Language Relations
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • My dear Allan K.: Please do not delete the k from the below mentioned words.I will explain you the reson why? Please read my book 'GODSDICTIONARY' carefully, already published on www.amazon.com,www.lulu.com,www.pothi.com.please have google search and purchase one copy. All world's languages including English is/are derived from Marathi language spoken in Maharashtra(India) Lets take word KNOW As per Gods Language rule please write the spelling in following manner WKNOW=WLKNOW=we get marathi word 'walkana o!'=means in English translation from Marathi to English means 'to know each other' Similarly you can get the above mentioned all words meaning but provided you must have sound knowledge of marathi.So first you learn the Marathi language to know English better.So the spelling K has some meaning therefore you should not omit the k from the spelling in the above mentioned word that the English people are not knowing.Since longback in ancient history the Maratha warriors were the ruler of England and rest of world for centuries together .That is why the Marathi language is deep ruted inside English and worlds all language.Marathi is the mother of all languages. (TS) KNOW = (SF) NOU KNACK = NÄK KNAP = NÄP KNEE = NII KNEW = NU KNIFE = NAIF KNIGHT = NAIT KNIT = NIT KNOB = NOB KNOCK = NOK KNOLL = NOL KNOT = NOT KNUR = NÖÖR KNURL = NÖÖRL KNISH = KNISH Yours English teacher Sunil palaskar
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • 'Gods Dictionary' Extract of my book published on www.amazon.com
    A Complete Analysis of World’s Languages
    तुझा देवत्व-योद्यामध्ये भरतीचा सीधासाधा राजमार्ग
    O! Earth Habitats, Learn Gods’ & goddesses’ own Maratha Language & Grammar. After Learning/ Knowing Gods Own Language, Anyone Can Understand, Any Unknown Foreign Language Of This Universe.So Henceforth No Need to Learn That Perticular Language.After Refering The GodsDictionary No Need To Purchase or Refer Any Other Languages Dictionaries.Books or Borrow Any Transliteration/Transcription Services Any More.Thus Save Your Lot of Money,Energy Headeach & Invaluable Time.Since The GodsDictionary Also Teaches You The Gods/goddesses Own Universal Single & Only One Maratha/Marathi Language, Made For The One Universe.So Just Throw Away All Worlds Danavic Languages Dictionaries Books And All Foreign Languages Learning Books Into DustBin.Do Not Attend Foreign Languages Learning Cources.SINCE NOW GODS/goddesses OWN LANGUAGE HAS NOW ARRIVED FOR OUR ONLY ONE UNIVERSE.The Universe Is One So The Language Is One Accommodating All Worlds Languages All Scripts At The Same Time.THE WORLD IS ALREADY HAVING ONE COMMON GODS MARATHA LANGUAGE PLATFORM.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • The Worlds most ancient scripts and Alphabets invented and brought by the God Maratha Warriors from the world of Gods and goddesses to this planet Earth. The incident happens when Dragon ions (mixture of human & Dragon) were ruling on this planet Earth. The dragons were egg layers. Afterwards the dragon ions came. (Some dragon ions were mammals while some were egg layers).
    Afterwards the Human beings brought to this planet Earth by the Maratha Warrior Gods. The Maratha warriors were in dragon, dragon ion form in those days and were speaking the Marathi Language in those ancient days. Human and dragon ions and dragons were mating each other.
    At the prior stage, the human children and women were brought up by the Dragons and Dragon ion communities.
    The Maratha Gods, goddesses, and teleported from heaven to Earth in the shape of invented the first packet of men and women. l., that time every dragon ions shouted .alla, alla. Means O there came the packet of man to earth. Later came women packet in the shape of .i. means. Aai aali. means the mother packet came. Afterwards many men and women packets came.
    For the human the process stopped then the dragon ions told to Maratha Gods and goddesses in Marathi. The alphabet .L. pronounce is .Aale. means O Gods and goddesses all the packets of men and women came to the earth successfully.
    Later on the alphabets came written on the wings of various insects and the pronunciation of each alphabet made by various accompanying birds to teach the human being the alphabet and its pronunciations by the Almighty Maratha Gods
    The processes of arrival of the packets from heaven of different animals and different species are still going on. But the human beings became greedy danav does not notice them.
    That is why the Maratha Gods and goddesses do not inform their activities to human. For the Devs and devis who ever became greedy those people automatically become their enemies (danavs).
    Since the devs and danavs are born enemies of each others. So due to excessive greediness, the human beings have cut off from God and goddesses and turned themselves into danav. Therefore, the human beings are their enemies due to the same reason The Devs and Devis do not keep inform their activities to human.
    In the coming future, please expect a species of intelligent animals looking much similar to human. but they are not humans but they are maratha Devs and Marathi Devis. The Devs & Devis survive only on human flesh (cannibals) shall be coming from heaven to earth, to kill eat and wipe out the greedy human (danav).The first batch of Devs and Devis shall be arriving in Maharashtra very soon.
    Only survive those who learn the God Marathi language and speaks devs Marathi (rural Marathi with Urdu blend) on the planet earth.
    Those who speaks danav Marathi or Vedic Marathi or punery Marathi or urban Marathi also shall not going to survive on this planet.
    Since Maratha God and goddesses are very strict, very ardent followers of Marathi language. The Devs & devis take very serious about which language you speak. If you speak in non-Marathi language with them, than you be sure that you will be definitely targeted & killed and your flesh shall be eaten as their food.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,696
On Slideshare
2,681
From Embeds
15
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
44
Comments
3
Likes
0

