Strinati<br />Breakdown of distinction between culture and society (mediaization) – art’s purpose used to be to reflect reality; now we refer to media texts to portray reality<br />Confusion of time and space – instantaneity of travel, communication and media; content can become incoherent due to speed and ease<br />Decline of meta-narratives – universal ideas and ‘answers’ abandoned in favour of personal and individual ideas and opinion<br />Style at the expense of substance and content – culture places value on appearances over function; cult of celebrity; advertising wins over product quality<br />Breakdown of distinction between high art and pop culture – high art is no longer just for the elite but is being combined with pop culture to appeal to the masses;bricolage<br />
Baudrillard<br />Hyper-reality<br />The copy (or media representation of the original) is more real than the original and this fake is more readily accepted by society<br />Simulacrum (sg), simulacra (pl)<br />These media representations are simulacra of reality – a copy of an idea or concept that is more successful than the original<br />Within culture meaning is lost and all that is left is the surface representation.<br />
Jameson<br />Historical deafness<br />As mediaization increases so culture finds itself losing a sense of historical context – we live in the ‘now’; instantaneity<br />Cultural depthlessness<br />Meaning is lost and all that is left is surface representation<br />
Lyotard<br />Decline of meta-narratives (or grand narratives)<br />There is no single truth, there are multiple truths<br />Interpretation of meaning lies with the audience; not inherent in text or dictated by the author<br />This makes a postmodern society less stable than a modern society because meta-narratives are challenged and there is no single unifying truth; fragmented society.<br />
Goodwin<br />Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics (may be hybridised or subvert conventions)<br />Relationship between lyrics and visuals (interpretation may rely on audience knowledge, experience and culture)<br />Relationship between music and visuals <br />Demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close-ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which occur across their work (cult of celebrity; self-reflexivity)<br />Frequent reference to the notion of looking, particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body (reflection of a postmodern society; style over substance, appearance over functionality, exterior valued over interior)<br />Intertextual references<br />
Hall<br />Audience interpretation of media texts:<br />Dominant reading ‘hegemonic’<br />Reader accepts and reproduces the preferred meaning of the texts<br />Negotiated reading<br />Reader broadly accepts the preferred reading but resists or modifies elements based on own experiences, interests or beliefs.<br />Oppositional reading (‘counter-hegemonic’)<br />Reader understands the preferred reading but rejects it<br />
Barthes (Semiotics)<br />Semiotics = the study of signs and symbols<br />Interpretation of meaning lies with the audience and depends on the experiences, interests, beliefs and culture they bring with them; multiple meanings (POLYSEMIC).<br />Signs (e.g. the word ‘cow’), signifiers (what the word refers to, i.e. an actual cow), signified (what the reader/audience understands / interprets from this word)<br />Denotation (what it actually is) and connotation (the associated meaning the audience attaches to the object) <br />
Texts!<br />FOTC<br />Extras<br />24HrPP<br />Catfish<br />DJ Shadow<br />Gorillaz<br />Reality TV – Body Shock, BB<br />Twitter, Facebook, YouTube – social networking <br />Gaming – WOW, Second Life, SIMS, online communities<br />Internet memes – Lolcats<br />Music Video – Beastie Boys, Lady Gaga<br />Charlie Brooker – cynicism<br />Affluenza<br />Cult of the Celebrity<br />
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