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  • 1.  Proslavery and antislavery factions disagree over the treatment of fugitive slaves and the spread of slavery to the territories.
  • 2.  Popular Sovereignty – people in the territories can decide whether or not to have slavery by voting  Douglas wants railroad west in Chicago  Douglas feels popular sovereignty on slavery is best  Thinks slavery unworkable in prairie farms but seeks South’s support Stephen Douglas US Senator – IL 1813 – 1861
  • 3.  Two new territories are created: Kansas and Nebraska  Allows popular sovereignty on slavery  Repeals Missouri Compromise; bitter debate ensues
  • 4.  Northern, Southern settlers pour into Kansas Territory  Kansas holds election for territorial legislature  Proslavery “border ruffians” vote illegally, win fraudulent majority  Proslavery government in Lecompton; antislavery rival in Topeka
  • 5. Peace Convention-Fort Scott, KS
  • 6.  Nativism—belief in favoring native-born Americans over immigrants  Nativists form American Party, known as Know-Nothing Party Citizen Know Nothing The Know Nothing Party's nativist ideal
  • 7.  Violence in the Senate  Senator Charles Sumner verbally attacks colleagues, slavery  Congressman Preston S. Brooks beats Sumner on the head with his cane for insults to uncle  Southerners applaud Brooks; Northerners condemn him Senator Charles Sumner 1811 - 1874 Congressman Preston S Brooks 1819 - 1857
  • 8. This 1856 cartoon shows Preston Brooks attacking Charles Sumner in the U.S. Senate chamber.
  • 9.  Dred Scott, slave who had lived in free areas sues for freedom  Chief Justice Roger B. Taney hands down decision  Slaves are property not citizens  Slaves do not have rights of citizens  Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional – there is no such thing as free territory. Dred Scott - 1799 - 1858
  • 10.  Republican Abraham Lincoln runs for Douglas’s Senate seat in Illinois  Douglas:  slavery backward  not immoral  Lincoln:  slavery immoral  Douglas thinks popular sovereignty will undo slavery  Lincoln thinks legislation needed to stop spread of slavery
  • 11. The Lincoln - Douglas debates created quite a spectacle, partly due to the opponents’ difference in height.
  • 12.  Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine - elect leaders who do not enforce slavery  Douglas wins seat; doctrine worsens regional split between Democrats  Lincoln’s attacks on “vast moral evil” of slavery draw attention
  • 13.  Abolitionist John Brown believes God wants him to fight slavery  Brown, followers violently kill 5 men – chops off their hands  Territory called Bleeding Kansas for incidents that kill some 200 Abolitionist John Brown 1800 - 1859
  • 14.  John Brown plans to start a slave uprising, needs weapons  Leads band to federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry to get arms  U.S. Marines put down rebellion, capture Brown  Brown is hanged for high treason, December 1859  Many Northerners admire Brown; Southerners fear future uprisings Drawing of John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry - 1858
  • 15.  The issue of slavery and other factors split political parties and lead to the birth of new ones.  Slavery Divides Whigs:  Whig Party splinters after Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
  • 16.  Liberty Party pursues abolition through laws;  Free-Soil Party opposes extension of slavery into territories  Object to slavery’s impact on white wage-based labor force  Convinced of conspiracy to spread slavery throughout U.S.
  • 17.  Unhappy Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers form Republican Party  Republicans oppose the extension of slavery in territories  Main competition for voters is Know-Nothing Party
  • 18.  Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin stirs protest  Uncle Tom’s Cabin shows slavery as moral problem, not just political
  • 19.  Industry and Immigration in the North  1850s North industrialized; makes large amount, variety of products  Railroads carry raw materials east, manufactures and settlers west • small towns quickly become cities • telegraph wires provide fast communication  Immigrants become industrial workers, fear expansion of slavery • slave labor might compete with free labor • could reduce status of white workers unable to compete
  • 20.  South predominantly rural, mostly plantations and small farms  Economy relies on cash crops; manufacture under 10% of U.S. goods  Few immigrants; free, enslaved African Americans meet labor needs  In 3 states, blacks are majority; in 2, are half of population  Whites fear restriction of slavery will change society, economy
  • 21.  The Election of 1860 (immediate cause of secession)  Democrats split over slavery  Lincoln wins with less than half of popular vote  gets no Southern electoral votes Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States
  • 22.  South Carolina and 6 other states secede:  want complete independence from federal control  fear end to their way of life  want to preserve slave labor system  Confederacy or Confederate States of America forms  Confederacy permits slavery, recognizes each state’s sovereignty  Former senator Jefferson Davis unanimously elected president Jefferson Davis President of the Confederate States of America
  • 23.  Four Border States did not secede: Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky and Missouri  They are unique because they stayed with the Union even though they owned slaves.
