WWII

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WWII

  1. 1.  Treaty of Versailles causes anger, resentment in Europe  World-wide Depression  Dictators rise; driven by nationalism, desire for more territory  The rise of totalitarianism in Europe and Asia lead to World War II.
  2. 2.  Totalitarian government exerts almost complete control over people  replaces private farms with collectives  creates second largest industrial power; famines kill millions  purges anyone who threatens his power; 8–13 million killed Josef Stalin Soviet Dictator 1879 – 1953
  3. 3. Soviet Collective Camp Victims of Stalin’s Purges
  4. 4.  Fascism stresses nationalism, needs of state above individual  Benito Mussolini plays on fears of economic collapse, communism  Supported by government officials, police, army  1922 appointed head of government, establishes totalitarian state Benito Mussolini Italian Fascist 1883 - 1945
  5. 5.  Adolf Hitler leader of National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi)  Mein Kampf—Hitler’s book, basic beliefs of Nazism, based on extreme nationalism  Unite German-speaking people, enforce racial “purification”  Nazis become strongest political party; Hitler named chancellor  Dismantles democratic Weimar Republic; establishes Third Reich
  6. 6. Adolf Hitler German Reichs Führer 1889 - 1945 Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Published 1925
  7. 7.  Emperor Hirohito  Militarists control Japanese government  1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria Hirohito 124th Emperor of Japan 1901 - 1989
  8. 8.  Japan invades Manchuria (China)  Mussolini invades Ethiopia  German Aggression:  Rhineland  Austria  Czechoslovakia  Poland
  9. 9. Japanese Soldiers Enter Mukden, Manchuria Italy Invades Ethiopia 1935
  10. 10. Hitler’s Troops Enter the Rhineland 1935
  11. 11. DATE  1922  7/1929  4/1930  6/1930 EVENT  Mussolini became dictator of Italy  U.S. approved Kellogg-Briand Pact  London Naval Treaty limited tonnage  Hawley-Smoot Tariff created trade barriers
  12. 12.  9/1931- 10/1931  Japan marched into Manchuria to take coal deposits; U.S. does nothing  League of Nations asked the world to boycott Japanese goods and stop exporting to Japan, U.S. did not boycott
  13. 13.  1/1932-7/1932  U.S. Stimson Doctrine refused to recognize Japanese land gains in Manchuria  US refused to cancel war debts to Eur. Powers.  Germany did not pay war debts  Allies did not pay debts to US
  14. 14.  2/1933-Fall 1933  Japan walked out of the League of Nations; no reprisals  Nazis came to power and set up a fascist government  Hitler became Chancellor of Germany
  15. 15.  Hitler pulled Germany out of League of Nations and began building up German army  US formally recognized USSR  US issues good neighbor policy stating that no country had the right to intervene in the affairs of other nations.
  16. 16.  4/1934 - Fall 1934  Mussolini sent Italian troops to attack Ethiopia  Japan gave notice it would terminate the Wash. Naval Conference agreement.  President Paul von Hindenburg of Germany dies; Hitler became Fuhrer
  17. 17.  1935  Hitler announced that Germany would rearm despite Treaty of Versailles  Announced existence of German air force (Luftwaffe)  Hitler introduced compulsory military service for German men.
  18. 18.  8/1935 - 12/1935  2/1936  US announced First Neutrality Act and forbade sales to belligerents  US announced Second Neutrality Act and said it would make no loans to belligerents
  19. 19.  3/1936  7/1936  Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland in violation of Treaty of Versailles; world did nothing  Spanish Civil War began; fascists overthrew existing government with help of Germany and Italy.
