activity, curriculum, branding, through partners Educate Design play areas, local food co-ops, growing facilities Ban advertising of junk food, Parents toolkit, activities, food labelling, remove trans Control Support recipes, cooking skills, price fat, salt promotions
CASE STUDY Behavioural goal: To increase breastfeeding initiation rates amongst the target audiencePromote breastfeeding amongst 16-25 year old mothers,by celebrating mothers who breastfeed as ‘stars’, andsupporting them through the breastfeeding processFor the campaign, local breastfeeding mums weretransformed to look like models, celebrities, singers andactresses, making breastfeeding glamorous, sexy andappealing for the campaign’s target audience Increase in breastfeeding initiation rates within theStrategies for 4 audiences: 16-25 year old mums, theirpeers, their partners, their families target group from 52% to 63% But in Bolton,Not just a ‘ad’ campaign - peer to peer support, blog, increase from 65.1% tosupport for partners, great use of online 82%
EVALUATION How do you demonstrate that all important ‘return on investment’?What are you Stats at the measuring beginning... what against? are you measuring -Smoking (4 week quit data) SMART – Bowel cancer (number of test completed) – Obesity (BMI data & psychical activity levels) – Alcohol (brief interventions) OBJECTIVES - Breast feeding (6-8 week data) How are you Was it cost effective compared to other alternatives? measuring? Was the intervention a success – what is the evidence? Collect diaries, stories, quotes, views... What can be learned from the process as well as the impact?
SUMMING UP 6 underlying principlesWe can persuade people to change their behaviourTo do so, you need to understand exactly who your audiences areYou also need to be clear about the behaviour you seek and thebenefits and barriers of adopting that behaviour (and competitivebehaviours)You also need to understand what would motivate your specificaudiences to adopt the behaviour you seekYou can then design interventions that will help achieve that goalAnd collaborate with others to help achieve real change
TEST AND PILOT! Test, pilot “I made 5,127 prototypes of my vacuum before I got it right. There were 5,126 failures. But I learned from each one. I dont mind failure.” “Our society has an instant- gratification thing. We admire instant brilliance, effortlessJames brilliance. I think quite the reverse. You should admire the person whoDyson perseveres and slogs through and gets there in the end.”
A TRENDMILL That is getting faster and faster!!!“Marketing takes a day to learn. Unfortunately it takes a lifetime to master” Phillip Kotler, Marketing Guru
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