Applied Behavior Analysis &
Autism
William H. Edwards, MS, BCBA
Director of Applied Behavior Analysis
Services
Clemson Uni...
Therapy & Science
• What is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)?
– A systematic way to view behavior as a subject
matter
– A m...
Autism & ABA
• ABA Programs Address:
– Language and Communication
– Self-help/Daily Living Skills
– Social Skills
– Play S...
A-B-C
• Antecedent
• Behavior
• Consequence

Clemson University Center for Behavior
Analysis, 2013
Functions of Behavior
• Haven’t you ever wondered why they do what
they do?
– Attention
– Escape
– Tangible Removal
– Self...
Teaching Principles
• The learner is never wrong
• Parents know their child the best
• A good teacher is able to observe t...
Teaching Practices
• Motivation is key
• Good assessments yield good programs
• On-going evaluation is critical to the suc...
Teaching Practices (cont.)
•
•
•
•
•

Reinforcement
Extinction
Punishment
Intermittent (Variable) Reinforcement
DISC (Depr...
Teaching Practices (cont.)
•
•
•
•
•
•

Incidental Teaching
Discrete Trial Teaching
Activity Schedules
PECS
Verbal Behavio...
Prompts
• Prompt Types
– Physical
– Gestural
– Visual
– Positional

• Prompt Delivery
– Errorless Learning
– Correction Ba...
Incidental Teaching
•
•
•
•

Capitalizing on Opportunities
Arranging Opportunities
Shaping
Chaining

Clemson University Ce...
The Role of the Parent
• To provide for basic needs
• To provide a safe and nurturing home
environment
• To support educat...
Functional Communication and
Incidental Teaching
•
•
•
•

Arranging opportunities
Prompting and Prompt fading
Delivering r...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
• What is Verbal Behavior?
-The vocal, written, and gestural performances of a
speaker...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
• Manding
-Requesting an item because you want the
item.
e.g. Asking for a sucker beca...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
(cont.)
• Tacting
-Naming objects, actions, or events
because you see them.
e.g. Sayin...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
(cont.)
• Intraverbals
- Answering questions or having
conversations when your words a...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
(cont.)
• Echoics
- Repeating what is said when heard.
e.g. Saying “Sucker” when someo...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
(cont.)
• Textual
- Reading textual stimuli.
e.g. Saying “Sucker” because you see the
...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
(cont.)
• Receptive Language
- Following the instructions given by or the
mands of oth...
Functional Language/Verbal Behavior
(cont.)
• Mimetic
- Copying the motor movements of others.
e.g. Signing “sucker” becau...
Play Skills
• Types
– Independent
– Parallel
– Interactive

• Forms
– With toys
– Imaginative/Pretend
– Recreational
Clems...
Social Skills
• Greetings
• Reciprocity
• Turn Taking
• Conversation
• Following Peer Instructions
• Observational Learnin...
Self-help/Daily-living Skills
• Independence
• Eating
• Dressing
• Leisure Activities
• Grooming
Clemson University Center...
Motor Skills
• Gross Motor
– E.g. Jumping, running, clapping, rolling, etc.

• Fine Motor
– E.g. Clasping hands, writing, ...
Pre-academic/Academic
• Pre-academic
– Skills that prepare a child to learn academic skills
– E.g. coloring, sitting in a ...
Pre-academic/Academic (cont.)
• Academic
– Educational objectives typically taught in schools
– E.g. Hand-writing, number ...
Don’t Give Up, Rome Was Not Built In
a Day
• Tantrums are not the end of the world
• Your job is to care for and teach the...
Some Practical Tips
• Be consistent
• When you give choices allow choices
• If you’re not prepared to follow through with
...
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Presentation on applied behavior analysis and autism in Kyrgyzstan

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Training on autism in Kyrgyzstan by William Edwards, Director of the Clemson University Youth Learning Institute
Center for Behavior Analysis. Bishkek and Osh, 8-12 October 2013. Organized by Kelechek HP and partners Hand in Hand in Bishkek and Smile.kg in Osh, funded by ACCELS.

