Module 7-_the_progressive_era (2)


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Module 7-The Progressive Era

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Module 7-_the_progressive_era (2)

  1. 1. Progressive Movement  White, middle-class, urban, educated reformers (lots of women)  Roots were in the Populist Movement  Four goals: social, moral, economic and political reform. Seneca Falls Convention 1848
  2. 2. Protecting Social Welfare  Social Gospel Movement, settlement houses inspire other reform groups  YMCA and Salvation Army are formed  Pass law prohibiting child labor, limiting women’s hours Children working in NC textile mill
  3. 3. Handwritten draft of confederation of the YMCA circa 1833
  4. 4. Promoting Moral Improvement  Some feel poor should uplift themselves by improving own behavior  Prohibition - banning of alcoholic drinks  Woman’s Christian Temperance Union spearheads prohibition crusade
  5. 5. Newspaper Headline Announcing US states had approved Prohibition
  6. 6. Woman’s Temperance Crusade: Mother Stewart and her Staff
  7. 7. Creating Economic Reform  1893 panic prompts doubts about capitalism; many become socialists  Expose corruption in politics, business  Many use experts, science to make workplace more efficient  Scientific management - time & motion studies applied to workplace  Assembly lines speed up production, make people work like machines Turn of the Century Assembly Lines
  8. 8. Political Reform  Put power back in the hands of the people  End corruption by political machines  Reform at the local, state, and federal levels.
  9. 9. NY Times Political Cartoon attacking Politicians and Tammany Hall
  10. 10. Immigration and Urban Poor  Most poor immigrants are forced to live in slums because they can’t afford anything else.  Tenements are multi-family dwellings found in the slums and are usually deteriorating.
  11. 11. New York City Tenement Slums
  12. 12. Working Conditions  Very bad: long hours, low pay, dangerous conditions.  Ex: Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Fire breaks out on upper floors of a ten story bldg. Workers can’t escape because all the exterior doors had been locked by owner.  Over 200 women died.  Owner rec’d small fine.
  13. 13. Police and remains of victims of Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
  14. 14. Unequal Distribution of Wealth  The most wealth is held by the smallest number of people. A few very wealthy people, while almost everyone else is poor. American Most Wealthy including JP Morgan, Andrew Carnegie and Cornelius Vanderbilt
  15. 15. Activists and Reformers  Muckrakers – investigative journalists who write to expose corruption and bad conditions in hopes of change.  Frank Norris  Lincoln Steffens – The Shame of the Cities  Ida Tarbell – Standard Oil  Upton Sinclair – Meatpacking  Jacob Riis – How the Other Half Lives (immigrants)
  16. 16. Muckrakers Lincoln Steffens (above) and Frank Norris (right) Muckrakers Ida Tarbell (left) and Upton Sinclair (below)
  17. 17. Jacob Riis photograph documenting crowded conditions inside NY slums
  18. 18. Social Gospel Movement  Society must be reformed and improved.  Settlement Houses – Jane Addams, Hull House  Carrie Nation – Temperance Movement Carrie Nation (left) and Food Lines at Hull House (right)
  19. 19. Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal  President McKinley shot; Roosevelt becomes president at 42  Roosevelt works to give citizens a Square Deal through progressive reforms.  The three Cs (goals) of the Square Deal:  Control Corporations  Consumer Protection  Conservation Theodore Roosevelt
  20. 20. Artist’s depiction of the Assassination of William McKinley
  21. 21. Controlling Corporations  Trustbusting  Roosevelt wants to curb trusts that hurt public interest – not “good” trusts.  breaks up some trusts under Sherman Antitrust Act  U.S. v E.C. Knight & Co.
  22. 22. Cartoon attacking the US Senate titled “The Bosses of the Senate.” The banner in back reads “This is a Senate of the Monopolists, by the Monopolists and for the Monopolists”
  23. 23. Cartoon depicting Trustbuster Theodore Roosevelt
  24. 24. Anthracite Coal Mine Strike  Coal reserves low – strike threatens public  Teddy Roosevelt miners, operators to accept arbitration  First time Federal government sides with workers.
