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  1. 1. Desire for Military Strength • Admiral Alfred T. Mahan – Influence of Sea Power on History -urges U.S. to build up navy to compete ▫ Modern fleet (steel navy) ▫ Bases in the Caribbean ▫ A canal across Central America ▫ Islands for refueling in the Pacific • U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power Rear Admiral Alfred T Mahan
  2. 2. Thirst for New Markets • Overproduction - U.S. farms, factories produce more than Americans can consume • U.S. needs raw materials, new markets for goods • Foreign trade is solution to overproduction, unemployment, depression
  3. 3. Belief in Cultural Superiority • Some combine Social Darwinism with belief in superiority of Anglo-Saxons – survival of the fittest race or nation • Argue U.S. has duty to Christianize, civilize “inferior peoples” and spread democracy
  4. 4. Artist’s Depiction of his view of Social Darwinism
  5. 5. The United States Acquires Alaska • William Seward - Secretary of State - arranges purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million • has trouble convincing House to fund purchase • Alaska called “Seward’s Icebox,” “Seward’s Folly” • Alaska rich in timber, minerals, oil William Seward
  6. 6. Thomas Nast Cartoon lampooning Seward’s Folly - Alaska
  7. 7. The United States Takes Hawaii • American-owned sugar plantations = 75% of islands’ wealth • U.S. pressures Hawaii to allow naval base at Pearl Harbor • McKinley Tariff eliminates duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar • Planters call for U.S. to annex islands so will not have to pay duty
  8. 8. A woman (Hawai'i) and Uncle Sam are getting married, kneeling before the minister (McKinley) who is reading from a book entitled "Annexation Policy". The bride seems ready to bolt.
  9. 9. The End of a Monarchy • Queen Liliuokalani tries to remove landowning requirement to vote • With help of marines, business groups overthrow queen • Under President McKinley, Congress proclaims Hawaii U.S. territory Queen Liliuokalani, last Queen of Hawaii
  10. 10. The Spanish-American War • In 1898, the United States goes to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. Drawing depicting the sinking of the USS Maine
  11. 11. Cubans Rebel Against Spain • U.S. long interested in Cuba; wants to buy Cuba from Spain • During war for independence, American sympathies with Cuba • U.S. heavily invested in sugar cane • Guerrilla campaign destroys American- owned sugar mills, plantations
  12. 12. Road to War • U. S. public opinion split: business for Sp. and public for Cubans • Sp. Gen. Weyler puts about 300,000 Cubans in concentration camps • Newspapers exploit Weyler’s actions in circulation war • Yellow journalism - sensational writing used to lure, enrage readers (Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hearst)
  13. 13. William R Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer use yellow journalism to push fo rwar
  14. 14. Spanish-American War • The U.S.S. Maine Explodes • Was sent to pick up U.S. citizens, protect U.S. property • Ship blows up in Havana harbor; newspapers blame Spain although there’s no proof. • U.S. declares war April 1898
  15. 15. The War Begins • First battle with Spain occurs in Spanish colony of the Philippines • Commodore George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet in Manila harbor • Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, support Dewey • August 1898, Spanish troops in Manila surrender to U.S.
  16. 16. Emilio AguinaldoGeorge Dewey
  17. 17. War with Spain Erupts • U.S. blockades Cuba; destroys Spanish fleet • U.S. army has small professional force, many volunteers - ill-prepared, ill-supplied • Rough Riders—Theodore Roosevelt led volunteer cavalry and declared hero of San Juan Hill • U.S. troops invade Puerto Rico soon after
  18. 18. War Ends • Treaty of Paris 1898 • Spain frees Cuba; hands Guam, Puerto Rico to U.S.; sells Philippines to U.S. • Treaty of Paris touches off great debate over imperialism • McKinley tries to justify annexation of Philippines on moral grounds • Opponents give political, moral, economic arguments against imperialism
  19. 19. Signers of the Treaty of Paris, 1898 ending the Spanish American War
  20. 20. Acquiring New Lands • In the early 1900s, the United States engages in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines
  21. 21. 1898 political cartoon showing U.S. President McKinley with a child "savage". Here, returning the Philippines to Spain is compared to throwing the child off a cliff.