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Presentation on applied behavior analysis and autism in Kyrgyzstan

  1. 1. Applied Behavior Analysis & Autism William H. Edwards, MS, BCBA Director of Applied Behavior Analysis Services Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  2. 2. Therapy & Science • What is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)? – A systematic way to view behavior as a subject matter – A means of developing a treatment methodology for people with Autism – A mechanism for understanding how people learn. Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  3. 3. Autism & ABA • ABA Programs Address: – Language and Communication – Self-help/Daily Living Skills – Social Skills – Play Skills – Academic/Pre-Academic Skills – Problem Behavior Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  4. 4. A-B-C • Antecedent • Behavior • Consequence Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  5. 5. Functions of Behavior • Haven’t you ever wondered why they do what they do? – Attention – Escape – Tangible Removal – Self-stimulation Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  6. 6. Teaching Principles • The learner is never wrong • Parents know their child the best • A good teacher is able to observe their own behavior • Repetition matters (practice makes perfect) • Flexibility, Consistency, and Adaptability is the key to success • Patience truly is a virtue • Functional Language use is imperative Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  7. 7. Teaching Practices • Motivation is key • Good assessments yield good programs • On-going evaluation is critical to the success of the program • Arrange the environment to bring about behavior change Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  8. 8. Teaching Practices (cont.) • • • • • Reinforcement Extinction Punishment Intermittent (Variable) Reinforcement DISC (Deprivation, Immediacy, Size, and Contingent) Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  9. 9. Teaching Practices (cont.) • • • • • • Incidental Teaching Discrete Trial Teaching Activity Schedules PECS Verbal Behavior Prompts Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  10. 10. Prompts • Prompt Types – Physical – Gestural – Visual – Positional • Prompt Delivery – Errorless Learning – Correction Based Learning Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  11. 11. Incidental Teaching • • • • Capitalizing on Opportunities Arranging Opportunities Shaping Chaining Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  12. 12. The Role of the Parent • To provide for basic needs • To provide a safe and nurturing home environment • To support educational efforts • To promote language development Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  13. 13. Functional Communication and Incidental Teaching • • • • Arranging opportunities Prompting and Prompt fading Delivering reinforcers Consistency is Key Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  14. 14. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior • What is Verbal Behavior? -The vocal, written, and gestural performances of a speaker, writer, or communicator. (Pierce & Epling, 1995) • What are the forms of Verbal Behavior? -Mands (Requests) -Tacts (Labels) -Intraverbals (Free Association) -Echoics (Vocal Imitation) -Textual (Written) -Receptive Language (Instruction/Request Following) -Mimetic Behavior (Motor Imitation) Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  15. 15. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior • Manding -Requesting an item because you want the item. e.g. Asking for a sucker because you want a sucker Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  16. 16. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior (cont.) • Tacting -Naming objects, actions, or events because you see them. e.g. Saying “sucker” because you see a sucker. Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  17. 17. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior (cont.) • Intraverbals - Answering questions or having conversations when your words are controlled by other words. e.g. Saying “sucker” when someone else asks, “What is your favorite candy?” Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  18. 18. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior (cont.) • Echoics - Repeating what is said when heard. e.g. Saying “Sucker” when someone else says, “Sucker” Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  19. 19. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior (cont.) • Textual - Reading textual stimuli. e.g. Saying “Sucker” because you see the written word sucker. Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  20. 20. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior (cont.) • Receptive Language - Following the instructions given by or the mands of others. e.g. Touching a picture of a sucker because someone says, “Touch the sucker.” Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  21. 21. Functional Language/Verbal Behavior (cont.) • Mimetic - Copying the motor movements of others. e.g. Signing “sucker” because someone else signs sucker. Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  22. 22. Play Skills • Types – Independent – Parallel – Interactive • Forms – With toys – Imaginative/Pretend – Recreational Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  23. 23. Social Skills • Greetings • Reciprocity • Turn Taking • Conversation • Following Peer Instructions • Observational Learning Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  24. 24. Self-help/Daily-living Skills • Independence • Eating • Dressing • Leisure Activities • Grooming Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  25. 25. Motor Skills • Gross Motor – E.g. Jumping, running, clapping, rolling, etc. • Fine Motor – E.g. Clasping hands, writing, finger puppets, opening wrappers, etc. • Oral Motor – E.g. Blowing bubbles, chewing gum, tongue movement, etc. Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  26. 26. Pre-academic/Academic • Pre-academic – Skills that prepare a child to learn academic skills – E.g. coloring, sitting in a chair, completing puzzles, etc. Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  27. 27. Pre-academic/Academic (cont.) • Academic – Educational objectives typically taught in schools – E.g. Hand-writing, number identification, letter identification, math facts, reading, etc. Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  28. 28. Don’t Give Up, Rome Was Not Built In a Day • Tantrums are not the end of the world • Your job is to care for and teach the child, they will not always be happy • Giving in damages growth • Keep in mind the long term goals and not only your immediate needs Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
  29. 29. Some Practical Tips • Be consistent • When you give choices allow choices • If you’re not prepared to follow through with an instruction, just don’t give it • Give instructions one time/Ask questions one time • Instructions and questions don’t teach language, consequences do Clemson University Center for Behavior Analysis, 2013
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