  25. 25. Coal miners evicted from company owned housing, northeast Pennsylvania, 1902 Because mining companies owned their employees' housing, striking workers risked their homes as well as their jobs.
  26. 26. Railroad Regulation  Roosevelt pushes for federal regulation to control abuses  Northern Securities vs. U.S  Elkins Act - stops rebates, sudden rate changes  Hepburn Act - limits passes, ICC to set maximum rates
  27. 27. Consumer Protection  Regulating Foods and Drugs  Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle - unsanitary conditions in meatpacking  Roosevelt pushes for Meat Inspection Act:  dictates sanitary requirements  creates federal meat inspection program
  28. 28. Cartoon Depicting T Roosevelt leading the investigations of the Meat Industry
  29. 29. Consumer Protection (cont.)  Food, drug advertisements make false claims; medicines often unsafe  Pure Food and Drug Act halts sale of contaminated food, medicine  requires truth in labeling
  30. 30. Conservation and Natural Resources  U.S. Forest Bureau established  Roosevelt sets aside forest reserves, sanctuaries, national parks  Believes conservation part preservation, part development for public  Pres. most noted for conservation
  31. 31. Teddy Roosevelt and Naturalist John Muir
  32. 32. Taft Becomes President  Taft wins with Roosevelt’s support  Cautiously progressive agenda; gets little credit for successes (actually busts more trusts than Theodore Roosevelt) William H Taft
  33. 33. American Tobacco v. U.S.  Taft signs Payne- Aldrich Tariff - compromise bill, moderate tariffs  Progressives angry, think he abandoned low tariffs, progressivism Cartoon depicting Progressives feelings over the Payne Aldrich Tariff
  34. 34. The Republican Party Splits  Theodore Roosevelt wants to be president again  Taft’s people outmaneuver TR’s for Republican nomination  Progressives form Bull Moose Party; nominate Roosevelt  Run against Democrat Woodrow Wilson, reform governor of New Jersey
  35. 35. Democrats Win in 1912  Wilson endorses progressive platform called the New Freedom  Wants to attack Triple Wall of Privilege: tariffs, banks, trusts.  calls all monopolies evil
  36. 36. Democrats Win in 1912 cont.  Roosevelt wants oversight of big business; not all monopolies bad  Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs wants to end capitalism  Wilson wins great electoral victory
  37. 37. Woodrow Wilson on campaign in Ohio
  38. 38. Lower Tariffs  Underwood Tariff Act -- substantially reduces tariffs for the first time since Civil War
  39. 39. Wilson Wins Financial Reforms  Sixteenth Amendment legalizes graduated federal income tax  Federal Reserve System - landmark banking reform  Decentralizes banking  Nation divided into 12 districts; fed. reserve bank in each district  This is a bank for banks. Your bank deposits money here.
  40. 40. Newspaper headlines declaring the approval of the Federal Reserve Act
  41. 41. Stronger Anti-Trust Laws  Clayton Antitrust Act stops companies buying stock to form monopoly  Stronger than Sherman Anti-trust and can’t be used against labor  Federal Trade Commission (FTC) - new “watchdog” agency  investigates regulatory violations  ends unfair business practices
  42. 42. Reforming Local Government  Try to make government efficient, responsive to voters  Some cities adopt government by commission of experts  Many use council-manager: people elect council that appoints manager
  43. 43. Reform at the State Level  Governors push states to pass laws to regulate large businesses  Robert M. La Follette is 3-term governor, then senator of Wisconsin  attacks big business
  44. 44. Reforming Elections  Direct Primaries allow voters, not party machines, to choose candidates  Initiative - bill proposed by people, not lawmakers, put on ballots  Referendum - voters, not legislature, decide if initiative becomes law  Recall - voters remove elected official through off-cycle election
  45. 45. Election Reforms (cont.)  Direct Election of Senators  Seventeenth Amendment permits popular election of senators  Secret Ballot (Australian Ballot) – no one is allowed to know how a person votes.
  46. 46. Cartoon portraying the time needed to pass the 17th Amendment allowing the direct election of U.S. senators By Spencer, for the Omaha World Herald, 1912
  47. 47. Women Win Suffrage  Carrie Chapman Catt, head of NAWSA, stresses organization, lobbying  National Woman’s Party aggressively pressures for suffrage amendment  Nineteenth Amendment grants women right to vote
  48. 48. The End of Progressivism  Outbreak of World War I distracts Americans;  Reform efforts stall
  49. 49. Civil Rights at the Turn of the 20th Century  Roosevelt does not support civil rights for African Americans  invites Booker T. Washington to White House  NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  goal is full equality among races  Founded 1909 by W. E. B. DuBois and black, white reformers
  50. 50. W.E.B. DuBois Booker T Washington
  51. 51. NAACP flag in New York City
  52. 52. African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination  Voting Restrictions  All Southern states restrict voting, deny equality  Some limit vote to those who can read; officials give literacy tests  Some have poll tax that must be paid annually to vote  Some add grandfather clause to constitution to let poor whites vote  can vote if self, father, grandfather voted before 1867
  53. 53. Political Cartoon by Theodore Geisel attacking the Poll Tax
  54. 54. Cartoon depicting Intimidation of Black voters titled "Of course he wants to vote the Democratic ticket!”
  55. 55. African-American Responses to Jim Crow  Booker T. Washington - racism will end if blacks get labor skills  Heads Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, now a university  W. E. B. Du Bois, first African American to get Harvard doctorate  disagrees with Washington  Founds Niagara Movement to encourage liberal arts study
  56. 56. African-American Responses (cont.)  Opposing Discrimination  Racial etiquette - informal rules for black-white relations  enforce second-class status for blacks  Moderate reformers, like Booker T. Washington, get white support
  57. 57. African-American Responses (cont.)  W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells think problems too urgent to postpone  Born a slave, Ida B. Wells becomes teacher, newspaper editor  campaigns for racial justice and anti-lynching laws
  58. 58. Violence  African Americans who do not follow etiquette are punished, lynched  more than 1,400 killed 1882–1892 Lynching and Burning of Black victim in Omaha on Sept 29, 1919
  59. 59. Discrimination in the North  Usually de facto segregation  Many blacks migrate North for better paying jobs, social equality  Are forced into segregated neighborhoods  Rejected by labor unions; hired last, fired first by employers  Competition between blacks, working-class whites sometimes violent
  60. 60. Racist whites lynching 3 African American circus workers in Duluth, MN, in 1920
  61. 61. Black family preparing to move north during the Great Migration
  62. 62. New Technologies  Electricity – sewing machines  Skyscrapers  Airplanes:  Orville & Wilbur Wright use engines to fly “heavier-than-air” craft  first successful flight December 1903 – Kitty Hawk, NC  Airplanes first used for mail and cargo
  63. 63. New York Skyscraper called the Flat Iron Building
  64. 64. Wright Brothers Airplane 1902
  65. 65. Production Processes  Ford’s innovations:  Pays $5/day – more than any other job  First to see workers as consumers  Uses the assembly line to be more efficient  Model T is under $300, most Americans can afford one.
  66. 66. Henry Ford and his Model T
  67. 67. Advertising and Consumerism  Anything that makes us more alike contributes to mass culture: movies, books, radio, music, fashion, etc.  Montgomery Ward, Sears Roebuck catalogs bring goods to small towns  Rural free delivery (RFD) - post office delivers direct to every home
  68. 68. Rural Free Delivery Wagon
  69. 69. Movies and Photography  Movie camera – first movie was The Great Train Robbery – silent films.
  70. 70. Photography Explosion  Pre-1880s, photography requires heavy equipment, time  George Eastman develops light-weight equipment, studio processing  1888, introduces Kodak camera, easy to operate  millions use Kodak camera  helps create field of photojournalism
  71. 71. 1923 Advertisement for Kodak Camera