TrishiaNo accepted standards /assessments for determining when Deaf student prepared for placement in interpreted academic settingLectures do not necessarily match learning styles of Deaf learnersUnderqualified Interpreters – 1999 Schick et al study. Analyzed videotaped samples of interpreter in classroom and receptive performance of deaf student. Less than half performed at level considered minimally acceptable for educational interpreting.Limited success of notetakers: volunteer, no consistencyacademic lectures: more like written language than spoken. Complex words. In several academic studies, Deaf students test scores 69% substantially lower than hearing 83%
KellaClerical- timekeeping, invoices, timely and accurate submissionCulture – familiar with AVC – 80% are prior studentsCustomer service – pleasant to work withTechnology
KellaTax accountant – self-employment tax
KellaAppt book – time and duration of appt, name of Deaf consumer, name and phone of contact person, address/llocation of appt, job or PO number, billing address
TrishiaPositionin class – p. 66-67 in Solow book
TrishiaUnderstand discourse environment - appropriate speech patterns – university lecture vs. children’s storytellingVerbal descriptions of diagrams into ASLProblems when unfamiliar with subject matterResult? Leaves Deaf student out of class interaction,or misinterpret content of lectureClarification of sign-interpreter explain and repeat lexical choice, student then asked for clarification on concept, lecture moved on considerably and question seemed irrelevant to lecturer
KellaRittenhouse, Rahn, and Morreau (1989) study findings
KellaExample p. 202-203 MindeesCultural adjustments:Cultural differences affect communicationNeed to become familiar with American mainstream and American Deaf cultureIdentiffy specific cultural misunderstandings that occur in common interpreting situationsTarget language restructuring example – from ASL skill lab handout
Trishia2 year, 4 consecutive semester program
KellaFinda mentor that will give you feedback.Be about the workExcellence, not perfection.Make friends with Deaf.
Transcript of "Educational interpreting in Post-Secondary settings"
Educational Interpreting:College and University settings Trishia Sander-Visger Dr. Kella B. Price, SPHR, CPLP
56% of Deaf and Hard of Hearingstudents eligible for entrance into academic college program (Seal, p.170)
Student challenges“The education of children with severe and profound hearing loss is a difficult process, and the greater the hearing loss the greater the obstacles to be surmounted.” (Moores, p.238)
Student Challenges• No accepted standards /assessments• Less academic preparation• Lack linguistic competencies• Underqualified interpreters• Limited success of notetakers• Learning style• Academic lectures – Meaningful ASL equivalents – Subject-specific terminology
Role of OSD• Schedule interpreter for any college-related activities• Evaluate student’s language, match with interpreter
Benefits of Interpreting• Flexible schedule• FUN• “Provide a service to allow someone to pursue their goals or increase their potential. Discover that they can….that not hearing doesn’t have to be a barrier” Karla Reynolds
Required skills• Clerical• Culture• Customer service• Technology• College-level reading skills• IEPA 3.0 or RID certification• Interpersonal communication skills
Freelance• SBA• Federal Tax ID number or own SSN?• Register business name w/state• Local permit or license?• Tax accountant• Professional liability insurance
BLS statistics• 2010 Median: $43,300 (BLS) or $20.82/hr• 58,400 jobs• 42% anticipated growth by 2020
Role of the Interpreter• Never a tutor or help with homework• Not talk to each other about students, teachers, or assignments• “To facilitate communication, independence, and integration” (Humphrey and Alcorn, p.359)• Neutral• Confidential• Educate about difference “Variability in communication in cultures, but not while styles cannot be underestimated or interpreting undermined” (Seal, p.171)• Position in class
“The language variation that arisesas a consequence of contextual and situational diversity is the biggest consideration for working interpreters, as they must be prepared to adapt their language use accordingly.”(Napier, p.282)
Interpreter effectiveness• Knowledge of subject leads to more accurate interpretations• Understand discourse environment• Verbal descriptions of diagrams into ASL• Clarification of sign “Optimal interpreting should involve communication use that allows the student to fully participate in classroom discussions as well as to attain a comfortable, personal level of involvement with others in the classroom” (Stewart and Kluwin, p.30)
Interpreter Reflections• Always use lag time• Flexibility is key• Be prepared to change the way you signed or voiced something it’s not because your Deaf client is Dumb• Your job is to provide a service• Attitude and personality effect the Deaf person
Interpreter Reflections• Most interpreters start at the undergraduate level• You are not always Interpreting for the students (Deaf teachers or administrators)• It’s important when possible to intern and team interpret• Be familiar with VRI• You have to be on time and willing to do your job!
Student Reflections: Mainstream• Built relationships with others• Drew attention• Focus on the work, not the lecture• Videorecording would be helpful• CART• Had notetaker and access to professor lecture notes• Need to interpret word-for-word, with some help with English if needed
Student Reflections: Deaf School• Had notetaker and access to professor lecture notes• Videorecording would be helpful, but time consuming• Good experience if you understand Interpreter if you don’t, ask for clarification
Interpreter effectiveness: Student perspective• Pace of interpreting• General intelligence of the interpreter• Selecting appropriate signs• Perform reverse interpretation• Adjust to situation-specific interpreting• Manual dexterity, hand coordination• Interpreting etiquette• Physical positioning• Prefer competency in subject matter
Interpreters should be:• Patient • Good communicator• Confident • Experts in mental imagery• Aggressive when it comes (visualization) to a student needing to • Able to make cultural ask a question adjustments (example)• Be open minded to • Good concentration accept feedback • Short-term memory• Be adaptive to new • Target language situations quickly restructuring • Flexible
Guidelines for miscues and errors• External monitoring• Appropriate competence in Target langauge (tL) and Source language (sL)• Maintain sufficient lag time to reduce• Consecutive interpreting less errors than simultaneous interpreting• Determine strategies to correct errors in advance• Check student comprehension• Self-evaluation
Recommended Training• Know the areas that • Be introspective to need improvement identify setting and age• Take advantage of group preferences school classes through job shadowing• Field experience, • Storytelling class internships • CA 103 Computer• Org Membership Applications• Mentors • Advanced English coursework
CSUN Interpreter Education Program• GPA• Related course work (ASL, Advanced English, Interpreting, Deaf Studies)• Deaf Community Experience – Volunteerism, professional/community orgs, Deaf connection• Letter of Interest• 3 Letters of recommendation – At least 1 from Deaf• Interview
Advice• Maintain confidence • Dont be afraid to ask us• Stay on top of to repeat ourselves if everything you dont understand• Do not fall too far us. It is better to clarify behind on lectures it instead of making us sound like an idiot!• Ignore distractions • Find a mentor• Interpret everything!