Civil rights (1)

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Civil rights (1)

  1. 1. The Segregation System  Plessy v. Ferguson ruling: separate but equal is constitutional  Many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races  Facilities for blacks always inferior to those for whites
  2. 2. 1950’s Virginia Black School
  3. 3. African Americans Seek Greater Equality  De facto segregation exists by practice, custom; problem in North  De jure segregation is segregation required by law  WW II black migration to Northern cities results in “white flight”  1960s, most urban blacks live in slums  Black unemployment twice as high as white  Many blacks angry at treatment received from white police officers
  4. 4. Challenging Segregation in Court  The NAACP Legal Strategy: Focuses on most glaring inequalities of segregated public education  Places team of law students under Thurgood Marshall  Marshall’s greatest victory is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka  In 1954 case, Court unanimously strikes down school segregation
  5. 5. Thurgood Marshall US Supreme Court Justice 1908 - 1993
  6. 6. Resistance to School Desegregation  Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist  Court orders desegregation at “all deliberate speed”  Eisenhower refuses to enforce compliance; considers it impossible
  7. 7. Protesting Brown v Board of Education
  8. 8. Crisis in Little Rock  Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas was all white  Governor Orval Faubus has National Guard turn away black students (Little Rock Nine)  Eisenhower has National Guard, paratroopers supervise school attendance  For Eisenhower its not about civil rights – its about confirming the supremacy of the fed. gov’t
  9. 9. The Little Rock Nine Bottom row, left to right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top row, left to right: Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy Bates (NAACP President), Ernest Green
  10. 10. Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas
  11. 11. The Montgomery Bus Boycott  Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up seat on bus  Baptist pastor Martin Luther King, Jr. organizes bus boycott  African Americans file lawsuit, boycott buses, use carpools, walk  Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation  This event is considered the beginning of the modern Civil Rights Movement
  12. 12. Rosa Parks on Montgomery, AL bus Dr. Martin Luther King in Montgomery
  13. 13. Martin Luther King and the SCLC  King -- nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, massive demonstrations  King, others found Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)  By 1960, African-American students think pace of change too slow  Join Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)  SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls for more confrontational strategy
  14. 14. Dr. Martin Luther King 1929 - 1968
  15. 15. Sit-ins  Refuse to leave segregated lunch counter until served  First sit-in at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC  In spite of abuse, arrests, movement grows, spreads to North  Late 1960, lunch counters desegregated in 48 cities in 11 states
  16. 16. Woolworths Sit In Greensboro, NC February 1, 1960 Ezell A. Blair, Jr., Franklin E. McCain, Joseph A. McNeil, and David L. Richmond
  17. 17. Freedom Rides  Tests Court decision banning interstate bus segregation  Freedom riders—blacks, whites sit & use station facilities together  Riders brutally beaten by Alabama mobs; one bus firebombed  JFK sends U.S. Marshals to protect riders
  18. 18. Integrating Ole Miss  Federal court rules James Meredith may enroll at University of Mississippi  Governor Ross Barnett refuses to let Meredith register  JFK orders federal marshals to escort Meredith to registrar’s office  Barnett makes radio appeal; thousands of white demonstrators riot  Federal officials accompany Meredith to classes, protect his parents
  19. 19. James Meredith Integrates Ole Miss Oct 1, 1962
  20. 20. Birmingham  SCLC demonstrate to desegregate Birmingham  King arrested  TV news show police attacking child marchers—fire hoses, dogs, clubs  Continued protests, economic boycott, bad press end segregation
  21. 21. Kennedy Takes a Stand  JFK sends troops to force Governor Wallace to desegregate University of Alabama  NAACP’s Medgar Evers murdered; hung juries lead to killer’s release Medgar Evans NAACP Field Secretary 1925 - 1963
  22. 22. Governor George Wallace Blocking the Integration of the University of Alabama June 10, 1963
  23. 23. Marching to Washington  Over 250,000 people converge on Washington  Speakers demand immediate passage of civil rights bill  King gives “I Have a Dream” speech
  24. 24. More Violence  4 Birmingham girls killed when bomb thrown into church  LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of 1964  prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, gender
  25. 25. Freedom Summer  CORE, SNCC project to register blacks to vote in Mississippi  Volunteers beaten, killed; businesses, homes, churches burned
  26. 26. The Selma Campaign  Voting rights demonstrator killed in Selma, Alabama  King leads 600 protest marchers; TV shows police violently stop them  Second march, with federal protection, swells to 25,000 people  Congress finally passes Voting Rights Act of  1965  Stops literacy tests, allows federal officials to enroll voters  Increases black voter enrollment
  27. 27. Selma to Montgomery March March 7, 1965
  28. 28. Challenges and Changes in the Movement  Disagreements among civil rights groups and the rise of black nationalism create a violent period in the fight for civil rights.
  29. 29. Urban Violence Erupts  Mid-1960s, numerous clashes between white authority, black civilians  Many clashes result in riots  Many whites baffled by African-American rage  Blacks want, need equal opportunity in jobs, housing, education  Money for War on Poverty & Great Society redirected to Vietnam War
  30. 30. Urban Riots – Above Watts, CA 1965 Below Detroit, MI 1967
  31. 31. New Leaders Voice Discontent Nation of Islam, Black Muslims, advocate blacks separate from whites  believe whites source of black problems  Malcolm X—controversial Muslim leader, speaker; gets much publicity – black separatist  Frightens whites, moderate blacks; resented by other Black Muslims  Pilgrimage to Mecca changes Malcolm X’s attitude toward whites  Splits with Black Muslims; is killed in 1965 while giving speech
  32. 32. Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little) 1925 - 1965
  33. 33. Black Power CORE, SNCC become more militant; SCLC pursues traditional tactics  Stokely Carmichael, head of SNCC, calls for Black Power:  African Americans control own lives, communities, without whites  Black Panthers fight police brutality, want black self- sufficiency  Preach ideas of Mao Zedong; have violent confrontations with police  Provide social services in ghettos, win popular support
  34. 34. Stokely Charmichael SNCC Leader 1941 - 1998
  35. 35. 1968—A Turning Point in Civil Rights  King objects to Black Power movement & preaching of violence  Seems to sense own death in Memphis speech to striking workers  Is shot; dies the following day  King’s death leads to worst urban rioting in U.S. history  Robert Kennedy assassinated two months later
  36. 36. Assassination of Martin Luther King April 4, 1968
  37. 37. Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people will get to the promised land. And I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. Dr. Martin Luther King, Memphis 1968
  38. 38. Civil Rights Gains  Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibits discrimination in housing  More black students finish high school, college; get better jobs  Greater pride in racial identity leads to Black Studies programs  More African-American participation in movies, television  Increased voter registration results in more black elected officials
  39. 39. Actor Sidney Poitier Actress Diane Carroll
  40. 40. Unfinished Work Forced busing, higher taxes, militancy, riots reduce white support  White flight reverses much progress toward school integration  Unemployment, poverty higher than for whites  Affirmative action—extra effort to hire, enroll discriminated groups  Colleges & companies doing government business adopt policy  Late 1970s, some criticize policy as reverse discrimination
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