IPv4
IPv5
IPv6
MLUG – February 2014
Mark Pace Balzan
Agenda
F

IPv4
Parallel Universes

4
IPv4
If working with one protocol is fun...

5
IPv6
Then how much fun will we have with two ?

6
So what’s this all about, exactly ?

It’s the plumbing
7
IPv4 Exhaustion - How bad ?

8
96 extra bits – no MAGIC
• IPv4 : 4 blocks of numbers separated by dots
• 1.2.3.4

32bit

• IPv6 : 8 blocks of numbers sep...
We had a plan....
years ago.......
–
–
–
–

v4/v6 are not compatible on the wire
We cant just add v6
So dual stack everywh...
Ooops!
v6 deployment
was meant to
happen BEFORE
v4 exhaustion !

12
What happened ?
• years ago.......
–
–
–
–

v4/v6 are not compatible on the wire
We cant just add v6
So dual stack everywh...
The new plan and challenges

Scenario

From

To

How ?

Today

IPv4

IPv4

 This is how we work today

Today

IPv4

IPv6
...
The “Just add more NAT” approach
•
•
•
•

Multi Level NAT
ISP gives out private IPv4 and does NAT again
How far can it sca...
Transition Mechanisms
• IPv6 through a tunnel in a v4 network
– Dependent on v4
– Tunnels have issues with performance
– B...
The Other Option: use IPv6 !
• Dual stack
• Inevitably v4 will run out before we fully rely
on v6
• So translation is inev...
IPv6: its BIG
18,446,744,073,709,500,000
no, its not the total IPv6 space, that would be
340,282,366,920 billion billion b...
ipv6 at home
IPv6 in real life
IPv6 in real life
A walk along the v6 internet
1

1 ms

10ge3-1.core1.lon2.he.net (2001:470:0:2cd::1)

2

72 ms

100ge1-1.core1.nyc4.he.net ...
How to connect - today

Scenario

From

To

How ?

Today

IPv4

IPv6

6to4 – public ipv4 address
Teredo – private ipv4 add...
Test your ipv6 readiness
• http://test-ipv6.com/
The omitted complexity....
New concepts in IPv6, not in IPv4:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

RA
RS
Rogue RA
Neighbour Discovery
Protocol...
Thank you - Questions ?

26
MLUG February 2014 Workshop - IPv6, What's That About?
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MLUG February 2014 Workshop - IPv6, What's That About?

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An introduction to IPv6 - history, technology and future.

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MLUG February 2014 Workshop - IPv6, What's That About?