  20. 20.  General Francisco Franco rebels against Spanish republic  Hitler, Mussolini back Franco; Stalin aids opposition  Western democracies remain neutral  War leads to Rome-Berlin Axis - alliance between Italy and Germany  Franco wins war, becomes fascist dictator Francisco Franco Spanish Dictator 1892 - 1975
  21. 21.  10/1936  5/1937  Germany and Italy formed a military alliance: Rome-Berlin Axis  US announced Third Neutrality Act and claimed it would trade on a “cash and carry” basis  Hitler repudiated all responsibility for WWI  Japan attacked China
  22. 22.  10/1937  12/1937  1938  FDR’s “Quarantine the Aggressor Speech” (econ. Isolation); met with disinterest  Italy withdraws from League of Nations  Germany annexed Austria
  23. 23.  12/1938  Fr., GB, It, and Germ. signed the Munich Pact (Appeasement) giving Hitler the Sudetenland and Hitler promised to leave the rest of Czechoslovakia alone.  Jewish persecution and pogroms are put in place throughout Germany
  24. 24.  3 million German-speakers in Sudetenland  Hitler claims Czechs abuse Sudeten Germans, masses troops on border  Prime Ministers of Brit. and Fr. meet with Hitler  Sign Munich Pact, hand Sudetenland over to Germany  Appeasement—giving up principles to pacify an aggressor
  25. 25. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and German Führer Adolf Hitler September 1939
  26. 26.  3/1939  8/1939  Germany invaded and took the rest of Czechoslovakia  Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression Pact signed; would not attack each other; secretly agreed to divide Poland between them
  27. 27.  9/1939  9/3/39  Hitler invaded Poland (Blitzkrieg); Poland surrendered after a month and was split between Germany and USSR.  England & France declared war on Germany for violation of Munich Pact.  WWII begins
  28. 28. German Blitzkrieg “Lightning War”
  29. 29. The Maginot Line, 1940
  30. 30.  British, French trapped on beach at Dunkirk; ferried to safety in UK miraculous rescue  1940, Italy invades France from south; Germans approach Paris  France falls; Germans occupy northern France  Nazi puppet government (Vichy Gov’t) set up in southern France  General Charles de Gaulle sets up government-in-exile in England French Leader Charles de Gaulle 1890 - 1970
  31. 31. Evacuation of Dunkirk 1940
  32. 32. France Falls Germans Enter Paris - 1940
  33. 33.  Summer 1940, Germany prepares fleet to invade Britain  Battle of Britain—German planes (Luftwaffe) bomb British targets  RAF – Royal Air Force  Britain uses radar to track, shoot down German planes  Hitler calls off invasion of Britain. Churchill became Prime Minister of England.
  34. 34. DATE  9/1940 EVENT  Destroyers for Bases Deal: US sends ships to Brit. And rec’d 99 year leases to naval and air bases in the Caribbean.  Japan continues south and invades French Indo-China (Vietnam)  US placed an embargo on exports to Japan  Japan, Germany, and Italy formed a military alliance called the Axis Powers.
  35. 35. DATE  11/1940  1/1941  6/1941 EVENT  FDR elected to third term  FDR delivers his “Four Freedoms” Speech (speech, religion, want, fear)  Congress passed Lend-Lease Act  Germany invaded Soviet Union (USSR) – major mistake for Hitler, must now fight on two fronts, Germany underestimated the Soviet’s resolve.
