Speakingand Listening& Oral and Performativeapproaches to texts. Lecture 2: CLB019/CLN409 English Curriculum Studies 2 Kelli McGraw (2011)
Describe the speaking and listening that is happening in these examples: Ani – Coming Up MLK – I Have a Dream Jonah Reading Girl Talk creates a mashup
Revision… A text always occurs in two contexts, one within the other. The outer context around a text is called CONTEXT OF CULTURE. The inner context within the outer context is called CONTEXT OF SITUATION. (This is the basis of the socio-cultural view of language, and of ‘functional linguistics’. Thanks Halliday!)
When we speakand listen, we draw on a range of semiotic systems for representing meaning. NB: The concept of ‘language’ including semiotic systems other than just the linguistic is relatively new.
INFORMAL FORMAL ‘Speaking’ and ‘Listening’ are orallanguage modes PERFORMATIVE
Oral language and literacy We have all been in a social setting where there is one particular person in the group who dominates the conversation. Now may I add, that the one with the loudest or most dominating voice is not necessarily the wisest. Then there is the other person who constantly speaks over you, cuts you off mid sentence, or is quick to point out why you are wrong. But from time to time you are fortunate enough to come into the presence of wisdom. Little is said, and yet what is uttered is profound and life changing. Remember, it’s not always what you say that will make a difference. It’s often also how you say it, and in many cases when you say it. And sometimes it’s best that you say nothing. Green’s ‘3D’ model of Literacy http://www.motivationalmemo.com/how-to-perfect-the-fine-art-of-good-speech/
Teaching any language system includes understanding and applying metalanguage.The oral language modesof speaking and listening are no exception.
Paralanguage & paralinguistics Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. The study of paralanguage is known as paralinguistics.
Break it down for the kids… A cacophonyis a mix of harsh, displeasing, or clashing sounds. Cacophony is the opposite of euphony, which means pleasant, melodious sounds. Can you find examples of these in your text and explain what effect you think is created? Why might some ideas be best represented by smooth, musical, euphonic sounds, while others are better represented by harsh, discordant, cacophonic sounds? Text link – The delivery of MLK’s speech ‘I have a dream’ is very euphonic. This helps him to be persuasive, and to evoke the sermon genre.
Use existing frameworks… …such as those used in debating and public speaking competitions, and competitive poetry slams etc.
Borrow from Drama pedagogy… Jefferson (2009) ‘rich performance tasks’ reading (CMD)
ExploreRhetorical Language in speaking and listening: Metaphor A comparison made by referring to one thing as another. (from meta “beyond, over” and pherein “to carry”) Related figures: Simile(Like a metaphor, a simile involves making a comparison, except it does so explicitly) Allegory (An allegory is an extended metaphor that goes through a whole narrative)
Intimation Hinting at a meaning but not stating it explicitly.
Repetition Repetition is a major rhetorical strategy for producing emphasis, clarity, amplification, or emotional effect. Words, phrases and ideas can be repeated, as well as letters/sounds (e.g. using alliteration or assonance)