  • 24.  Fort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harbor  Confederates demand surrender of Fort Sumter  Lincoln’s Dilemma:  Reinforcing fort by force would lead rest of slave states to secede  Evacuating fort would legitimize Confederacy, endanger Union
  • 25.  First Shots  Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends food  For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy  Jefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into war  fires on Sumter April 12, 1861  Three more states secede; border states remain in Union
  • 26. Bombardment of Fort Sumter. Perine, George Edward, 1837-1885, engraver
  • 27. North’s Advantages  Population  Money  Strong Government  Army/Navy  Factories  Food Supplies  Railroads  Telegraphs  Defensive Plan  Better Military Leaders  Motivation  Experienced Outdoorsmen  Potential Allies from King Cotton Diplomacy South’s Advantages
  • 28. Union Goal: Preserve the Union  Anaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer South  blockade Southern ports  capture the Mississippi River and divide Confederacy in two  capture Richmond, Confederate capital  Confederate strategy: defense: hold until the enemy is worn down or allies arrive Confederate Goal: Maintain Independence
  • 29.  Ironclads splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon, resist burning  North’s Monitor, South’s Merrimack fight to a draw  Ironclads make wooden warships obsolete  New Weapons:  Rifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than muskets  Minié ball (more destructive bullet), grenades, land mines are used Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac at Hampton Roads
  • 30.  Gatlin guns  Artillery  Submarines  Crude Flamethrowers  Hot Air Balloons
  • 31.  Bull Run—first battle, near Washington, D.C.; Confederate victory, proves war will be neither short nor glorious.  Thomas J. Jackson (Confederate general) called Stonewall Jackson for firm stand in battle General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson - CSA
  • 32.  Lee wins Second Battle of Bull Run; marches into Maryland  Antietam - bloodiest single-day battle  Battle a standoff; Confederates retreat; McClellan does not pursue  Lincoln fires McClellan Battle of Antietam by Kurz and Allison.
  • 33.  Britain has cotton inventory, new sources; does not need South  Needs Northern wheat, corn; chooses neutrality
  • 34.  By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war.  Lincoln’s View of Slavery:  Federal government has no power to abolish slavery where it exists  Emancipation discourages Britain from supporting the South
  • 35.  Emancipation Proclamation - issued by Lincoln in 1863:  frees slaves behind Confederate lines  does not apply to areas occupied by Union or slave states in Union
  • 36.  Proclamation has symbolic value, gives war high moral purpose  Free blacks can join the Union army, welcome ability to fight against slavery  Confederacy becomes more determined to preserve way of life  Compromise no longer possible; one side must defeat the other
  • 37.  African Americans 1% of North’s population, by war’s end 10% of army  Lower pay than white troops for most of war; limits on military rank  High mortality from disease; POWs killed or returned to slavery  Fort Pillow, TN - Confederates massacre over 200 African- American POWs
  • 38.  Slaves seek freedom behind Union army lines  On plantations, destroy property, refuse to go with fleeing owners
  • 39.  Living conditions in prisons worse than in army camps  Andersonville—worst Confederate prison, in Georgia  has no shelter, sanitation; 1/3 of prisoners die  Northern prisons more space, food, shelter than Southern  12% of Confederate prisoners, 15% of Union prisoners die Andersonville Prison
  • 40.  U.S. Sanitary Commission works to better hygiene; hire, train nurses  Dorothea Dix superintendent of women nurses  Union death rate drops  Union nurse Clara Barton serves on front lines and was later the founder of the American Red Cross  Southern women also volunteer as Confederate nurses Clara Barton Dorothea Dix
  • 41.  General Ulysses S. Grant (Union)—brave, tough, decisive commander in West  Grant captures Confederate Forts Henry, Donelson  Admiral Farragut on the Lower Mississippi  David G. Farragut commands fleet that takes New Orleans David G Farragut
  • 42.  Prelude to Gettysburg: Stonewall Jackson mistakenly shot by own troops, dies 8 days later of pneumonia  Lee invades North to get supplies, support of Democrats  Gettysburg: Turning point battle of the war.  Three-day battle at Gettysburg cripples South
  • 43. Battle of Gettysburg Currier & Ives
  • 44.  Vicksburg Under Siege  Starving Confederates surrender on July 4  Union has complete control of the Mississippi River, Confederacy completely divided  Grant is named Commander of the Union Army General Ulysses S Grant
  • 45.  Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman commander of Mississippi division  Grant and Sherman believe in total war to destroy South’s will to fight William Tecumseh Sherman Sherman’s Sentinels
  • 46.  March starts in Chattanooga, TN and ends in Savannah, GA  Sherman takes Atlanta; burns it down  Sherman cuts wide path of destruction in Georgia; lives off land  December, takes Savannah, turns north to help Grant fight Lee  inflicts even more destruction in South Carolina
