Goal 8 -_ww_i


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Goal 8 -_ww_i

  1. 1.  Imperialism  Nationalism  Leads to competition, antagonism between nations  Various ethnic groups resent domination, want independence  Militarism  Alliances
  2. 2.  Triple Entente (Allies)—France, Britain, Russia*  Triple Alliance (Central Powers) --Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy**  *Russia drops out before the war is over.  **Italy changed sides at the beginning of the war.
  3. 3.  Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by a Serbian nationalist  Gavrilo Princip  Black Hand  Alliance system pulls one nation after another into war
  4. 4. Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand and wife Duchess Sophie
  5. 5. 1. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia 2. Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary 3. Germany declares war on Russia & France 4. Britain declares war on Germany
  6. 6.  Germany’s Schlieffen Plan: hold Russia, defeat France, then Russia  German troops sweep through Belgium (neutral)
  7. 7.  2 parallel systems of trenches cross France – leads to stalemate during early yrs.  Armies fight to gain only yards of ground  “No man’s land”
  8. 8. Illustration from Neil Demarco's The Great
  9. 9.  Socialists, pacifists, many ordinary people against U.S. in war  Naturalized citizens concerned about effect on country of birth  Many feel ties to British ancestry, language, democracy, legal system  U.S. has stronger economic ties with Allies than with Central Powers
  10. 10.  Anti-immigrant feeling  Fear spies (espionage) and sabotage  Suppression of German culture—music, language, literature, name changes  U.S. continues to practice isolationism  Wilson re-elected in 1916 on slogan “He kept us out of war”
  11. 11.  British blockade & mine North Sea, stop war supplies reaching Germany  Germany has difficulty importing food, fertilizer; by 1917, famine
  12. 12.  Germany begins unrestricted submarine warfare.  U-boat sinks British liner Lusitania; 128 Americans among the dead  U.S. public opinion turns against Germany  President Wilson protests – gets Germany to agree to Sussex Pledge, must warn ships first
  13. 13. NOTICE! Travellers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, 1915. German WWI U Boat
  14. 14.  By 1917, U.S. has mobilized for war against Central Powers to:  ensure Allied repayment of debts  prevent German threat to U.S. shipping
  15. 15.  Germany resumes unrestricted sub warfare  Zimmerman note - proposes alliance of Germany, Mexico against U.S.  Russian monarchy replaced with representative government  War of Democracies against Monarchies
  16. 16.  Wilson calls for war to “make world safe for democracy”  Says this will be the “war to end all wars”
  17. 17.  Tanks break trench stalemate  Early planes flimsy, only do scouting; later ones stronger, faster  carry machine guns, heavy bomb loads  Poison Gas  Hand grenades  Machine guns
  18. 18. World War I British Tank
  19. 19. WW I French Airplane with Machine Guns World War I Observation Balloons
  20. 20. Captain Eddie Rickenbacker First US Ace Dogfighter 26 Aerial Victories
  21. 21.  New weapons and tactics lead to horrific injuries, hazards  Troops amidst filth, pests, polluted water, poison gas, dead bodies  Constant bombardment, battle fatigue produce “shell shock”  Physical problems include dysentery, trench foot, trench mouth
  22. 22. Aerial View of Gas Attack German Flame Thrower
  23. 23.  After 2 1/2 years fighting, Allied forces are exhausted, demoralized  American troops bring numbers, freshness, enthusiasm
  24. 24.  Selective Service Act—men register, randomly chosen for service  African Americans in segregated units, excluded from navy, marines  Women in army, navy, marines as nurses secretaries, phone operators
  25. 25.  Doughboys  General John J. Pershing leads American Expeditionary Force  Convoy System  U.S. mines North Sea to stop U-boats General John J Pershing 1860 - 1948
  26. 26.  Russia pulls out of war 1917; Germans shift armies to western front  come within 50 miles of Paris  Americans help stop German advance, turn tide against Central Powers
  27. 27.  German sailors, soldiers rebel; socialists establish German republic  Kaiser gives up throne  Germans exhausted; armistice, or truce, signed November 11, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II 1859 - 1941
  28. 28.  World War I bloodiest war in history to date  more than half of 22 million dead are civilians  20 million more are wounded  10 million people become refugees
  29. 29. WWI Russian Refugees WWI French Refugees WWI Belgian Refugees
  30. 30.  World War I spurs social, political, and economic change in the United States.
