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  • More than just calorie counters!Educational phase – short term


  • 1. The Role of the RD in Eating Disorder Treatment: + If it’s not about the food, then why do patients need a dietitian? Lindsay Stenovec, MS, RD & Kelly Hinds, RDUCSD Eating Disorder Treatment & Research Center
  • 2. + Objectives  Define Registered Dietitian and Nutrition Therapist  Identify role of the Registered Dietitian in eating disorder treatment  Describe ideal collaboration between Registered Dietitian & Psychotherapist
  • 3. + What is a Registered Dietitian?  Trained Nutrition Professional with the credentials to provide Medical Nutrition Therapy  Counseling on behavioral and lifestyle changes related to diet and exercise for specific diseases and disorders  Medical professional that acts as a liaison between treatment team, doctors & nurses  Trained in motivational interviewing and able to assess readiness for change  Nutrition Science Degree from accredited university  Professional Practice Internship  National Registration Exam  Continuing Education Units
  • 4. + Nutrition is Science  Medical Nutrition Therapy  Nutritional Biochemistry  Chemistry  Organic Chemistry  Biochemistry  Biology  Microbiology & Food Microbiology  Food Science  Anatomy & Physiology
  • 5. + What is a Nutrition Therapist?  Works as part of a multidisciplinary team  Understands underlying psychological issues  Professional supervision  Continuing education  Understands relationship between psychology & eating  Recognizes when underlying issues need to be worked out in therapy before moving forward
  • 6. + What is a Nutrition Therapist?  Ability to establish rapport with challenging patients  Communicates nutrition messages appropriately  Develops highly individualized treatment plans
  • 7. + Evidence to Support the RD in ED Treatment  APA Guidelines recommend Nutritional Rehabilitation as a First goal in treatment of AN & BN (APA)  Nutrition therapy or cognitive therapy alone is ineffective, together they are most effective (APA)  Some people assume behaviors return to normal with psychotherapy (Beumont, OConnor, Touyz, & Williams, 1988)
  • 8. + Evidence to Support the RD in ED Treatment  Insufficient evidence to support that psychotherapy is effective in changing weight in eating disorder patients (Hay et al, 2003)  Can’t treat AN without weight restoration and psychotherapy is ineffective until weight is restored (Mehler et al., 2010)  Side effects of starvation need to be addressed before psychotherapy can be effective (Salvy & McCargar, 2002)
  • 9. + Evidence to Support the RD in ED Treatment  The sooner eating disorder behaviors are stopped and nutrition and physical health are restored the better someone responds to therapy (Van Son GE et al., 2010, AAP Identifying and treating eating disorders, 2003)  Patients and family identify nutrition therapy as an important component in treatment (Escobar-Koch, et al., 2010)  Dietitians have strongest nutrition knowledge base of clinicians treating eating disorders (Cordery & Waller, 2006)
  • 10. + A team that includes a Dietitian will… Free the therapist to concentrate on therapy rather than food
  • 11. + The Role of the Registered Dietitian  Nutrition Counseling  Nutrition Education  Medical Nutrition Therapy
  • 12. + Nutrition Counseling  It is not only about what to eat, but how to eat  Resolving the client’s relationship with food, not simply restoring weight, is the goal of treatment  Return of normal weight does not dispel the abnormal eating behaviors or disturbed attitudes about food
  • 13. + Nutrition Counseling  Discover & challenge distorted beliefs/fears about food, weight & exercise and how they may enable eating disorder behaviors  Process patient’s use of food: emotional eating, self- punishment, sense of communication or control  Process barriers to progress – lack of motivation, underlying issues, lack of structure/planning  Incremental changes to meal plan with consideration of patient’s nutritional needs, level of progress and readiness for change
  • 14. + Nutrition Counseling  Desensitization & Exposure Therapy to Increase Flexibility  Fear Food Challenges  Food Rituals  Social Eating  Dining Out  Grocery Shopping  Cooking
  • 15. + Nutrition Counseling  Hunger & Satiety Work  Physical vs Emotional Hunger  Continually weave in concepts of Normal Eating for enjoyment & wellness  Health at Every Size  Mindful Eating
  • 16. + Nutrition Education  Basic Education on Macronutrients & Micronutrients  Function of Nutrients in the Body  Effects of Nutrient Deficiencies  Food Facts & Fallacies  Anatomy & Physiology  Starvation symptoms  Refeeding Process
  • 17. + Nutrition Education  Weight & Metabolism  Effects of Compensatory Behaviors (purging, laxatives, diuretics, diet pills, exercise etc)  Relationship Between Food & Mood
  • 18. + Nutrition Education  Assist clients in planning menus to meet needs  How to Grocery Shop  How to Cook
  • 19. + Medical Nutrition Therapy  Establish Goal Weight Range  Laboratory Data  Weight History  Family Weight History  Body Composition  Monitor weight changes & educate accordingly  Fluid Shifts  Refeeding Effects  Natural Weight Cycles