  36. 36.  The U S provides economic and military aid to help the Allies achieve victory.  Moving Cautiously Away from Neutrality  Congress passes “cash-and-carry” provision  Germany, Japan, Italy alliance aimed at keeping U.S. out of war by forcing fight on two oceans
  37. 37.  Nazi victories in 1940 lead to increased U.S. defense spending  First peacetime draft enacted—Selective Training and Service Act
  38. 38.  FDR tells nation if Britain falls, Axis powers free to conquer world  U.S. must become “arsenal of democracy”  Britain has no more cash to buy U.S. arms  1941 Lend-Lease Act—U.S. to lend or lease supplies for defense  Roosevelt sends lend-lease supplies to Soviet Union
  39. 39. American-made .38 revolvers shipped to England from the United States under the Lend- Lease Program are unpacked at an English ordnance depot
  40. 40.  Hitler deploys U-boats to attack supply convoys  Wolf packs—groups of up to 40 submarines patrol North Atlantic  sink supply ships  FDR allows navy to attack German U-boats in self-defense
  41. 41.  FDR, Churchill issue Atlantic Charter—joint declaration of war aims  Charter is basis of “A Declaration of the United Nations” or Allies  Allies—nations that fight Axis powers; 26 nations sign Declaration
  42. 42.  Hideki Tojo - prime minister  Japan seizes French bases in Indochina; U.S. cuts off trade  Japan needs oil from U.S. or must take Dutch East Indies oil fields  1941 U.S. breaks Japanese codes; learns Japan planning to attack U.S. Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister 1884 - 1948
  43. 43.  December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor  2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded  Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged  Congress approves FDR’s request for declaration of war against Japan  Germany, Italy declare war on U.S.  U.S. unprepared to fight in both Atlantic, Pacific Oceans
  44. 44.  After Pearl Harbor, 5 million men volunteer for military service  10 million more drafted to meet needs of two-front war  Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)—women in noncombat positions  Thousands enlist; “auxiliary” dropped, get full U. S. army benefits
  45. 45.  Minority groups are denied basic citizenship rights  Question whether they should fight for democracy in other countries
  46. 46.  300,000 Mexican Americans join armed forces  1 million African Americans serve; live, work in segregated units  13,000 Chinese Americans and 33,000 Japanese Americans serve  25,000 Native Americans enlist
  47. 47. Navajo US Soldier Black American Soldiers in Action Japanese American Soldiers
  48. 48.  Factories convert from civilian to war production  Shipyards, defense plants expand, new ones built  Produce ships, arms rapidly  use prefabricated parts  people work at record speeds
  49. 49.  Nearly 18 million workers in war industries; 6 million are women  Over 2 million minorities hired; face strong discrimination at first  FDR executive order forbids discrimination
  50. 50.  Manhattan Project develops atomic bomb  Office of Scientific Research and Development—technology, medicine A gun-type nuclear bomb
  51. 51.  Higher taxes, purchase of war bonds, lower demand for scarce goods  organizes collection of recyclable materials  Office of Price Administration (OPA) freezes prices, fights inflation  Mandatory rationing  War Production Board (WPB) says which companies convert production  allocates raw materials
  52. 52.  Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain, battle Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa.  Churchill convinces FDR to strike first against Hitler
  53. 53.  Hitler orders submarine attacks against supply ships to Britain  Wolf packs destroy hundreds of ships in 1942  Allies organize convoys of cargo ships with escort:  destroyers with sonar; planes with radar
  54. 54. US Convoy Ships in the Atlantic
  55. 55.  The Battle of Stalingrad  Soviets defeat Germans in bitter winter campaign  Over 230,000 Germans, 1,100,000 Soviets die  Turning point battle in Europe: Soviet army begins to move towards Germany
  56. 56. Battle of Leningrad
  57. 57.  General Dwight D. Eisenhower commands invasion of North Africa  Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel, surrenders  Battle of El Alamein is turning point battle in North Africa Field Marshal Erwin Rommel 1891 - 1944
  58. 58.  Allies decide will accept only unconditional surrender from Axis  Summer 1943, capture Sicily; Mussolini forced to resign
  59. 59. Benito Mussoline (center) Executed and Beaten by Italians in Milan April 1945
  60. 60.  African Americans —Tuskegee Airmen, Buffaloes—highly decorated  Mexican-American soldiers win many awards  Japanese-American unit most decorated unit in U.S. history
  61. 61. Japanese American Soldiers of 442nd Regimental Combat Team – Most Decorated Unit in American Army – 21 Congressional Medal of Honor Winners in World War II
  62. 62. African American Pilots of the Tuskegee Airman
  63. 63.  D-Day  Allies set up phantom army, send fake radio messages to fool Germans  Eisenhower directs Allied invasion of Normandy on D-Day June 6, 1944 Inflatable Rubber Decoy Tank
  64. 64. Aerial View of D Day Landings June 6, 1944