  1. 1. IPv4 IPv5 IPv6 MLUG – February 2014 Mark Pace Balzan
  2. 2. Agenda
  3. 3. F IPv4
  4. 4. Parallel Universes 4
  5. 5. IPv4 If working with one protocol is fun... 5
  6. 6. IPv6 Then how much fun will we have with two ? 6
  7. 7. So what’s this all about, exactly ? It’s the plumbing 7
  8. 8. IPv4 Exhaustion - How bad ? 8
  9. 9. 96 extra bits – no MAGIC • IPv4 : 4 blocks of numbers separated by dots • 1.2.3.4 32bit • IPv6 : 8 blocks of numbers separated by colons • 2001:2:3:4:5:6:7:8 • v4 to v4, v6 to v6 128bit no problem, no magic IPv4 IPv4 IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 • v4 to v6, v6 to v4 parallel universes ! 10
  10. 10. We had a plan.... years ago....... – – – – v4/v6 are not compatible on the wire We cant just add v6 So dual stack everywhere (ie v4/v6) As v6 increases, we gain critical mass, v4 quietly goes away IANA: Feb 2011 APNIC: May 2011 RIPE: Oct 2012 11
  11. 11. Ooops! v6 deployment was meant to happen BEFORE v4 exhaustion ! 12
  12. 12. What happened ? • years ago....... – – – – v4/v6 are not compatible on the wire We cant just add v6 So dual stack everywhere (ie v4/v6) As v6 increases, we gain critical mass, v4 quietly goes away • the reality, today: – v6 deployment today is sparse at best – v4 is really running out – v4/v6 coexistence is inevitable IANA: APNIC: RIPE: Feb 2011 May 2011 Oct 2012 13
  13. 13. The new plan and challenges Scenario From To How ? Today IPv4 IPv4  This is how we work today Today IPv4 IPv6  Transition Mechanisms Future IPv6 IPv6  Native v6 Future IPv4 / IPv6 IPv4 or IPv6   Best of both worlds (Dual Stack) Future IPv6 only IPv4 only (v4 ran out) CG NAT/NAT64  (no v6 yet at this network) 14
  14. 14. The “Just add more NAT” approach • • • • Multi Level NAT ISP gives out private IPv4 and does NAT again How far can it scale ? How much will it break ? • When does IPv6 start being more appealing ?
  15. 15. Transition Mechanisms • IPv6 through a tunnel in a v4 network – Dependent on v4 – Tunnels have issues with performance – But it kind of works • Various Types – – – – 6to4 Teredo ISATAP 6in4
  16. 16. The Other Option: use IPv6 ! • Dual stack • Inevitably v4 will run out before we fully rely on v6 • So translation is inevitable
  17. 17. IPv6: its BIG 18,446,744,073,709,500,000 no, its not the total IPv6 space, that would be 340,282,366,920 billion billion billion It’s the number of unique v6 IPs in /64 /64 is the minimum space given to an end user That’s ridiculous! 18 billion billion : /64 in IPv6 7 billion : population of the world in 2014
  18. 18. ipv6 at home
  19. 19. IPv6 in real life
  20. 20. IPv6 in real life
  21. 21. A walk along the v6 internet 1 1 ms 10ge3-1.core1.lon2.he.net (2001:470:0:2cd::1) 2 72 ms 100ge1-1.core1.nyc4.he.net (2001:470:0:2cf::2) 3 131 ms 10ge10-3.core1.lax1.he.net (2001:470:0:10e::1) 4 136 ms 5 6 7 281 ms 273 ms 275 ms 8 287 ms 9 287 ms 10 286 ms 11 285 ms lapeer-equinix.net.reach.com (2001:504:0:3::4637:1) 2403:e800:ff00:110::f 2403:e800:100:1b::2 2001:8000:0:2030:101:401:0:1 bundle-ether5.cha-core4.brisbane.telstra.net (2001:8000:0:2000:3001:6001:0:6) tengigabitethernet7-1.cha30.brisbane.telstra.net (2001:8000:0:6001::60:10b) 2001:8000:106::2 2001:dd8:8:701::244
  22. 22. How to connect - today Scenario From To How ? Today IPv4 IPv6 6to4 – public ipv4 address Teredo – private ipv4 address Today IPv4 IPv6 Tunnel (HE/SixxS/Other) Future IPv6 IPv6 Native v6 from ISP - Stop 6to4 or other tunnels - upgrade os - upgrade home router/access points
  23. 23. Test your ipv6 readiness • http://test-ipv6.com/
  24. 24. The omitted complexity.... New concepts in IPv6, not in IPv4: • • • • • • • • RA RS Rogue RA Neighbour Discovery Protocol Neighbour Advertisement Neighbour Solicitation DAD DHCPv6 • • • • • • • • • Big In IPv4, not in IPv6: • • ARP Broadcast 6to4 6rd Teredo AAAA /64, /48, /56, /128 Link Local Unique Local Unique Global OSPF v3 • • • • • • • • • • CGN NAT64 DNS64 6PE 6VPE SLAAC AFTR Dual Stack DS-Lite DHCPv6-PD And many other considerations: • • • Old OS/App works fine on v4. Switch on v6 it may break. Upgrade to fix a v6 issue, and you may find a new v4 bug you didnt have before  Parallel running two stacks uses more resources 25
  25. 25. Thank you - Questions ? 26
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