  31. 31.  U.S. spends $35.5 billion on war effort  1/3 paid through taxes, 2/3 borrowed through sale of war bonds
  32. 32.  Economy shifts from producing consumer goods to war supplies  Congress gives president direct control of much of the economy  War Industries Board is main regulatory body  urges mass-production, standardizing products  Bernard M. Baruch is head of board
  33. 33. Woodrow Wilson 28th President of the United States Bernard Baruch Chairman of War Industries Board
  34. 34.  Wilson creates National War Labor Board to settle disputes  Food Administration under Herbert Hoover works to produce, save food (rationing is voluntary)  Encourages public conservation, increase of farm production
  35. 35.  Railroad Administration, Fuel Administration also control industries  Conservation measures adopted by public, nation
  36. 36.  Industrial wages rise; offset by rising costs of food, housing  Large corporations make enormous profits  Unions boom from dangerous conditions, child labor, unfair pay
  37. 37.  George Creel heads Committee on Public Information  Produces visual works, printed matter to promote war  Volunteers speak about war, distribute materials
  38. 38.  Many women take jobs in heavy industry previously held by men  Many do volunteer work for war effort  Some active in peace movement  Women’s effort bolsters support for suffrage; 19th Amendment passes
  39. 39. Women in World War I
  40. 40.  Du Bois urges support for war to strengthen call for racial justice  Most African Americans support war  Some think victims of racism should not support racist government
  41. 41. Black Doughboys of the 368th Infantry
  42. 42.  Great Migration  escape racial discrimination  take up new job opportunities  Press of new migrants intensifies racial tensions in North
  43. 43. The Great Migration Black Families Move North
  44. 44.  Espionage and Sedition Acts—person can be fined, imprisoned for:  interfering with war effort, speaking against government  Violate 1st amendment; prosecute loosely defined antiwar activities  target socialists, labor leaders
  45. 45.  Eugene V. Debs – Socialist – was arrested for violating Espionage and Sedition Acts and sent to prison.  IWW was targeted because of its socialist members.  Schenk v. United States – freedom of speech is limited when it represents a “clear and present danger”
  46. 46.  International flu epidemic of 1918 has devastating effect on economy  As many as 30 million people die worldwide
  47. 47.  Wilson’s plan for world peace known as Fourteen Points  Some examples: (1) Remove trade barriers, (2) Arms reductions, (3) Self-determination, (4) Freedom of the Seas, (5) No secret treaties.  The last point calls for international organization or League of Nations  League to enable nations to discuss, settle problems without war
  48. 48.  European leaders oppose most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate fails to ratify the peace treaty.
  49. 49.  Wilson fails to grasp anger of Allied leaders against Germany  Conference excludes Central Powers, Russia, small Allied nations  Wilson gives up most of his points in return for League of Nations
  50. 50.  Creates 9 new nations  Places various conditions on Germany:  Demilitarized: army no larger than 100,000, little navy and no airforce  Loss of Land: Alsace-Lorraine returned to France  Loss of Money: pay reparations, or war damages ($33 billion)  Loss of Pride: War-guilt clause—Germany must accept sole responsibility for war
  51. 51. When we have paid one hundred billion marks then I can give you something to eat'
  52. 52.  Some think treaty too harsh, fear economic effects  Some feel treaty exchanged one group of colonial rulers for another  Some ethnic groups not satisfied with new national borders
  53. 53.  Some think League threatens U.S. foreign policy of isolation  Senators like Henry Cabot Lodge mistrust provision for joint action
  54. 54.  Lodge introduces amendments to treaty  Wilson refuses to compromise  Goes on speaking tour to convince nation to support League  has stroke, is temporarily disabled  Neither amendments nor treaty approved  U.S. never signs Treaty of Versailles  U.S. & Germany sign separate treaty  U.S. never joins League of Nations
  55. 55.  In U.S., war strengthens military, increases power of government  Accelerates social change for African Americans, women  Fears & antagonisms provoked by propaganda remain  In Europe, destruction, loss of life damage social, political systems  Communist, fascist governments form  Treaty does not settle conflicts in Europe