  • 20. + Medical Nutrition Therapy  Monitor Nutrition-Related Labs & Medical Complications  Ongoing communication & coordination of care with physician  Prescribe Healthy Exercise  Prescribe Meal Plan  Optimize Resting Metabolic Rate
  • 21. + Collaboration Between RD & Psychotherapist  Itis not the role of the dietitian to do psychotherapy  Patients attempting to discuss therapy in nutrition sessions are distracting from the real issues  Itis not the role of the psychotherapist to do nutrition therapy  Patients attempting to discuss food in therapy sessions are distracting from the real issues Eating Disorders: Nutrition Therapy in the Recovery Process; Reiff & Reiff
  • 22. + Collaboration Between RD & Psychotherapist Do’s Don’ts  Defer all food issues to RD  Work on food issues in therapy  Keep an open mind regarding  Discuss your own food beliefs nutrition science/media with clients
  • 23. Collaboration Between RD & Pyschotherapist Therapist Dietitian Psychological  Teaches ways to aspects of treatment  Model communication change food, w/team & reinforce exercise & wt – Determines purpose of team related behaviors appropriate therapy  Reveal how food, wt &  Educates on Informs team of body image behaviors normal & mirror life progress in therapy abnormal eating,  Help pt develop sense of hunger, metabolic Explain pt issues that trust and connectedness rate may influence how in people & self they work with team  Increase awareness of body
  • 24. Collaboration Between RD & Pyschotherapist Therapist Dietitian  Helps pt connect  Assists pt in underlying issues to  Help pt identify needs understanding ED behaviors connection  Help pt develop alternative between emotion &  Educates, ways to deal and cope food behavior discusses & prepares pt for  Support & encourage working with team  Teaches pt how to change in Ed behaviors & highlight development & develop healthy  Helps pt & family growth relationship with understand food purpose of ED and explores pt  Update team willingness to get regarding food, better exercise & weight
  • 25. + References  American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Adolescence. (2003). Identifying and treating eating disorders. Journal of Pediatrics , 111, 204-211.  American Psychiatric Association. (2006, July). Treatment of patients with eating disorders. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from Psychiatryonline: http://psychiatryonline.org/content.aspx?bookid=28&sectionid=1671334  Ashley, M., & Crino, N. (2010). A novel approach to treating eating disorders in a day-hospital treatment program. Nutrition and Dietetics , 67, 155-159.  Beumont, P. J., OConnor, M., Touyz, S. W., & Williams, H. (1988). Handbook of Eating Disorders, Part 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.  Cockfield, A., & Philpot, U. (2009). Symposium 8: feeding size 0: the challenges of anorexia, managing anorexia from a dietitians perspective. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society , 68, 281- 288.
  • 26. + References  Cordery, H., & Waller, G. (2006). Nutritional knowledge of health care professionals working in the eating disorders. European Eating Disorders Review , 14, 462-467.  Costin, C. (2007). The Eating Disorder Sourcebook (3rd ed.). New York, New York: McGraw Hill.  Escobar-Koch, T., Banker, J., Crow, S., Cullis, J., Ringwood, S., Smith, G., et al. (2010). Service users views of eating disorder services: an international perspective. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 43, 549-559.  Hart, S., Russell, J., & Abraham, S. (2011). Nutrition management and dietetic practice in eating disorder management. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics , 24, 144-153.  Hay, P., Bacaltchuk, J., Byrnes, R. T., Claudino, A., Ben-Tovim, D., & Yong, P. Y. (2003). Individual pyschotherapy in the outpatient treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa. Cochrane Database System Review .  Laessle, R. G., Beumont, P. J., Butow, P., Lennerts, W., OConner, M., Pirke, K. M., et al. (1991). A comparison of nutritional management with stress management in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry , 159, 250-261.
  • 27. + References  Mehler, P. S., Winkelman, A. B., Anderson, D. M., & Gaudiani, J. L. (2010). Nutritional rehabilitation: Practical guidelines for refeeding the anorectic patient . Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 10, 1-7.  Ozier, A. D., & Henry, B. W. (2011). Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: Nutrition intervention in the treatment of eating disorders. Journal of the American Dietetic Association , 111, 1236-1241.  Rock, C. L., & Curran-Celentano, J. (1996). Nutritional management of eating disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 19 (4), 702-713.  Van Son, G. E., Van Hoeken, D., Van Furth, E. F., Donker, G. A., & Hoek, H. W. (2010). Course and outcome of eating disorders in a primary care-based cohort. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 43, 130-138I.  Waterhous, T., & Jacob, M. A. (2011). Nutrition interventions in eating disorders. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.