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Culinary Arts- Chpt. 23 Veggies

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  1. 1. Vegetables<br />
  2. 2. Botanical Names<br />Tubers- potato, sweet potatoes<br />Bulbs- chives, onions, garlic, leeks, shallots<br />
  3. 3. Botanical Names<br />Roots-beets, turnips, carrot, radish<br />Stems- asparagus, celery, mushrooms<br />
  4. 4. Botanical Names<br />Leaves- brussel sprouts, cabbage, chard, greens, lettuce, spinach, watercress<br />Seeds- beans, peas, and corn<br />
  5. 5. Botanical Names<br />Flowers- artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli<br />Fruits- cucumber, eggplant, tomato, peppers, squash<br />
  6. 6. Flavors<br />Vegetables with strong flavors<br />Onions, cabbages, turnips, cauliflower<br />Vegetables with mild flavors<br />Most veggies<br />
  7. 7. Nutrients <br />Water content- juicy and succulent; fruits, stems, flowers, and leaves<br />Tomatoes, celery, broccoli, lettuce<br />
  8. 8. Nutrients<br />Starch- starchy vegetable; tubers, roots, bulbs and seeds<br />Potato, sweet potato, lima beans, corns<br />
  9. 9. Colors<br />Vegetables come in all colors of the rainbow<br />
  10. 10. Selection and Buying<br />Canned- can come in many forms such as whole, diced, halved or sliced<br />Canned vegetables lose some nutrients during the canning process <br />Fresh- are usually more nutritious than processed vegetables<br />Only available during certain times of the year <br />
  11. 11. Selection and Buying<br />Frozen- retain almost all their nutrients during freezing<br />Dried- dehydrated vegetables that are used in cooking<br />Mostly onions and mushroom <br />
  12. 12. Care and Storage<br />Refrigerate most veggies, examine the veggies before you put them into the fridge<br />Tubers and root vegetables- store in a cool, dry, dark place<br />Keep canned vegetables at room temperature, use the veggies within a year<br />Use frozen veggies as soon as they are thawed<br />
  13. 13. Nutrient Contribution- Vitamins<br />Chlorophyll- green substance of plant cells that gives them their green color<br />Vitamin A- helps the eyes<br />Leafy green and deep yellow vegetables contain carotene which converts to vitamin A<br />
  14. 14. Nutrient Contribution- Vitamins<br />Vitamin C- most vegetable contain vitamin C<br />Broccoli, peppers, tomatoes, cabbages<br />Vitamin B- lime beans and peas have moderate amounts of B vitamins<br />
  15. 15. Nutrient Contribution<br />Minerals:<br />Calcium <br />Iron<br />Carbohydrates:<br />Cellulose<br />Starches <br />Sugars <br />Proteins:<br />Dried beans and peas provide incomplete proteins<br />
  16. 16. Methods of Cooking<br /><ul><li>Boil- boil a small amount of water, add the veggies, return to a boil, cover the pan, and reduce the heat to a simmer
  17. 17. Bake- wash the veggies thoroughly and place on a baking sheet and into the oven
  18. 18. Panned- Stir-frying at high heat or braising at low heat
  19. 19. Steamed- water at the bottom of a pan, metal basket to hold the veggies to cook over boiling water</li></li></ul><li>Methods of Cooking<br />Fried- pan or deep fry, using batter or crumbs<br />Pressure cooked- quick cooking, keeps flavor and color<br />Broiled- using the oven and high heat, tomatoes or eggplant<br />Microwave- retains the color, flavor, nutrients and texture<br />
  20. 20. Principles of Cooking<br />1. The goal is to retain color, flavor, nutrients and texture<br />Cellulose structure softens and they become less crisp<br />Starch absorbs water, swells and becomes more soluble<br />2. Water soluble vitamins from veggies seep out into the cooking liquid<br />Vitamins C and B<br />Minerals<br />
  21. 21. Principles of Cooking<br />3. Amount of water <br />Loss of nutrients is reduced when cooked in small amounts of water<br />Pan is covered to prevents both scorching and loss of water due to evaporation<br />
  22. 22. Principles of Cooking<br />4. Length of cooking time<br />Vitamins are destroyed by heat and overcooking<br />Cook only until fork tender and still slightly crisp<br />Overcooking dulls the bright colors of veggies, they lose their texture, shape and become mushy<br />Properly cooked vegetables retain their color, flavor, texture and nutrients <br />