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6 sanitation procedures


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  • 2. Sanitation Procedures Last chapter we talked about the three hazards … What were they?
  • 3. Sanitation Procedures Biological, Chemical and Physical Biological hazards pose the greatest threat to foodservice Preventing chemical and physical is easy, just be careful, biological is much more complicated
  • 4. Time and TemperaturePrinciple Both time and temp need to be controlled to prevent pathogen contamination To protect food from contamination you must ensure the following …
  • 5. Temperature Make sure food is either above or below the temperature danger zone ◦ 41 degrees to 135 degrees
  • 6. Time When food must be in the temperature danger zone, limit the time to no more than 4 TOTAL hours
  • 7. When Thawing … Most of the time frozen food is thawed unsafely There are only three safe ways to thaw food ◦ 1. Thaw the product under cold running water ◦ 2. Thaw the product in the fridge ◦ 3. Cook product directly from a frozen state without thawing first
  • 8. When Cooking … As food cooks, heat destroys the biological hazards that are present in the food Most potentially hazardous food is cooked to 145 degrees internal temp. Use an instant read thermometer ◦ 165 degrees for poultry, stuffing, stuffed food products, and leftovers ◦ 155 degrees for hot-held eggs, ground meats, fish ◦ 145 degrees for whole muscle meats and fish, raw eggs that are broken and immediately cooked to order
  • 9. When Hot Holding … In foodservice it is often necessary to hold cooked food and keep it hot until it is needed Hot held food must maintain and internal temp of 135 ◦ Steam table ◦ Warming ovens
  • 10. When Cooling … Most time and temp abuses happen during cooling Cooked foods must be cooled from 135 to 70 in two hours or less In less than a total of 6 hours, the food must be cooled to 41 If food is not cooled properly, it becomes a breeding ground for biological hazards
  • 11. When Cooling … Place food in shallow pans for cooling ◦ Increasing the surface area speeds up cooling Place the container of hot food in an ice water bath and stir the in ingredients frequently ◦ Water transfers heat taking the heat away from items Place food in a blast chiller or other rapid cooling equipment ◦ Large equipment that continually blasts cold air
  • 12. When Storing … Potentially hazardous food must be stored at temps below 41º, a temp where pathogen growth is slowed, but the food will eventually spoil Freezer temps under 0º stops pathogen growth All fridges and freezers must have thermometers
  • 13. When Reheating … Sometimes it’s needed to reheat chilled food ◦ Chili, soups, etc. ◦ Must be heated to 165º within two hours, but food can only be reheated ONCE!
  • 14. Cross-Contamination Cross-contamination occurs when harmful microorganisms are transferred from one product to another by hands, utensils, equipment, or other physical contact One of the largest sources of food borne illnesses Often the result of negligence or ignorance on the part of the food service worker
  • 15. Cross-Contamination Hands are often the culprit … ◦ Moving raw chicken then making a sandwich, but never washing your hands ◦ 80% of all raw chicken was tested POSITIVE for salmonella in the US
  • 16. Scenario Joe is cutting pork steaks on a cutting board. Mary, the sandwich cook, needed to cut up a large number of sandwiches and is in a hurry. She asks Joe to help her cut some sandwiches in half. Joe, eager to help a fellow cook, quickly wipes off his cutting board and knife using a side towel. He takes half of the sandwiches and cuts them using the knife and cutting board that he just wiped off. What was wrong in the scenario? What was right?
