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  1. 1.  French Rule in Vietnam  Late 1800s–WW II, France rules most of Indochina  Ho Chi Minh—leader of Vietnamese independence movement ◦ helps create Indochinese Communist Party  1940, Japanese take control of Vietnam  Vietminh—organization that aims to rid Vietnam of foreign rule  September 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation
  2. 2. Vietnamese Leader Ho Chi Mihn 1890 - 1968
  3. 3.  French troops move into Vietnam; French fight, regain cities, South  1950, U.S. begins economic aid to France to stop communism French Napalm Attack on Vietminh
  4. 4.  Domino theory - countries can fall to communism like row of dominoes  1954, Vietminh overrun French at Dien Bien Phu; France surrenders  Geneva Accords divide Vietnam at 17th parallel; Communists get North  Election to unify country called for in 1956
  5. 5. French Prisoners at Dien Bien Phu, 1954 French at Dien Bien Phu, 1954
  6. 6.  Ho has brutal, repressive regime but is popular for land distribution  South Vietnam’s anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem refuses election  U.S. promises military aid for stable, reform government in South  Diem corrupt, stifles opposition, restricts Buddhism  Vietcong (Communist opposition group in South) kills officials  Ho sends arms to Vietcong along Ho Chi Minh Trail
  7. 7. South Vietnamese Leader Ngo Dihn Diem 1901 - 1963 Map of Ho Chi Mihn Trail
  8. 8.  Like Eisenhower, JFK backs Diem financially; sends military advisers  Diem’s popularity plummets from corruption, lack of land reform  Diem presses attacks on Buddhism; monks burn themselves in protest  U.S.-supported military coup topples government; Diem assassinated
  9. 9. Buddhist Monk Protests Diem by Burning Himself
  10. 10.  Alleged attack in Gulf of Tonkin; LBJ asks for power to repel enemy  Congress passes Tonkin Gulf Resolution - gives him broad military powers  LBJ orders sustained bombing of North  U.S. combat troops sent to South Vietnam to battle Vietcong  U.S. involvement is escalated
  11. 11. Photograph taken from USS Maddox (DD-731) during her engagement with three North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin, 2 August 1964. The view shows all three of the boats speeding towards the Maddox.
  12. 12.  Gen. William Westmoreland—U.S. commander in South Vietnam  Thinks southern Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) ineffective  Requests increasing numbers; by 1967 500,000 U.S. troops General William Westmoreland Commander of US Forces in Viet Nam
  13. 13.  Vietcong use hit-and-run, ambush tactics, move among civilians (guerilla warfare)  Tunnels help withstand airstrikes, launch attacks, connect villages  Terrain laced with booby traps, land mines laid by U.S. & Vietcong
  14. 14. Viet cong style booby traps
  15. 15. Viet Cong tunnel system
  16. 16.  Westmoreland tries to destroy Vietcong morale through attrition  Vietcong receive supplies from China, U.S.S.R.; remain defiant  U.S. sees war as military struggle; Vietcong as battle for survival
  17. 17.  Napalm: gasoline-based bomb that sets fire to jungle  Agent Orange: leaf-killing, toxic chemical  Search-and-destroy missions move civilian suspects, destroy property  Villagers go to cities, refugee camps; 1967, over 3 million refugees
  18. 18.  Guerrilla warfare, jungle conditions, lack of progress lower morale  Many soldiers turn to alcohol, drugs; some kill superior officers  Government corruption, instability lead South Vietnam to demonstrate  Most U.S. soldiers believe in justice of halting communism  Fight courageously, take patriotic pride in fulfilling their duty
  19. 19.  The Great Society Suffers - $6 billion funding cut  War grows more costly with more troops; inflation rate rising  LBJ gets tax increase to pay for war, check inflation
  20. 20.  The Living-Room War  Combat footage on nightly TV news shows stark picture of war  Critics say credibility gap between administration reports and events
  21. 21.  Selective Service System, draft, calls men 18– 26 to military service  Thousands look for ways to avoid the draft  Many—mostly white, affluent—get college deferment  80% of U.S. soldiers come from lower economic levels
  22. 22.  African Americans serve in disproportionate numbers in ground combat  Defense Department corrects problem by instituting draft lottery in 1969  Racial tensions high in many platoons; add to low troop morale
  23. 23.  ·10,000 women serve, mostly as military  nurses [Visual]  ·Thousands volunteer: American Red Cross, United Services Organization
  24. 24.  The New Left—youth movement of 1960s, demand sweeping changes  Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), Free Speech Movement (FSM): ◦ criticize big business, government; want greater individual freedom
  25. 25.  New Left ideas spread across colleges  Students protest campus issues, Vietnam war
  26. 26.  In 1965, protest marches, rallies draw tens of thousands  1966, student deferments require good academic standing ◦ SDS calls for civil disobedience; counsels students to go abroad  Small numbers of returning veterans protest; protest songs popular
  27. 27.  Anti-war demonstrations, protests increase, some become violent  Some men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada
  28. 28. Dead Vietnam Protester at Kent State Viet Nam Protesters and National Guardsmen
  29. 29.  Doves strongly oppose war, believe U.S. should withdraw  Hawks favor sending greater forces to win the war  1967 majority of Americans support war, consider protesters disloyal
  30. 30.  LBJ continues slow escalation, is criticized by both hawks and doves  Combat stalemate leads Defense Secretary McNamara to resign Defense Secretary Robert McNamara
  31. 31.  An enemy attack in Vietnam, two assassinations, and a chaotic political convention make 1968 an explosive year.