  65. 65.  General Omar Bradley bombs to create gap in enemy defense line  General George Patton leads Third Army, reach Paris in August  FDR reelected for 4th term with running mate Harry S. Truman American General Omar Bradley American General George Patton
  66. 66.  December German tank divisions drive 60 miles into Allied area  Battle of the Bulge –  Germans pushed back  have irreplaceable losses  last German offensive
  67. 67.  Allies in Germany, Soviets in Poland liberate concentration camps  Find starving prisoners, corpses, evidence of killing
  68. 68.  April 1945, Soviet army storms Berlin; Hitler commits suicide  Eisenhower accepts unconditional surrender of German Reich  May 8, 1945, V-E Day: Victory in Europe Day  FDR dies April 12; Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes president
  69. 69.  Japan conquers empire  Gen. Douglas MacArthur leads Allied forces in Philippines  March 1942 U.S., Filipino troops trapped on Bataan Peninsula (Bataan Death March)  FDR orders MacArthur to leave; thousands of troops remain Japanese and Prisoners on Bataan Death March
  70. 70.  Battle of the Coral Sea  May 1942, U.S., Australian soldiers stop Japanese drive to Australia  For first time since Pearl Harbor, Japanese invasion turned back  First naval battle fought completely by aircraft carriers
  71. 71. USS Lexington Burning and Sinking after her crew abandoned ship May 8 1942 Japanese Carrier Shokaku under attack at Coral Sea
  72. 72.  Admiral Chester Nimitz commands U.S. naval forces in Pacific  Allies break Japanese code, win Battle of Midway, stop Japan again  Battle of Midway is the turning point battle of the Pacific  Allies advance island by island toward Japan
  73. 73. Japanese Carrier Soryu (center) on fire at Battle of Midway, 1942
  74. 74.  Japan uses kamikaze attack—pilots crash bomb-laden planes into ships Kamikaze Pilots, 1944 Kamikaze Attack on USS Comfort Hospital Ship
  75. 75.  Iwo Jima critical as base from which planes can reach Japan  6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700 Japanese, 200 survive  The Battle for Okinawa  April–June: 7,600 U.S. troops, 110,000 Japanese die  Allies fear invasion of Japan may mean 1.5 million Allied casualties
  76. 76. Landing Zone on Iwo Jima
  77. 77. American Marines in Action on Okinawa
  78. 78.  The Manhattan Project  J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan Project  July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert  President Truman orders military to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan
  79. 79.  Hiroshima and Nagasaki  August 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by bomb  3 days later, bomb dropped on city of Nagasaki  September 2, 1945 Japan surrenders
  80. 80. Weapon and Testing Tower at Manhattan Project
  81. 81. Destruction at Hiroshima
  82. 82.  February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta  discuss post-war world  Temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts  Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan  FDR gets support for conference to establish United Nations  Human Costs of the War  WW II most destructive war in human history
  83. 83. Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta 1945
  84. 84.  During the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically execute 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Aryans.”  Europe has long history of anti-Semitism  Germans believe Hitler’s claims, blame Jews for problems  Nazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; require Star of David
  85. 85. Jews Are Not Welcome Here
  86. 86.  Kristallnacht—Nazis attack Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues  About 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested
  87. 87.  Hitler’s Final Solution—slavery, genocide of “inferior” groups  Genocide—deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population  Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, unfit Germans  Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them  Jews forced into ghettos, segregated areas in Polish cities  Some form resistance movements; others maintain Jewish culture
  88. 88.  Many Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps  Prisoners crammed into wooden barracks, given little food  Work dawn to dusk, 7 days per week  Those too weak to work are killed
  89. 89.  Germans build death camps; gas chambers used to kill thousands  On arrival, SS doctors separate those who can work  Those who can’t work immediately killed in gas chamber  At first bodies buried in pits; later cremated to cover up evidence  Some are shot, hanged, poisoned, or die from experiments
  90. 90.  The Nuremberg War Trials  24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced  Charged with crimes against humanity, against the peace, war crimes  Established principle that people are responsible for own actions in war
  91. 91. Nazi War Criminals at Nuremburg Trials 1945 - 1946
  92. 92.  The Occupation of Japan  MacArthur commands U.S. occupation forces in Japan  Over 1,100 Japanese tried, sentenced  MacArthur reshapes Japan’s economy, government
  93. 93. General MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito 1946

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