  • 17. Clean v. Sanitary Clean is the visual appearance that something is unsoiled ◦ An items that is clean is not always sanitary Sanitary refers to an environment that is free from pathogens ◦ Kitchens have many places that need sanitization ◦ Any surface such as a table, cutting board or a piece of equipment that comes in contact with food is considered a food-contact surface  Food-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized before food prep, completing only one of the steps is not enough
  • 18. Step One: Cleaning The first step toward a sanitary work environment is cleaning, or the removal of any visible dirt, grime, or pieces of food Proper cleaning requires hot water, detergents and sometimes grease cutters Clean all food contact surfaces after completing a task and before starting a new one
  • 19. Step Two: Sanitizing Sanitizing kills pathogens, there are two powerful strategies and when they are used correctly they will kill most pathogens ◦ Heat ◦ Chemicals
  • 20. Heat Sanitizing Food-contact surfaces must be heated to at least 180º for 30 seconds Hot water is used for heat sanitizing Dishwashers are used for small items
  • 21. Chemical Sanitizing Most common technique used Some chemicals can be dangerous is mixed improperly ◦ Ammonia and bleach Precautions: ◦ Follow manufacturers instructions ◦ Wear protective gear ◦ Dilute properly ◦ Never mix random chemicals
  • 22. Clean and Sanitizing the WholeKitchen Work surfaces- Counters and workstations need to be cleaned and sanitized when the task is completed or after four hours Usually a chemical sanitizer is used
  • 23. Clean and Sanitizing the WholeKitchen Small equipment and dishes- Need to be cleaned after each use or after four hours Use a combination of heat and chemicals Dish machines or three compartment sinks ◦ Dish machines-conveyor belt, three cycles  1st cycle- removes physical objects and grease  2nd cycle rinses off detergent  3rd cycle- sanitizers either with hot water or chemicals Three compartment sink ◦ 1st compartment- clean ◦ 2nd- rinse ◦ 3rd -sanitize
  • 24. Clean and Sanitizing the WholeKitchen Large equipment- Mixers, slicers, and grinders must still be cleaned and sanitized- after each task or after 4 hours Each one is different
  • 25. Personal Hygiene- Hands Hands- common culprit germ spreader Where to wash you hands: ◦ Designated hand washing sinks, antimicrobial soap, nail brush, disposable towels When to wash your hands: ◦ Before beginning a work shift ◦ After using the restroom ◦ After eating, drinking, or taking a break ◦ At end of a job task ◦ After handling toxic chemicals ◦ After taking out trash ◦ After handling dirty dishes or linens ◦ After coughing or sneezing ◦ After touching hair or skin
  • 26. Personal Hygiene- Hands Glove- some states require gloves, but they give a false sense of security Wounds- open wounds are breeding grounds for bacteria, cover with clean band aid or latex sheath Fingernails- pathogens hide under nails, use finger brush and keep nails short and clean
  • 27. Personal Hygiene- Hair Keep hair up and secured at all times hair is always dirty Hair net, beard net
  • 28. Personal Hygiene- gross stuff Eating/drinking- should never be done in the kitchen, tasting by chefs is done properly Cooks should never be in the kitchen with a contagious illness Clothes should be clean
  • 29. Insect and Rodent Control Insects and rodents spread biological hazards in many ways Urine and feces contain pathogens Feet and bodies track pathogens Flies and cockroaches, Mice and rats Air curtains to prevent flying bugs, cockroaches usually come in boxes, rats/mice through cracks and holes Many counties require pest control operators to visit and spray chemicals and set traps
  • 30. Waste control Garbage is a breeding ground for bacteria and pathogens You should … ◦ Empty containers often ◦ Put grease into separate containers, separate from garbage ◦ Dumpsters need to be emptied when they are filled, and should be washed periodically ◦ Lids need to fit snuggly ◦ Containers should be washed inside and out often
  • 31. Health Inspections Health departments monitor compliance with health codes ◦ Inspectors make sure the public is being served safe food in a safe environment ◦ Not the enemy ◦ Certificate has to be posted in the restaurant
  • 32. Activity Add to your booklet … ◦ temperature danger zone and definition ◦ Three ways to thaw food safely ◦ Safe cooking temps (3) ◦ Cross-contamination info page ◦ Definition of clean ◦ Definition of sanitary ◦ When to wash your hands (9)