  32. 32. MLK Assassination April 1968 Robert Kennedy Assassination June 1968 1968 Democratic Convention Chicago
  33. 33.  A Surprise Attack  1968 villagers go to cities to celebrate Tet (Vietnamese New Year)  Vietcong among crowd attack over 100 towns, 12 U.S. air bases  Tet offensive lasts one month before U.S., South Vietnam regain control  Westmoreland declares attacks are military defeat for Vietcong
  34. 34. Map of Coordinated Attacks During Tet Offensive 1968
  35. 35.  Before Tet, most Americans hawks; after Tet, hawks, doves both 40%  Mainstream media openly criticizes war  LBJ appoints Clark Clifford as new Secretary of Defense  After studying situation, Clifford concludes war is unwinnable  LBJ’s popularity drops; 60% disapprove his handling of the war
  36. 36.  Johnson Withdraws  Senator Eugene McCarthy runs for Democratic nomination as dove  Senator Robert Kennedy enters race after LBJ’s poor showing in New Hampshire  LBJ announces will seek peace talks, will not run for reelection “Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President.” – Lyndon Johnson Mar 31, 1968
  37. 37.  Riots rock over 100 cities after Martin Luther King, Jr. is killed  Kennedy wins California primary; is fatally shot for supporting Israel  Major demonstrations on over 100 college campuses
  38. 38. Rioting after the Assassination of Martin Luther King
  39. 39.  Turmoil in Chicago  ·Vice-president Hubert Humphrey wins Democratic nomination  ·Over 10,000 demonstrators go to Chicago  ·Mayor Richard J. Daley mobilizes police, National Guard  ·Protesters try to march to convention; police beat them; rioting  ·Delegates to convention bitterly debate antiwar plank
  40. 40. Chicago Mayor Richard Daly 1968 Democratic Nominee Hubert Humphrey Rioters and Police in Chicago August 1968
  41. 41.  Nixon works for party for years, wins 1968 Republican nomination  Campaign promises: restore law and order, end war in Vietnam  Governor George Wallace is third-party candidate  Champions segregation, states’ rights; attracts protest-weary whites  Nixon wins presidency
  42. 42. Richard M Nixon 37th President of the US
  43. 43.  President Nixon institutes his Vietnamization policy, and America’s longest war finally comes to an end.
  44. 44.  The Pullout Begins  New president Richard Nixon finds negotiations not progressing  National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger works on new plan  Vietnamization - U.S. troops withdraw, South Vietnam troops take over
  45. 45.  Nixon calls for “peace with honor” to maintain U.S. dignity  Orders bombing of North Vietnam, Vietcong hideouts in Laos, Cambodia
  46. 46.  Mainstream America  Silent majority - moderate, mainstream people who support war
  47. 47.  News breaks that U.S. platoon massacred civilians in My Lai village  Lt. William Calley, Jr., in command, is convicted, imprisoned
  48. 48. My Lai Massacre
  49. 49.  1970, U.S. troops invade Cambodia to clear out enemy supply centers  1.5 million protesting college students close down 1,200 campuses President Nixon Announces the Invasion of Cambodia
  50. 50.  National Guard kills 4 in confrontation at Kent State University  Guardsmen kill 2 during confrontation at Jackson State in Mississippi  100,000 construction workers rally in New York City to support government Two women peer out of bullet-riddled Alexander Hall at Jackson State University, the day after the May 14, 1970, police shootings.
  51. 51.  Nixon invades Cambodia; Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution  Pentagon Papers show plans to enter war under LBJ  Confirm belief of many that government not honest about intentions
  52. 52.  1971, 60% think U.S. should withdraw from Vietnam by end of year  1972 N. Vietnamese attack; U.S. bombs cities, mines Haiphong harbor  Kissinger agrees to complete withdrawal of U.S.: “Peace is at hand”
  53. 53.  The Final Push  South Vietnam rejects Kissinger plan; talks break off; bombing resumes  Congress calls for end to war; peace signed January 1973 Henry Kissinger
  54. 54.  Cease-fire breaks down; South surrenders after North invades 1975  American Veterans Cope Back Home  58,000 Americans, over 2 million North, South Vietnamese die in war  Returning veterans face indifference, hostility at home  About 15% develop post-traumatic stress disorder
  55. 55.  Communists put 400,000 South Vietnamese in labor camps; 1.5 million flee  Civil war breaks out in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge seize power  Want to establish peasant society; kill at least 1 million people
  56. 56.  Government abolishes military draft  1973 Congress passes War Powers Act: ◦ president must inform Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops ◦ 90 day maximum deployment without Congressional approval  War contributes to cynicism about government, political leaders