Diana’s Birth What is the story of Diana’s (Artemis) birth? What do you remember?
Diana’s Birth Leto, impregnated by Zeus, was forced out of Olympus by Hera and wandered to the desolate island of Delos to give birth to her twins. Diana was born first, then, nine days later, helped deliver her brother, Apollo.
Niobe and her Children What is the story of Niobe and her children? What do you remember?
Niobe and her Children Niobe, queen of Thebes, boasted that she deserved more tribute than Leto, since Leto only had 2 children and Niobe had 7 sons and 7 daughters. Enraged at Niobe’s hubris, Artemis and Apollo killed Niobe’s children, except for the youngest daughter. Death of the Children of Niobe, red-figure amphora, ca. 460 BCE
Diana was the virgin goddess of chastity, the hunt, wilderness, the moon, childbirth.
She often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrow accompanied by animals. Cypress Tree She has many symbols, including the deer, cypress, the crescent moon, bow and arrow
Diana is usually depicted with a crescent moon crown
Artemis the Huntress, Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze, ca. 4th cent. BCE
Actaeon Actaeon was a hunter who lost his way and accidently happened upon Diana, who was bathing naked on a mountain. Enraged, Artemis turned him into a stag and, not knowing their own owner, Actaeon's own dogs ripped him to pieces. Diana and Actaeon, Titian, 1556-1559
Hippolytus Hippolytus had scorned Aphrodite in order to become a follower of Artemis, devoting himself to a chaste life in pursuit of hunting. In retaliation, Aphrodite made his step-mother fall in love with him. Hippolytus’ rejection of his step-mother led to his death. Phaedra and Hippolytus, Georges Barbier, ca. 1920
The Death of Hippolytus, Alma Tadema , 1836-1912
Adonis Since Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytus, therefore, Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Aphrodite’s beloved Adonis to avenge Hippolytus’s death. The Death of Adonis, Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709
Orion Orion was a mighty hunter who encountered Artemis and tried to rape her. In her anger, the goddess produced a scorpion that stung Orion to death. Both the scorpion and Orion were transformed into constellations. With Orion was his dog, Sirius, who became the Dog Star
Callisto Callisto was a follower and one of Artemis's hunting attendants. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus appeared to her disguised as Artemis, gained her confidence, then raped her. Jupiter Seducing Callisto, Andrea Schiavone, 1550
Callisto As a result of this encounter she conceived a son, Arcas. Enraged, Hera changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but Zeus stopped him just in time. Arcas and Callisto became constellations: Callisto became Ursa Major and ArcasUrsa Minor
As the Greek's attempted to journey to Troy, Artemis calmed the sea and stopped the journey. An oracle told Agamemnon that that she could only be appeased by the sacrifice of Agamemnon’s daughter, Iphigenia. Iphigenia was fetched, on the pretext that she was to marry Achilles, and was sacrificed (some myths claim Artemis saved the girl at the last moment by replacing her with a stag). In the Trojan War
In the Trojan War Artemis supported her brother, and therefore the Trojans. She came to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks and Trojans engaged each other in conflict. Hera struck Artemis on the ears, causing her arrows to fall out of the quiver, and Artemis fled crying
Temple of Artemis In Ephesus, a principal city of Asia Minor, a great temple was built in her honor, (where she was worshipped primarily as a fertility goddess) which became one of the "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World".
Temple of Artemis The temple was completely rebuilt three times before its eventual destruction in 401 by the archbishop of Ephesus, who incited a mob of Christians to completely destroy the temple. Only foundations and sculptural fragments of the latest of the temples at the site remain.