  • 47.  Democrats want immediate armistice, nominate McClellan  Radical Republicans—harsh conditions for readmission to Union  Lincoln pessimistic; Northern victories, troops’ votes give him win  Lincoln chooses War Democrat Andrew Johnson as running mate. General George McClellan
  • 48.  Neither side completely unified; both sides face divided loyalties  Lincoln suspends habeas corpus:  order to bring accused to court, name charges  Seizes telegraph offices so cannot be used for subversion  Copperheads—Northern Democrats advocating peace  Lincoln expands presidential powers, sets precedent
  • 49.  Casualties, desertions lead to conscription—draft to serve in army  Both armies allow draftees to hire substitutes to serve for them  Planters with more than 20 slaves exempted  90% eligible Southerners serve; 92% Northern soldiers volunteer
  • 50.  White workers fear Southern blacks will come North, compete for jobs  Angry at having to free slaves, mobs rampage through New York City Rioters and Federal troops clash
  • 51.  Lee surrenders April 1865 at village of Appomattox Court House  Lee’s soldiers paroled on generous terms Picture of Robert E. Lee's Surrender at Appomattox from the pages of Harper's Weekly
  • 52.  Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theatre  Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, is trapped by Union cavalry, shot
  • 53.  Southern Shortages  Food shortages from lost manpower, Union occupation, loss of slaves  Blockade creates other shortages; some Confederates trade with enemy  Northern Economic Growth  Industries that supply army boom; some contractors cheat and profit  Wages do not keep up with prices; workers’ standard of living drops  Women replace men on farms, city jobs, government jobs  Congress establishes first income tax on earnings to pay for war
  • 54.  Political Changes  War ends threat of secession; increases power of federal government  Economic Changes  Gap between North and South widens  North: industry booms; commercial agriculture takes hold  South: industry, farms destroyed
  • 55.  Hundreds of thousands dead, wounded; lives disrupted  Financially, war costs the government estimated $3.3 billion Though both Union and Confederate soldiers were lucky to escape the war with their lives, thousands - like this young amputee – faced an uncertain future.
  • 56.  Physically and Economically Devastated  Buildings, infrastructure, farms destroyed throughout South  Almost ½ of all livestock was destroyed  People poor; property value plummets, Confederate bonds worthless  1/5 white males dead, many maimed; tens of thousands black males dead
  • 57. Charleston, South Carolina, lies in ruins following the war between the states.
  • 58.  1865, Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery in all states  Civilians Follow New Paths  Some soldiers stay in army; others become civilians; many go west  Women can now pursue careers as nurses.
  • 59.  Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan  Reconstruction—period of rebuilding after Civil War, 1865–1877  Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction calls for 10% allegiance  Radical Republicans led by Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens  want to destroy power of former slaveholders  give full citizenship, suffrage to African Americans
  • 60.  Wade-Davis Bill makes Congress responsible for Reconstruction  Lincoln uses pocket veto to kill Wade-Davis; Radicals outraged
  • 61.  President Andrew Johnson proposes own Presidential Reconstruction:  states must swear allegiance, annul war debts, ratify 13th Amendment  does not address voting rights, land, laws for former slaves  States that had not applied under Lincoln agree to Johnson’s terms  some states do not fully comply Andrew Johnson 17th President of the United States
  • 62.  Radical Republicans in Congress refuse new Southern legislators  Congress enlarges Freedmen’s Bureau - helps former slaves, poor whites  gives social services, medical care, education
  • 63.  Grants citizenship to African Americans  Forbids black codes or discriminatory laws  Black codes restore many restrictions of slavery  Whites use violence to prevent blacks from improving their lives  Johnson vetoes Freedmen’s Bureau and Civil Rights Act  Alienates moderate Republicans; angers Radicals
  • 64.  Draft Fourteenth Amendment—makes African Americans full citizens  Most Southern states reject amendment; not ratified until 1868  1866 Congressional Elections  Johnson jeered on tour urging election of supporters of his plan  Moderates, Radicals win 2/3 majority in Congress, can override veto
  • 65.  Reconstruction Act doesn’t recognize most new state governments  divides South into military districts  sets new conditions for reentry in Union  Johnson believes act unconstitutional, vetoes; Congress overrides
  • 66.  Radicals seek to impeach - formally charge with misconduct in office  Johnson fires Stanton - test constitutionality of Tenure of Office Act  House Radicals impeach Johnson; Senate does not convict
