M2M, Sensor Web, Observations and Measurements
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M2M, Sensor Web, Observations and Measurements

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M4M or Measure 4 Measure, ever since Shakespeare's play with the same name we know, people can be mistaken for one another. A Duke (like the beloved Java mascot) claims to be a monk, the head of a ...

M4M or Measure 4 Measure, ever since Shakespeare's play with the same name we know, people can be mistaken for one another. A Duke (like the beloved Java mascot) claims to be a monk, the head of a dead pirate is presented to be that of the young hero. So can important information like Units of Measurement be misinterpreted. While humans reading 10°C, 10 C or 10 Degree Celsius, each of those could be interpreted and understood well enough. For M2M communication, unless a program is provided with a large glossary of alternate terms, only ONE of these would be acceptable.

Slides of the JCP EC F2F in January 2014 proposing the idea of a Units of Measurement JSR, recently approved as JSR 363: https://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=363

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  • 1. M4M 2 the Rescue of M2M Werner Keil Leonardo Lima Jean-Marie Dautelle JCP EC F2F, Redwood Shores 24 January 2014 Sensor Web Observations and Measurements
  • 2. What do these mishaps have in common? •Patriot Missile The cause was an inaccurate calculation of the time since boot due to a computer arithmetic error. •Ariane 5 Explosion Floating point number which a value was converted from a value greater than what would be represented by a 16 bit signed integer. • Christopher Columbus He miscalculated the circumference of Earth assuming a medieval Persian geographer he referred to had used Roman miles (4,856 ft.) instead of the 7,091 ft. Arabic mile, which is part of the reason he unexpectedly ended up in the Bahamas on October 12, 1492, and thought he had hit Asia. Whoops. 2 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM
  • 3. 1983 | Gimli Glider 3 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Fotos: Wayne Glowacki | Wikia „Lord of the Rings“
  • 4. 1985 | Star Wars 4 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Mirror on underside of shuttle SDI Experiment: The Plan Big mountain in Hawaii
  • 5. 1985 | Reality SDI Experiment: What really happened 5 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM
  • 6. 6 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM 1985 | Why it happened?
  • 7. 1999 | Mars Orbiter 7 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM
  • 8. Measurement Package • Namespace: org.osgi.util.measurement • SI only Unit Library “in the closet” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. • Measurement Represents a value with an error, a unit and a time-stamp. • State Groups a state name, value and timestamp. • Some very limited usage, e.g. by Automotive ► No further development by OSGi OSGi 8 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM
  • 9. Mobile Sensor API • Namespace: javax.microediton.sensor.* • Focusing on single-device Sensors, but got a minimalistic Unit API “in the barn” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. JavaDoc: http://pandora.la/java/javadocs/sensor/javax/microedition/sensor/Unit.html • ChannelInfo Holding name, accuracy, data type,measurement ranges, scale and unit • MeasurementRange Range of possible values from minimum to maximum (J2ME style, e.g. no Generics) ► Dead Meat (few actual handsets, no vendors except Nokia still use it, nor does Java ME Embedded) JSR-256 9 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM
  • 10. • Namespace: javax.measure.* • Only one interface and one abstract class • public interface Measurable<Q extends Quantity> • public abstract class Measure<V, Q extends Quantity> • Three sub-packages • quantity (holds dimensions like mass, length,…) • unit (holds the SI and NonSI units) • converter (holds unit converters) JSR-275 10 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Units Specification
  • 11. • JScience • Groovy/Grails (DSLs e.g. for Healthcare, Unit Conversion,…) • GeoAPI (OGC standard) and implementations, e.g. uDig • Orbitz/Ebookers.com • IEM (Emergency Management, Homeland Security) • OpenEHR • Parfait (Java Monitoring, part of Performance Co-Pilot - PCP) ► Rejected only by EC not Community JSR-275 11 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Users and popular Downstream Projects
  • 12. • Namespace: org.unitsofmeasurement.* • Only interfaces (and exception classes) • public interface Quantity<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • public interface Unit<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • Three sub-packages • quantity (holds dimensions mass, length,...) • unit (holds units) • service (holds services) Carrying the Flame… 12 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Units of Measurement API
  • 13. • Xively • Language bindings for Java/Android, Python or Ruby contain some support for Units of Measurement. Website: http://www.xively.com • OpenXC • Feels like modernized OSGi Measurement bundle. Offering only SI units by default, but a more sophisticated Unit, Measurement and Quantity concept somewhat similar and clearly inspired by Unit-API / JSR-275 Website: http://openxcplatform.com/ • CSS 3 • Mostly UI/rendering, but promises almost UCUM-like arithmetic and quantity-checking Website: http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/ • Unicode / ICU4J • Significant Unit support from CLDR 24 / ICU4J 52.x on, covering most of SI and other relevant units in at least 70 languages Website: http://site.icu-project.org/ Other Trends for Sensors | Measurement 13 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM
  • 14. Smart Home | Remote Monitoring 14 © 2013-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM
  • 15. •A Heart Monitor remotely accessible from devices like Google Glass or your favorite Mobile Browser •Part of Java Embedded Challenge at JavaOne 15 © 2013-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Smart Home | Heart of Glass JavaOne 2013
  • 16. •Raspberry Pi | Things API •RXTX (gnu.io) •Polar Heart Sensor •Java EE | HTML 5 (Tomcat/Glassfish) •Google Glass (preferred) or other Web-enabled Mobile devices 16 © 2013-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Smart Home | Heart of Glass Technologies used | Unit-API
  • 17. Smart Watch 17 © 2013-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Bild: L'Atelier
  • 18. “A coordinated observation infrastructure composed of a distributed collection of resources that can collectively behave as a single, autonomous, task-able, dynamically adaptive and reconfigurable observing system that provides raw and processed data, along with associated meta-data, via a set of standards-based service-oriented interfaces.” (Glenn, 2007) 18 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Sensor Web | What is it?
  • 19. Data Pyramid Data Pyramid 19 © 2007-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM CoAP
  • 20. Standards Organizations OGC Sensor Web Enablement • SensorML • O&M • TransducerML • GeographyML Web Services • Web Services Description Language • REST National Institute for Standards and Technology • Semantic Interoperability Community of Practice • Sensor Standards Harmonization W3C Semantic Web • Resource Description Framework • RDF Schema • Web Ontology Language • Semantic Web Rule Language • SAWSDL • SA-REST• SML-S • O&M-S • TML-S Sensor Ontology Sensor Ontology Semantics | Data Standards 20 © 2013-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM Unicode Consortium • CLDR • ICU4J Unicode
  • 21. Standards Organizations Supporting this JSR 21 © 2013-2014 Creative Arts & Technologies, V2COM CERN Opower Gemalto M2M BT SFR Group Thales Group Samsung Austrian Standards Alcatel Lucent Fraunhofer Gesellschaft O2 ISO IEM JUG Chennai GeoAPI UCUM