  22. 22. Ruling Puerto Rico • Puerto Rico under military control • PR strategic as post in Caribbean, for protection of future canal • Foraker Act sets up civil government ▫ president appoints governor, upper house ▫ Puerto Ricans denied citizenship
  23. 23. Cuba and the United States • U.S. recognizes Cuban independence from Spain • Teller Amendment says U.S. has no intention of taking over Cuba • After war U.S. occupies Cuba; • U.S. makes Cuba add Platt Amendment to its constitution
  24. 24. Platt Amendment • Platt Amendment does not allow Cuba to go into debt; also stipulates ▫ no treaties that let foreign power control land ▫ U.S. has right to intervene ▫ U.S. can buy, lease land for navy • Cuba becomes a Protectorate - country whose affairs are partly controlled by stronger one
  25. 25. Cuban view of Platt Amendment
  26. 26. Philippine-American War • Filipinos outraged at Treaty of Paris call for annexation • Emilio Aguinaldo leads fight for independence against U.S. • Atrocities committed on both sides • U.S. helps to rebuild and modernize Philippines • Philippines finally gain independence on July 4, 1946
  27. 27. American political cartoon criticizing US war policy in the Philippines
  28. 28. Foreign Influence in China • U.S. sees China as vast potential market, investment opportunity • France, Britain, Japan, Russia have settlements, spheres of influence • U.S. Secretary of State John Hay issues Open Door notes • Notes ask imperialist nations to share trading rights with U.S. John Hay
  29. 29. In this cartoon called “the Boxers”, Uncle Sam tells the Boxer that “I occasionally do a little boxing myself!”
  30. 30. The Boxer Rebellion in China • Europeans dominate most large Chinese cities • Chinese form secret societies, including Boxers, to expel foreigners • Boxers kill hundreds of foreigners, Chinese converts to Christianity • U.S., Britain, France, Germany, Japan put down Boxer Rebellion
  31. 31. A "Boxer" in 1900
  32. 32. Allies attack the Forbidden City in Peking
  33. 33. Protecting American Rights • Hay issues new Open Door notes saying U. S. will keep trade open • Open Door policy reflects beliefs about U.S. economy: ▫ growth depends on exports ▫ U.S. has right to keep markets open ▫ closing of area threatens U.S. survival
  34. 34. The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains • The Anti-Imperialist League • McKinley’s reelection confirms most Americans favor imperialism • Anti-Imperialist League has prominent people from different fields • For various reasons, agree wrong to rule others without their consent
  35. 35. Cartoon depiction of the Anti Imperialist League
  36. 36. America as a World Power • The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution add to America’s military and economic power.
  37. 37. Teddy Roosevelt and the World • Roosevelt the Peacemaker • Roosevelt does not want Europeans to control world economy, politics • 1904, Japan & Russia dispute control of Korea (Russo-Japanese War) • Roosevelt negotiates Treaty of Portsmouth: • Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace Prize
  38. 38. Teddy Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace prize for negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth, ending the Sino- Russian War
  39. 39. Panama Canal • U.S. wants canal to cut travel time of commercial, military ships • Negotiates with Colombia to build Panama Canal; talks break down • U.S. gives military aid to Panamanian Revolution • U.S., Panama sign treaty; U.S. pays $10 million for Canal Zone
  40. 40. Harpers Weekly Cartoon depicting the challenges of the Panama Canal
  41. 41. Constructing the Canal • Construction of canal is one of world’s greatest engineering feats • It is 10 miles wide, 50 miles long, and took 10 years to build. • It was finished just in time for WWI
  42. 42. Contemporary Drawing of the building of the Panama Canal
  43. 43. Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy • Roosevelt’s foreign policy was referred to as Big Stick Diplomacy after an African proverb. • It meant the U.S. would try diplomacy first but would be prepared to use force if necessary to get what we want. • The Roosevelt Corollary is part of this.
  44. 44. Teddy Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy – Walk Softly but Carry a Big Stick
  45. 45. The Roosevelt Corollary • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • Roosevelt fears European intervention if Latin America defaults on debts • Reminds Europeans of Monroe Doctrine, demands they stay out • ·Roosevelt Corollary—U. S. to use force to protect economic interests – act as world’s policeman
  46. 46. Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy • Dollar diplomacy—U.S. guarantees foreign loans by U.S. business to Latin American countries • Sometimes called “Dollars for Bullets” – it is about using money not force. Theodore Roosevelt
  47. 47. Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy • Missionary Diplomacy, also called Moral Diplomacy: • U.S. has moral responsibility: ▫ will not recognize regimes that are oppressive, undemocratic • U.S. fears for investments during the Mexican Revolution • A series of Mex. Presidents are overthrown and murdered. • Wilson refuses to recognize these governments
  48. 48. Rebellion in Mexico • Francisco “Pancho” Villa, Emiliano Zapata oppose Carranza as president • Wilson recognizes Carranza’s government; Villa threatens reprisals ▫ Villa’s men kill Americans in Mexico and New Mexico Francisco “Pancho” Villa
  49. 49. Chasing Villa • General John J. (Blackjack) Pershing leads force to capture Villa • Carranza demands withdrawal of U.S. troops; Wilson at first refuses • ·U.S. faces war in Europe, wants peace on southern border • Wilson orders Pershing home to lead troops in WWI. General John J “Blackjack” Pershing