  • 67.  Grant wins presidency with help of African-American vote  Fifteenth Amendment— gives voting rights to all, regardless of color  South does not enforce 14th, 15th Amendments  White Southerners use violence to prevent blacks from voting  Enforcement Act of 1870—federal government can punish violators Ulysses S Grant 18th President of the United States
  • 68.  Democrats call Southern white Republicans scalawags  most are small farmers  want better economic position  Carpetbaggers - Northerners who moved to South after war  African Americans are largest group of Southern Republicans  In many areas, 90% of African- American voters vote
  • 69.  New-Won Freedoms  At first, former slaves cautious about testing limits of freedom  Some travel to new places  Many leave plantations to find work in Southern towns  Reunification of Families  Many search for loved ones on different plantations  Couples can marry legally and be sure of keeping their children  Education  Freed people of all ages seek education  African Americans establish schools and universities  Initially, most teachers Northern whites; by 1869, most are black
  • 70.  Churches and Volunteer Groups  Many African Americans found churches; mostly Baptist, Methodist  Black ministers become influential community leaders  African Americans form thousands of volunteer organizations:  foster independence  give financial, emotional support  offer leadership opportunities
  • 71.  1865–1877, African Americans hold local, state, federal office  At first, most officeholders freeborn; by 1867 some former slaves  Almost as many black as white citizens; black officeholders minority  only 16 African Americans in Congress  Hiram Revels is first black senator Hiram Revels
  • 72.  By 1866, Republican governments repeal most black codes  Anti-segregation laws created, but many not enforced  Blacks focus on building up their community, not total integration
  • 73.  Landless African Americans sign labor contracts with planters  neither freedmen nor planters happy with system  Sharecropping—owner gives land, seed, tools for part of crops  Tenant farming—rent land from owner; buy own tools  Designed to keep southern blacks in debt and tied to the land. A form of economic slavery.
  • 74.  Other countries increase cotton production; South creates oversupply  Try to diversify—textiles, tobacco products; wages lower than North  Banks hold Confederate debt, mounting planters’ debts; many fail
  • 75.  Southern opposition to Radical Reconstruction, along with economic problems in the North, end Reconstruction.
  • 76.  Ku Klux Klan (KKK)—Confederate veterans group that turns terrorist  Grows rapidly; aims to restore white supremacy  Anti-Black Violence  Klan, others kill thousands, burn schools, churches, homes  Klan works to force Republican state governments out of power  Southern Democrats use violence to intimidate black voters  White Democratic candidates win state elections in 1875, 1876
  • 77. Etching of Ku Klux Klan Members
  • 78.  Economic Pressure  Black landowners, non-farmers attacked, have property destroyed  Need forces freedmen into wage labor, sharecropping for whites  Legislative Response  1870, 1871 Enforcement Acts passed to curtail Klan, Democrats  Klan violence decreases because restore white supremacy in South  Shifts in Political Power  Amnesty Act returns voting rights to many former Confederates  Congress allows Freedmen’s Bureau to expire
  • 79.  Fraud and Bribery  Grant considered honest; appoints friends to political office  Series of Grant administration scandals exposed  Republican Unity Shattered  Liberal Republicans weaken Radicals, make Reconstruction difficult
  • 80.  The Panic of 1873  Business opportunities in South lead investors to excessive debt  banks, businesses close; stock market collapses  Panic triggers 5-year economic depression  Currency Dispute  financial experts want return to gold standard  South, West want more greenbacks to pay debts  Specie Resumption Act puts country back on gold standard
  • 81.  Supreme Court decisions undermine 14th, 15th Amendments  Federal government loses power to protect African- American rights  Northerners grow indifferent to events in South:  shift attention to national problems  want reconciliation between regions  begin to dislike Reconstruction policies  Republicans conclude government cannot impose moral, social changes
  • 82.  Redemption—return of Democrats to power in the South, 1869–1875  Election of 1876  Republicans nominate Governor Rutherford B. Hayes  Democrats choose Governor Samuel J. Tilden  Tilden wins popular vote, 1 shy of electoral; 20 electoral disputed  Compromise of 1877—Hayes gets presidency, Democrats get:  federal troops leave south  funding for Southern railroad, waterways  Compromise means end of Reconstruction Rutherford B Hayes 19th President of the United States
  • 83.  Home Rule in the South  After Hayes removes federal troops, Democrats take over states  Home rule—running state government without federal intervention  Republicans fail to protect rights they gave to former slaves  Unwillingness to distribute land blocks economic independence  Amendments abolish slavery, give basis for civil rights legislation  African-American schools, civic groups increase literacy, opportunity