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Civil rights (1)

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  • 1. The Segregation System  Plessy v. Ferguson ruling: separate but equal is constitutional  Many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races  Facilities for blacks always inferior to those for whites
  • 2. 1950’s Virginia Black School
  • 3. African Americans Seek Greater Equality  De facto segregation exists by practice, custom; problem in North  De jure segregation is segregation required by law  WW II black migration to Northern cities results in “white flight”  1960s, most urban blacks live in slums  Black unemployment twice as high as white  Many blacks angry at treatment received from white police officers
  • 4. Challenging Segregation in Court  The NAACP Legal Strategy: Focuses on most glaring inequalities of segregated public education  Places team of law students under Thurgood Marshall  Marshall’s greatest victory is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka  In 1954 case, Court unanimously strikes down school segregation
  • 5. Thurgood Marshall US Supreme Court Justice 1908 - 1993
  • 6. Resistance to School Desegregation  Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist  Court orders desegregation at “all deliberate speed”  Eisenhower refuses to enforce compliance; considers it impossible
  • 7. Protesting Brown v Board of Education
  • 8. Crisis in Little Rock  Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas was all white  Governor Orval Faubus has National Guard turn away black students (Little Rock Nine)  Eisenhower has National Guard, paratroopers supervise school attendance  For Eisenhower its not about civil rights – its about confirming the supremacy of the fed. gov’t
  • 9. The Little Rock Nine Bottom row, left to right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top row, left to right: Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy Bates (NAACP President), Ernest Green
  • 10. Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas
  • 11. The Montgomery Bus Boycott  Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up seat on bus  Baptist pastor Martin Luther King, Jr. organizes bus boycott  African Americans file lawsuit, boycott buses, use carpools, walk  Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation  This event is considered the beginning of the modern Civil Rights Movement
  • 12. Rosa Parks on Montgomery, AL bus Dr. Martin Luther King in Montgomery
  • 13. Martin Luther King and the SCLC  King -- nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, massive demonstrations  King, others found Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)  By 1960, African-American students think pace of change too slow  Join Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)  SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls for more confrontational strategy
  • 14. Dr. Martin Luther King 1929 - 1968
  • 15. Sit-ins  Refuse to leave segregated lunch counter until served  First sit-in at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC  In spite of abuse, arrests, movement grows, spreads to North  Late 1960, lunch counters desegregated in 48 cities in 11 states
  • 16. Woolworths Sit In Greensboro, NC February 1, 1960 Ezell A. Blair, Jr., Franklin E. McCain, Joseph A. McNeil, and David L. Richmond
  • 17. Freedom Rides  Tests Court decision banning interstate bus segregation  Freedom riders—blacks, whites sit & use station facilities together  Riders brutally beaten by Alabama mobs; one bus firebombed  JFK sends U.S. Marshals to protect riders
  • 18. Integrating Ole Miss  Federal court rules James Meredith may enroll at University of Mississippi  Governor Ross Barnett refuses to let Meredith register  JFK orders federal marshals to escort Meredith to registrar’s office  Barnett makes radio appeal; thousands of white demonstrators riot  Federal officials accompany Meredith to classes, protect his parents
  • 19. James Meredith Integrates Ole Miss Oct 1, 1962
  • 20. Birmingham  SCLC demonstrate to desegregate Birmingham  King arrested  TV news show police attacking child marchers—fire hoses, dogs, clubs  Continued protests, economic boycott, bad press end segregation
  • 21. Kennedy Takes a Stand  JFK sends troops to force Governor Wallace to desegregate University of Alabama  NAACP’s Medgar Evers murdered; hung juries lead to killer’s release Medgar Evans NAACP Field Secretary 1925 - 1963
  • 22. Governor George Wallace Blocking the Integration of the University of Alabama June 10, 1963
  • 23. Marching to Washington  Over 250,000 people converge on Washington  Speakers demand immediate passage of civil rights bill  King gives “I Have a Dream” speech
  • 24. More Violence  4 Birmingham girls killed when bomb thrown into church  LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of 1964  prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, gender
  • 25. Freedom Summer  CORE, SNCC project to register blacks to vote in Mississippi  Volunteers beaten, killed; businesses, homes, churches burned
  • 26. The Selma Campaign  Voting rights demonstrator killed in Selma, Alabama  King leads 600 protest marchers; TV shows police violently stop them  Second march, with federal protection, swells to 25,000 people  Congress finally passes Voting Rights Act of  1965  Stops literacy tests, allows federal officials to enroll voters  Increases black voter enrollment
  • 27. Selma to Montgomery March March 7, 1965
  • 28. Challenges and Changes in the Movement  Disagreements among civil rights groups and the rise of black nationalism create a violent period in the fight for civil rights.
  • 29. Urban Violence Erupts  Mid-1960s, numerous clashes between white authority, black civilians  Many clashes result in riots  Many whites baffled by African-American rage  Blacks want, need equal opportunity in jobs, housing, education  Money for War on Poverty & Great Society redirected to Vietnam War
  • 30. Urban Riots – Above Watts, CA 1965 Below Detroit, MI 1967
  • 31. New Leaders Voice Discontent Nation of Islam, Black Muslims, advocate blacks separate from whites  believe whites source of black problems  Malcolm X—controversial Muslim leader, speaker; gets much publicity – black separatist  Frightens whites, moderate blacks; resented by other Black Muslims  Pilgrimage to Mecca changes Malcolm X’s attitude toward whites  Splits with Black Muslims; is killed in 1965 while giving speech
  • 32. Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little) 1925 - 1965
  • 33. Black Power CORE, SNCC become more militant; SCLC pursues traditional tactics  Stokely Carmichael, head of SNCC, calls for Black Power:  African Americans control own lives, communities, without whites  Black Panthers fight police brutality, want black self- sufficiency  Preach ideas of Mao Zedong; have violent confrontations with police  Provide social services in ghettos, win popular support
  • 34. Stokely Charmichael SNCC Leader 1941 - 1998
  • 35. 1968—A Turning Point in Civil Rights  King objects to Black Power movement & preaching of violence  Seems to sense own death in Memphis speech to striking workers  Is shot; dies the following day  King’s death leads to worst urban rioting in U.S. history  Robert Kennedy assassinated two months later
  • 36. Assassination of Martin Luther King April 4, 1968
  • 37. Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people will get to the promised land. And I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. Dr. Martin Luther King, Memphis 1968
  • 38. Civil Rights Gains  Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibits discrimination in housing  More black students finish high school, college; get better jobs  Greater pride in racial identity leads to Black Studies programs  More African-American participation in movies, television  Increased voter registration results in more black elected officials
  • 39. Actor Sidney Poitier Actress Diane Carroll
  • 40. Unfinished Work Forced busing, higher taxes, militancy, riots reduce white support  White flight reverses much progress toward school integration  Unemployment, poverty higher than for whites  Affirmative action—extra effort to hire, enroll discriminated groups  Colleges & companies doing government business adopt policy  Late 1970s, some criticize policy as reverse discrimination

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