Embeds 15

http://nhsmagistra.blogspot.ru 6
http://nhsmagistra.blogspot.com 5
http://www.slideshare.net 4

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. TRAD101 Languages & Cultures of East Discussion Questions by Ke Peng
  • 2. Discussion Questions Based on Reading 1 and 2 1. The authors mention that languages are dying out. A. Should they be preserved? B. Does it matter if they go extinct? C. If they go extinct what happens to the cultures? D. What kinds of things are being done to preserve languages? 2. Have you ever studied another language? A. Was it difficult? B. Did it have a different word order than your native language? C. What kinds of things did you find difficult? 3. How many languages are there in the world? Why is this hard to count?
  • 3. Discussion Questions Based on Reading 1 and 2 3. How many languages are there in the world? Why is this hard to count? A. Many parts of the world are insufficiently studied from a linguistic viewpoint. B. In many cases, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between languages and dialects of the same language. C. Many languages are on the verge of extinction. • Native American languages • Australian aboriginal languages • Ainu (virtually extinct) • 1/2 of the world’s languages: Extinct in the next 100 years while only 10% of them have been documented. 4. How do Pidgin/Creole count?
  • 4. Language Overview Relationships between languages
  • 5. Guess which country has the biggest number of speakers?
  • 6. Table 1. Estimates of numbers of native speakers globally in 1995 for the top 10 Languages (D. Graddol, The future of English? British Council, London, 1997)
  • 7. Table 2. Estimates of numbers of native speakers globally aged 15 to 24 in 2050 (D. Graddol, The future of English? British Council, London, 1997)
  • 8. The changing percentage of the world’s population speaking English, Spanish, Hindi/Urdu, and Arabic http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/303/5662/1329.pdf
  • 9. Percentage of European Union populations claiming that they speak English (European Communication, Standard Eurobarometer 52, 2000)
  • 10. • http://www.ethnologue.com/show_map.asp?name=World&seq=10
  • 11. • How does a language come into being? • How can we tell if two languages belong to the same language family?
  • 12. Dialect chain a ~ h = form a dialect chain a X b c d Y e Mediterranean Sea f g h Other examples: High German—Central German—Low German Dutch—German dialect complex
  • 13. Process of Dialect Chain • Imagine that there are variations on an Island A Island A, but people ☺☺☺ can understand each other • One day, some Island A Island B people move to ☺☺☺ Island B.
  • 14. Process of Dialect Chain • At the beginning they can still understand each other, but as the contact gradually Island Island diminish, Group A A B started to make up ☻☻☻ new words and pronounce words slightly differently than before. Same for Group B
  • 15. Process of Dialect Chain • If the contact gradually diminish, Group A would not be Island Island able to understand A B what Group B says. Their speech varieties became mutually unintelligible.
  • 16. Result of Dialect Chain • A birth of different languages as a result of dialect chain process (e.g., Austronesian) • New languages are daughter languages of proto ABCD & sister languages to each other. Proto ABCD Lg A Lg B Lg C Lg D Island Island Island Island A B C D ☺☺☺ ☻☻☻
  • 17. Mutual intelligibility—a matter of degree Influence by several factors • Shared vocabulary & forms • Familiarity • Social & psychological factors – Easier to understand when you want to understand
  • 18. Language Families • Family Tree Model – Similarities among languages are due to a genetic relationship among those languages. English man Germanic German Mann Dutch man We can reconstruct the proto-language (hypothetical grandmother language) from which the related languages are derived.
  • 19. Problems in the family tree model • Unreal sudden and decisive split of languages in the tree – Languages usually tend to change gradually. • Cannot account for linguistic similarities without necessarily being related.
  • 20. What are the possible reasons for the similarities between languages?
  • 21. Explanations for similarities among languages 1. Genetic relationship Indo-European English (Germanic)Latin-base (Romance) 1. foot pedometer, pedal, podiatrist 2. father petrineal 3. three triangle, tripod 4. tooth dental, orthodontist 5. heart cardiac, cardiology
  • 22. 2. Chance (similarities btwn languages just by chance) e.g) English Mbabaram (Australian) dog dog German Zuni nass nas 'wet' Sanskrit Malay dva dua 'two'
  • 23. 3. Language Universals • The sound ma in ‘mother’ – English ‘mother’ Chinese ‘ma’ Sanskrit ‘mata’ – Onomatopoeia English: English: cock-a-doodle-doo tik-tock ding-dong German: Malay: kikariki tik, tuk ting, tong Japanese: kokekokko
  • 24. 3. Language Universals • Certain language features frequently co-occur – if a language is SOV, postpositions rather than prepositions • ‘the table on’ • Word order typology S = Subject, O= Object, V = Verb 1. SOV (Japanese, Korean) most frequent 2. SVO (English, Chinese) next most frequent 3. VSO (Welsh, Samoan) less frequent Other orders are less common.
  • 25. 4. Borrowing • English French period William the Conqueror 1066 AD (Norman French) for almost 300 years. (1362, English reestablished as language of courts) 1. Government 2. Law 3. Military 4. Religion 5. Meat on the table
  • 26. 4. Borrowing • Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese – shared features: • tones • mono-syllabic • simple syllable structure • lexical items – result of Chinese cultural influence – not because they are genetically related