Leukemia in children By: Kellsey Frischmann Mr. Woodruff 2 nd period
How the disease is Introduced to the Body
Leukemia is introduced to the body when the bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells.
When you are healthy, your bone marrow makes:
white blood cells: which help your body fight infection.
Red blood cells: which carry oxygen to all parts of your body.
Platelets: which help your blood clot.
Symptoms of Leukemia
anemia When red blood cells are unable to be produced because of the crowding in the marrow, anemia is present. The child may appear tired, pale, and may breathe faster to make up for for the decrease in oxygen
bleeding and/or bruising When platelets are unable to be produced because of the crowding in the marrow, bleeding can occur and the child may begin to bruise more easily.
recurrent infections Although there may be an unusually high number of white blood cells on a blood count of a child with leukemia, these white blood cells are immature and do not fight infection. The child with leukemia often shows symptoms of an infection such as fever, runny nose, and cough.
Symptoms of Leukemia Continued…
bone and joint pain Pain in bones and joints is another common symptom of leukemia. This pain is usually a result of the bone marrow being overcrowded.
abdominal distress Leukemia cells can collect in the kidney, liver, and spleen, causing enlargement of these organs. Pain in the abdomen may cause a child to have loss of appetite and weight loss.
swollen lymph nodes Lymph nodes are responsible for filtering the blood. Leukemia cells may collect in the nodes, causing swelling.
This mass of cells present in the middle of the chest can cause pain and difficulty breathing. Wheezing, coughing, and/or painful breathing requires immediate medical attention.
Systems of the Body Affected
Lymphatic system, nervous system, endocrine system, circulatory system
invade other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, brain, and spinal cord.
How Leukemia is Treated
chemotherapy : taking one or more of a type of drug that interferes with the DNA (genes) of fast-growing cells
intrathecal medications/chemotherapy : medications are inserted through a needle into the spinal cord into the area called the subarachnoid space
radiation therapy: is treatment with high-energy rays that destroy cancer cells.
bone marrow transplantation: p atients are given a bone marrow transplant so that their body can be given higher doses of chemotherapy drugs that would not be tolerated otherwise.
Medications: to prevent or treat damage to other systems of the body caused by leukemia treatment
Medications: for nausea and side effects of treatment
blood transfusions: (red blood cells, platelets)
Antibiotics: (to prevent/treat infections)
continuous follow-up care :(to determine response to treatment, detect recurrent disease, and manage late effects of treatment)
Most cancers can be prevented by changes in lifestyle or diet, which will reduce the risk factors. Unfortunately, in leukemia, there are no known risk factors. With no known risk factors, it is hard to prevent them
If you have leukemia, the best way to be safe from meningitis is to avoid contact with the viruses and bacteria that cause it.
Boost Your Immune System
For example, depending on your heath status, you may be able to receive vaccinations that can help protect you against certain types of meningitis
Wash Your Hands
Cleanliness is critical when you're trying to avoid diseases like meningitis. Wash your hands frequently , after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating meals.
No, leukemia is not contagious . You cannot get it from someone else.
Leukemia means "white blood" in Greek.
Leukemia is the most common form of cancer in childhood.
It affects approximately 3,500 children each year in the US, accounting for about 30 percent of childhood cancers.
Estimated new cases and deaths from leukemia in the United States in 2010: